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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057368, 2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807412

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prognosis of patients with COVID-19 depends on the severity of the pulmonary affection. The most severe cases may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is associated with a risk of long-term repercussions on respiratory function and neuromuscular outcomes. The functional repercussions of severe forms of COVID-19 may have a major impact on quality of life, and impair the ability to return to work or exercise. Social inequalities in healthcare may influence prognosis, with socially vulnerable individuals more likely to develop severe forms of disease. We describe here the protocol for a prospective, multicentre study that aims to investigate the influence of social vulnerability on functional recovery in patients who were hospitalised in intensive care for ARDS caused by COVID-19. This study will also include an embedded qualitative study that aims to describe facilitators and barriers to compliance with rehabilitation, describe patients' health practices and identify social representations of health, disease and care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The "Functional Recovery From Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Due to COVID-19: Influence of Socio-Economic Status" (RECOVIDS) study is a mixed-methods, observational, multicentre cohort study performed during the routine follow-up of post-intensive care unit (ICU) functional recovery after ARDS. All patients admitted to a participating ICU for PCR-proven SARS-CoV-2 infection and who underwent chest CT scan at the initial phase AND who received respiratory support (mechanical or not) or high-flow nasal oxygen, AND had ARDS diagnosed by the Berlin criteria will be eligible. The primary outcome is the presence of lung sequelae at 6 months after ICU discharge, defined either by alterations on pulmonary function tests, oxygen desaturation during a standardised 6 min walk test or fibrosis-like pulmonary findings on chest CT. Patients will be considered to be socially disadvantaged if they have an "Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examen de Santé" (EPICES) score ≥30.17 at inclusion. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol and the informed consent form were approved by an independent ethics committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Méditerranée II) on 10 July 2020 (2020-A02014-35). All patients will provide informed consent before participation. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international congresses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04556513.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Treatment Outcome
2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 158-166, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major complication of COVID-19 and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess whether intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) could improve outcomes by reducing inflammation-mediated lung injury. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 43 centres in France, we randomly assigned patients (1:1) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for up to 72 h with PCR confirmed COVID-19 and associated moderate-to-severe ARDS to receive either IVIG (2 g/kg over 4 days) or placebo. Random assignment was done with a web-based system and was stratified according to the participating centre and the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation before inclusion in the trial (<12 h, 12-24 h, and >24-72 h), and treatment was administered within the first 96 h of invasive mechanical ventilation. To minimise the risk of adverse events, the IVIG administration was divided into four perfusions of 0·5 g/kg each administered over at least 8 hours. Patients in the placebo group received an equivalent volume of sodium chloride 0·9% (10 mL/kg) over the same period. The primary outcome was the number of ventilation-free days by day 28, assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04350580. FINDINGS: Between April 3, and October 20, 2020, 146 patients (43 [29%] women) were eligible for inclusion and randomly assigned: 69 (47%) patients to the IVIG group and 77 (53%) to the placebo group. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no statistical difference in the median number of ventilation-free days at day 28 between the IVIG group (0·0 [IQR 0·0-8·0]) and the placebo group (0·0 [0·0-6·0]; difference estimate 0·0 [0·0-0·0]; p=0·21). Serious adverse events were more frequent in the IVIG group (78 events in 22 [32%] patients) than in the placebo group (47 events in 15 [20%] patients; p=0·089). INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS, IVIG did not improve clinical outcomes at day 28 and tended to be associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse events, although not significant. The effect of IVIGs on earlier disease stages of COVID-19 should be assessed in future trials. FUNDING: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , Iron-Dextran Complex , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 158-166, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major complication of COVID-19 and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess whether intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) could improve outcomes by reducing inflammation-mediated lung injury. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 43 centres in France, we randomly assigned patients (1:1) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for up to 72 h with PCR confirmed COVID-19 and associated moderate-to-severe ARDS to receive either IVIG (2 g/kg over 4 days) or placebo. Random assignment was done with a web-based system and was stratified according to the participating centre and the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation before inclusion in the trial (<12 h, 12-24 h, and >24-72 h), and treatment was administered within the first 96 h of invasive mechanical ventilation. To minimise the risk of adverse events, the IVIG administration was divided into four perfusions of 0·5 g/kg each administered over at least 8 hours. Patients in the placebo group received an equivalent volume of sodium chloride 0·9% (10 mL/kg) over the same period. The primary outcome was the number of ventilation-free days by day 28, assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04350580. FINDINGS: Between April 3, and October 20, 2020, 146 patients (43 [29%] women) were eligible for inclusion and randomly assigned: 69 (47%) patients to the IVIG group and 77 (53%) to the placebo group. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no statistical difference in the median number of ventilation-free days at day 28 between the IVIG group (0·0 [IQR 0·0-8·0]) and the placebo group (0·0 [0·0-6·0]; difference estimate 0·0 [0·0-0·0]; p=0·21). Serious adverse events were more frequent in the IVIG group (78 events in 22 [32%] patients) than in the placebo group (47 events in 15 [20%] patients; p=0·089). INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS, IVIG did not improve clinical outcomes at day 28 and tended to be associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse events, although not significant. The effect of IVIGs on earlier disease stages of COVID-19 should be assessed in future trials. FUNDING: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , Iron-Dextran Complex , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Chest ; 159(6): 2309-2317, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with obesity are at higher risk for community-acquired and nosocomial infections. However, no study has specifically evaluated the relationship between obesity and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). RESEARCH QUESTION: Is obesity associated with an increased incidence of VAP? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a post hoc analysis of the Impact of Early Enteral vs Parenteral Nutrition on Mortality in Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation and Catecholamines (NUTRIREA2) open-label, randomized controlled trial performed in 44 French ICUs. Adults receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support for shock and parenteral nutrition or enteral nutrition were included. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 at ICU admission. VAP diagnosis was adjudicated by an independent blinded committee, based on all available clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic data. Only first VAP episodes were taken into account. Incidence of VAP was analyzed by using the Fine and Gray model, with extubation and death as competing risks. RESULTS: A total of 699 (30%) of the 2,325 included patients had obesity; 224 first VAP episodes were diagnosed (60 and 164 in obese and nonobese groups, respectively). The incidence of VAP at day 28 was 8.6% vs 10.1% in the two groups (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI 0.63-1.14; P = .26). After adjustment on sex, McCabe score, age, antiulcer treatment, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment at randomization, the incidence of VAP remained nonsignificant between obese and nonobese patients (hazard ratio, 0.893; 95% CI, 0.66-1.2; P = .46). Although no significant difference was found in duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay, 90-day mortality was significantly lower in obese than in nonobese patients (272 of 692 [39.3%] patients vs 718 of 1,605 [44.7%]; P = .02). In a subgroup of patients (n = 123) with available pepsin and alpha-amylase measurements, no significant difference was found in rate of abundant microaspiration of gastric contents, or oropharyngeal secretions between obese and nonobese patients. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that obesity has no significant impact on the incidence of VAP.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Intensive Care Units , Obesity/complications , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Shock/therapy , Aged , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Parenteral Nutrition, Total/methods , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Survival Rate/trends
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