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2.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861744

ABSTRACT

Shortness of breath, chest pain, and palpitations occur as postacute sequelae of COVID-19, but whether symptoms are associated with echocardiographic abnormalities, cardiac biomarkers, or markers of systemic inflammation remains unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed symptoms, performed echocardiograms, and measured biomarkers among adults more than 8 weeks after confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We modeled associations between symptoms and baseline characteristics, echocardiographic findings, and biomarkers using logistic regression. We enrolled 102 participants at a median of 7.2 months following COVID-19 onset; 47 individuals reported dyspnea, chest pain, or palpitations. Median age was 52 years, and 41% of participants were women. Female sex, hospitalization, IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain, and C-reactive protein were associated with symptoms. Regarding echocardiographic findings, 4 of 47 participants (9%) with symptoms had pericardial effusions compared with 0 of 55 participants without symptoms; those with effusions had a median of 4 symptoms compared with a median of 1 symptom in those without effusions. There was no strong evidence for a relationship between symptoms and echocardiographic functional parameters or other biomarkers. Among adults more than 8 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies, markers of inflammation, and, possibly, pericardial effusions are associated with cardiopulmonary symptoms. Investigation into inflammation as a mechanism underlying postacute sequelae of COVID-19 is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pericardial Effusion , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Chest Pain/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ann Neurol ; 91(6): 772-781, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As SARS-CoV-2 is known to invade neural cell mitochondria, a plasma system for quantifying central nervous system proteins in living humans was used to investigate neuropathogenic mechanisms of long-COVID-19. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 proteins and mitochondrial proteins (MPs) in enriched plasma neuron-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) and astrocyte-derived EVs (ADEVs) were quantified in resolved acute COVID-19 without post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), PASC without neuropsychiatric manifestations (NP), PASC with NP and healthy controls. RESULTS: NDEV and ADEV mean levels of SARS-CoV-2 S1 and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were higher in all PASC sub-groups than controls, but only N levels were higher in PASC with than without NP. Exosome marker CD81-normalized NDEV mean levels of subunit 6 of MP respiratory chain complex I and subunit 10 of complex III, and neuroprotective MPs Humanin and mitochondrial open-reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c) all were decreased significantly in PASC with NP but not in PASC without NP relative to controls. NDEV levels of MPs voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) were decreased in PASC without and with NP, whereas those of calcium channel MPs mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), sodium/calcium exchanger (NCLX) and leucine zipper EF-hand containing transmembrane 1 protein (LETM1) were decreased only in PASC with NP. ADEV levels of MCU and NCLX only were increased in PASC without and with NP. INTERPRETATION: Abnormal NDEV and ADEV levels of SARS-CoV-2 N and S1 protein and MPs correlate with NP and may be biomarkers for long-COVID prognostics and therapeutic trials. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:772-781.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Mitochondrial Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Trends Immunol ; 43(4): 268-270, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729846

ABSTRACT

Intense investigation into the predictors and determinants of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), including 'long COVID', is underway. Recent studies provide clues to the mechanisms that might drive this condition, with the goal of identifying host or virus factors that can be intervened upon to prevent or reverse PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nat Immunol ; 23(3): 360-370, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713200

ABSTRACT

Host genetic and environmental factors including age, biological sex, diet, geographical location, microbiome composition and metabolites converge to influence innate and adaptive immune responses to vaccines. Failure to understand and account for these factors when investigating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine efficacy may impair the development of the next generation of vaccines. Most studies aimed at identifying mechanisms of vaccine-mediated immune protection have focused on adaptive immune responses. It is well established, however, that mobilization of the innate immune response is essential to the development of effective cellular and humoral immunity. A comprehensive understanding of the innate immune response and environmental factors that contribute to the development of broad and durable cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and other vaccines requires a holistic and unbiased approach. Along with optimization of the immunogen and vectors, the development of adjuvants based on our evolving understanding of how the innate immune system shapes vaccine responses will be essential. Defining the innate immune mechanisms underlying the establishment of long-lived plasma cells and memory T cells could lead to a universal vaccine for coronaviruses, a key biomedical priority.


Subject(s)
Biological Variation, Population , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Global Health , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory , Microbiota/immunology , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance , Vaccination
9.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to fully understand the impact of variable COVID-19 experiences and the optimal management of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We characterized the variability in the acute illness experience and ongoing recovery process from participants in a COVID-19 recovery cohort study in Northern California in 2020. METHOD: We completed 24 semi-structured in-depth interviews with adults with confirmed positive SARV-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test result, had recovered or were recovering from acute infection, and underwent serial evaluations. We purposefully sampled English- and Spanish-speaking adults with asymptomatic, mild, and severe symptomatic infection, including those who were hospitalized and those with HIV co-infection. We used a thematic analysis to analyze interviews and identify salient themes. RESULTS: After integrating the thematic analysis with clinical data, we identified key themes: (1) across symptom profiles and severity, experiencing COVID-19 was associated with psychological distress; (2) symptomatic infection carried uncertainty in symptom presentation and ongoing recovery (e.g., long COVID); and (3) health information-seeking behavior was facilitated by access to medical care and uncertainty with the recovery process. CONCLUSION: Our data informs the emerging field of "long COVID" research and shows a need to provide information and continuous support to persons with post-acute sequelae to ensure they feel secure along the path to recovery.

11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(2): ofab640, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for the presence of postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC), but there is limited information on the spectrum, magnitude, duration, and patterns of these sequelae as well as their influence on quality of life. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of adults with a documented history of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity at ≥2 weeks past onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms or, if asymptomatic, first positive test. At 4-month intervals, we queried physical and mental health symptoms and quality of life. RESULTS: Of the first 179 participants enrolled, 10 were asymptomatic during the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 125 were symptomatic but not hospitalized, and 44 were symptomatic and hospitalized. During the postacute phase, fatigue, shortness of breath, concentration problems, headaches, trouble sleeping, and anosmia/dysgeusia were most common through 8 months of observation. Symptoms were typically at least somewhat bothersome and sometimes exhibited a waxing-and-waning course. Some participants experienced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress, as well as difficulties with performance of usual activities. The median visual analogue scale rating of general health was lower at 4 and 8 months compared with pre-COVID-19. Two clusters of symptom domains were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Many participants report bothersome symptoms following onset of COVID-19 with variable patterns of persistence and impact on quality of life. The substantial variability suggests the existence of multiple subphenotypes of PASC. A rigorous approach to the prospective measurement of symptoms and functional manifestations sets the stage for the next phase of research focusing on the pathophysiologic causes of the various subgroups of PASC.

12.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1624185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There is mounting evidence for the presence of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), but there is limited information on the spectrum, magnitude, duration, and patterns of these sequelae as well as their influence on quality of life. METHODS We assembled a cohort of adults with documented history of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positivity who were ≥ 2 weeks past onset of COVID-19 symptoms or, if asymptomatic, first positive test. At 4-month intervals, we queried physical and mental health symptoms and quality of life. RESULTS Of the first 179 participants enrolled, 10 were asymptomatic during the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 125 symptomatic but not hospitalized, and 44 symptomatic and hospitalized. During the post-acute phase, fatigue, shortness of breath, concentration problems, headaches, trouble sleeping and anosmia/dysgeusia were most common through 8 months of observation. Symptoms were typically at least somewhat bothersome and sometimes exhibited a waxing-and-waning course. Some participants experienced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress, as well as difficulties with performance of usual activities. The median visual analogue scale rating of general health was lower at 4 and 8 months compared to pre-COVID-19. Two clusters of symptom domains were identified. CONCLUSION Many participants report bothersome symptoms following onset of COVID-19 with variable patterns of persistence and impact on quality of life. The substantial variability suggests the existence of multiple sub-phenotypes of PASC. A rigorous approach to the prospective measurement of symptoms and functional manifestations sets the stage for the next phase of research focusing on the pathophysiologic causes of the various sub-groups of PASC.

13.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(2): 221-226, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624961

ABSTRACT

Cognitive post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) can occur after mild COVID-19. Detailed clinical characterizations may inform pathogenesis. We evaluated 22 adults reporting cognitive PASC and 10 not reporting cognitive symptoms after mild SARS-CoV-2 infection through structured interviews, neuropsychological testing, and optional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluations (53%). Delayed onset of cognitive PASC occurred in 43% and associated with younger age. Cognitive PASC participants had a higher number of pre-existing cognitive risk factors (2.5 vs. 0; p = 0.03) and higher proportion with abnormal CSF findings (77% vs. 0%; p = 0.01) versus controls. Cognitive risk factors and immunologic mechanisms may contribute to cognitive PASC pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Cognition/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Research Personnel , Risk Factors , Young Adult
14.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(1): 21-26, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574077

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic RNA virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Although most patients with COVID-19 have mild illness and may be asymptomatic, some will develop severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are capable of hijacking the epigenetic landscape of host immune cells to evade antiviral defense. Yet, there remain considerable gaps in our understanding of immune cell epigenetic changes associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pathology. Here, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 terminally-ill, critical COVID-19 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia compared with uninfected, hospitalized influenza, untreated primary HIV infection, and mild/moderate COVID-19 HIV coinfected individuals. Cell-type deconvolution analyses confirmed lymphopenia in severe COVID-19 and revealed a high percentage of estimated neutrophils suggesting perturbations to DNAm associated with granulopoiesis. We observed a distinct DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 characterized by hypermethylation of IFN-related genes and hypomethylation of inflammatory genes, reinforcing observations in infection models and single-cell transcriptional studies of severe COVID-19. Epigenetic clock analyses revealed severe COVID-19 was associated with an increased DNAm age and elevated mortality risk according to GrimAge, further validating the epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk. Our epigenetic results reveal a discovery DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 in blood potentially useful for corroborating clinical assessments, informing pathogenic mechanisms, and revealing new therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genome, Human , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550542

ABSTRACT

Following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, people living with HIV (PLWH) had lower surrogate virus neutralization test response (p=0.03) and a trend towards lower IgG response (p=0.08), particularly among those with lower CD4+T-cell counts and who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. Study of the impact of supplemental vaccine doses among PLWH is needed.

17.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1839-1848, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The biological processes associated with postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC) are unknown. METHODS: We measured soluble markers of inflammation in a SARS-CoV-2 recovery cohort at early (<90 days) and late (>90 days) timepoints. We defined PASC as the presence of 1 or more coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-attributed symptoms beyond 90 days. We compared fold-changes in marker values between those with and without PASC using mixed-effects models with terms for PASC and early and late recovery time periods. RESULTS: During early recovery, those who went on to develop PASC generally had higher levels of cytokine biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor-α (1.14-fold higher mean ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01-1.28]; P = .028) and interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (1.28-fold higher mean ratio [95% CI, 1.01-1.62]; P = .038). Among those with PASC, there was a trend toward higher interleukin 6 levels during early recovery (1.29-fold higher mean ratio [95% CI, .98-1.70]; P = .07), which became more pronounced in late recovery (1.44-fold higher mean ratio [95% CI, 1.11-1.86]; P < .001). These differences were more pronounced among those with a greater number of PASC symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent immune activation may be associated with ongoing symptoms following COVID-19. Further characterization of these processes might identify therapeutic targets for those experiencing PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/virology
19.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab393, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358479

ABSTRACT

We report a patient with connective tissue disease who developed modest severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 receptor binding domain-specific antibody levels and a lack of neutralization capacity, despite having received 3 mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines and holding anti-B-cell therapy for >7 months before vaccination. The patient developed virus-specific T-cell responses.

20.
Cell Rep ; 36(6): 109518, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345269

ABSTRACT

We describe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cell responses, soluble markers of inflammation, and antibody levels and neutralization capacity longitudinally in 70 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants represent a spectrum of illness and recovery, including some with persistent viral shedding in saliva and many experiencing post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). T cell responses remain stable for up to 9 months. Whereas the magnitude of early CD4+ T cell immune responses correlates with severity of initial infection, pre-existing lung disease is independently associated with higher long-term SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Among participants with PASC 4 months following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptom onset, we observe a lower frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing CD107a, a marker of degranulation, in response to Nucleocapsid (N) peptide pool stimulation, and a more rapid decline in the frequency of N-specific interferon-γ-producing CD8+ T cells. Neutralizing antibody levels strongly correlate with SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Shedding/immunology
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