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1.
AIDS ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the long-term clinical and immunologic consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH). METHODS: We measured SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses in people with and without HIV recovering from COVID-19 (n = 39 and n = 43, respectively) using binding antibody, surrogate virus neutralization, intracellular cytokine staining, and inflammatory marker assays. We identified individuals experiencing post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) and evaluated immunologic parameters. We used linear regression and generalized linear models to examine differences by HIV status in the magnitude of inflammatory and virus-specific antibody and T cell responses, as well as differences in the prevalence of PASC. RESULTS: Among PWH, we found broadly similar SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses as compared with a well-matched group of HIV-negative individuals. PWH had 70% lower relative levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD8+ T cells (p = 0.007) and 53% higher relative levels of PD-1+ SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells (p = 0.007). Higher CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with lower PD-1 expression on SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells (0.34-fold effect, p = 0.02). HIV status was strongly associated with PASC (odds ratio 4.01, p = 0.008), and levels of certain inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IP-10) were associated with persistent symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: We identified potentially important differences in SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in PWH and HIV-negative participants that might have implications for long-term immunity conferred by natural infection. HIV status strongly predicted the presence of PASC. Larger and more detailed studies of PASC in PWH are urgently needed.

2.
Pathog Immun ; 7(1): 95-103, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924851

ABSTRACT

Background: Efforts to understand the impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants, vaccine status, and treatment on the development and persistence of Long COVID have intensified. Methods: We report 4 sequential cases from a post-COVID cohort study demonstrating variability in outcomes following differentially timed nirmatrelvir therapy, received as part of clinical care. Results: In the first case, the participant experienced symptomatic rebound and developed Long COVID despite early initiation of antiviral therapy. In the next 2 cases, participants reported improvement in persistent COVID symptoms when nirmatrelvir was taken 25 and 60 days following initial symptom onset. In the final case, an individual with presumed Long COVID for 2 years reported substantial improvement in chronic symptoms when taking nirmatrelvir following SARS-CoV-2 re-infection. Conclusions: These anecdotes suggest that systematic study of antiviral therapy for Long COVID is warranted.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Households have emerged as important venues for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Little is known, however, regarding the magnitude and determinants of household transmission in increasingly vaccinated populations. METHODS: From September 2020 to January 2022, symptomatic non-hospitalized individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection by RNA detection were identified within 5 days of symptom onset; all individuals resided with at least one other SARS-CoV-2-uninfected household member. These infected persons (cases) and their household members (contacts) were subsequently followed with questionnaire-based measurement and serial nasal specimen collection. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 infection among contacts. RESULTS: We evaluated 42 cases and their 74 household contacts. Among the contacts, 32 (43%) became infected, of whom 5/32 (16%) were asymptomatic; 81% of transmissions occurred by 5 days after the case's symptom onset. From 21 unvaccinated cases, 14-day cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among contacts was 18/40 (45%; 95% CI: 29, 62), most of whom were unvaccinated. From 21 vaccinated cases, 14-day cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 14/34 (41%; 95% CI: 25, 59) among all contacts and 12/29 (41%; 95% CI: 24, 61) among vaccinated contacts. At least one co-morbid condition among cases and 10 or more days of RNA detection in cases were associated with increased risk of infection among contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Among households including individuals with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, both vaccinated-to-vaccinated and unvaccinated-to-unvaccinated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to household contacts was common. Because vaccination alone did not notably reduce risk of infection, household contacts will need to employ additional interventions to avoid infection.

4.
JCI Insight ; 7(15)2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902172

ABSTRACT

Long COVID, a type of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), has been associated with sustained elevated levels of immune activation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms that drive this inflammation remain unknown. Inflammation during acute coronavirus disease 2019 could be exacerbated by microbial translocation (from the gut and/or lung) to blood. Whether microbial translocation contributes to inflammation during PASC is unknown. We did not observe a significant elevation in plasma markers of bacterial translocation during PASC. However, we observed higher levels of fungal translocation - measured as ß-glucan, a fungal cell wall polysaccharide - in the plasma of individuals experiencing PASC compared with those without PASC or SARS-CoV-2-negative controls. The higher ß-glucan correlated with higher inflammation and elevated levels of host metabolites involved in activating N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (such as metabolites within the tryptophan catabolism pathway) with established neurotoxic properties. Mechanistically, ß-glucan can directly induce inflammation by binding to myeloid cells (via Dectin-1) and activating Syk/NF-κB signaling. Using a Dectin-1/NF-κB reporter model, we found that plasma from individuals experiencing PASC induced higher NF-κB signaling compared with plasma from negative controls. This higher NF-κB signaling was abrogated by piceatannol (Syk inhibitor). These data suggest a potential targetable mechanism linking fungal translocation and inflammation during PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , beta-Glucans , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Syk Kinase
5.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(5)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The biologic mechanisms underlying neurologic postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC) are incompletely understood. METHODS: We measured markers of neurologic injury (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], neurofilament light chain [NfL]) and soluble markers of inflammation among a cohort of people with prior confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at early and late recovery after the initial illness (defined as less than and greater than 90 days, respectively). The primary clinical outcome was the presence of self-reported CNS PASC symptoms during the late recovery time point. We compared fold changes in marker values between those with and without CNS PASC symptoms using linear mixed-effects models and examined relationships between neurologic and immunologic markers using rank linear correlations. RESULTS: Of 121 individuals, 52 reported CNS PASC symptoms. During early recovery, those who went on to report CNS PASC symptoms had elevations in GFAP (1.3-fold higher mean ratio, 95% CI 1.04-1.63, p = 0.02), but not NfL (1.06-fold higher mean ratio, 95% CI 0.89-1.26, p = 0.54). During late recovery, neither GFAP nor NfL levels were elevated among those with CNS PASC symptoms. Although absolute levels of NfL did not differ, those who reported CNS PASC symptoms demonstrated a stronger downward trend over time in comparison with those who did not report CNS PASC symptoms (p = 0.041). Those who went on to report CNS PASC also exhibited elevations in interleukin 6 (48% higher during early recovery and 38% higher during late recovery), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (19% higher during early recovery), and tumor necrosis factor α (19% higher during early recovery and 13% higher during late recovery). GFAP and NfL correlated with levels of several immune activation markers during early recovery; these correlations were attenuated during late recovery. DISCUSSION: Self-reported neurologic symptoms present approximately 4 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection are associated with elevations in markers of neurologic injury and inflammation at earlier time points. Some inflammatory pathways seem to be involved months after acute infection. Additional work will be needed to better characterize these processes and to identify interventions to prevent or treat this condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
7.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861744

ABSTRACT

Shortness of breath, chest pain, and palpitations occur as postacute sequelae of COVID-19, but whether symptoms are associated with echocardiographic abnormalities, cardiac biomarkers, or markers of systemic inflammation remains unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed symptoms, performed echocardiograms, and measured biomarkers among adults more than 8 weeks after confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We modeled associations between symptoms and baseline characteristics, echocardiographic findings, and biomarkers using logistic regression. We enrolled 102 participants at a median of 7.2 months following COVID-19 onset; 47 individuals reported dyspnea, chest pain, or palpitations. Median age was 52 years, and 41% of participants were women. Female sex, hospitalization, IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain, and C-reactive protein were associated with symptoms. Regarding echocardiographic findings, 4 of 47 participants (9%) with symptoms had pericardial effusions compared with 0 of 55 participants without symptoms; those with effusions had a median of 4 symptoms compared with a median of 1 symptom in those without effusions. There was no strong evidence for a relationship between symptoms and echocardiographic functional parameters or other biomarkers. Among adults more than 8 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies, markers of inflammation, and, possibly, pericardial effusions are associated with cardiopulmonary symptoms. Investigation into inflammation as a mechanism underlying postacute sequelae of COVID-19 is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pericardial Effusion , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Chest Pain/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Mechanisms underlying persistent cardiopulmonary symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection (post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 “PASC” or “Long COVID”) remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary PASC using multimodality cardiovascular imaging including cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and ambulatory rhythm monitoring. METHODS In the Long-Term Impact of Infection with Novel Coronavirus (LIINC) Cohort, we performed CMR, CPET, and ambulatory rhythm monitoring among adults > 1 year after PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We used logistic and linear regression to compare those with and without cardiopulmonary symptoms (dyspnea, chest pain, palpitations) adjusting for confounders. RESULTS One hundred twenty individuals were studied, among whom 46 participants (unselected for symptom status) had at least one advanced test performed at median 17 months (IQR 15-18). Median age was 52 (IQR 42-61), 18 (39%) were female, and 6 (13%) were hospitalized for severe acute infection. On CMR (n=39), smaller RV volume and stroke volume and higher extracellular volume were present among those with symptoms, but no evidence of late-gadolinium enhancement or differences in T1 or T2 mapping were demonstrated. We did not find arrhythmias on ambulatory monitoring. In contrast, on CPET (n=39), 13/15 (87%) participants with reduced exercise capacity (<85% predicted) reported cardiopulmonary symptoms or fatigue (p=0.008). Adjusted peak VO 2 was 2.7 ml/kg/min lower among those with cardiopulmonary symptoms (95%CI −6.9 to 1.5;p=0.20) or −11% predicted (95%CI −27 to 5, p=0.17). Including fatigue along with cardiopulmonary symptoms, the adjusted difference in peak VO 2 was −5.9 ml/kg/min (−9.6 to −2.3;p=0.002) or −21% predicted (−35 to −7;p=0.006). Chronotropic incompetence was the primary abnormality among 9/15 with reduced peak VO 2 . Adjusted heart rate reserve <80% was associated with reduced exercise capacity (OR 15.6, 95%CI 1.30-187;p=0.03). Those with chronotropic incompetence had higher hsCRP, lower heart rate recovery, and lower heart rate variability suggestive of autonomic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS Reduced exercise capacity and reduced heart rate response to exercise, and hsCRP are associated with persistent cardiopulmonary symptoms more than 1 year following COVID-19. Chronic inflammation and autonomic dysfunction may underlie cardiopulmonary PASC. Clinical Perspective What is New? Impaired chronotropic response to exercise is associated with reduced exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary symptoms more than 1 year after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Findings: on ambulatory rhythm monitoring point to perturbed autonomic function, while cardiac MRI findings argue against myocardial dysfunction and myocarditis. Clinical Implications Cardiopulmonary testing to identify etiologies of persistent symptoms in post-acute sequalae of COVID-19 or “Long COVID” should be performed in a manner that allows for assessment of heart rate response to exercise. Therapeutic trials of antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and exercise strategies in PASC are urgently needed and should include assessment of symptoms and objective testing with cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336938

ABSTRACT

The impact of vaccination on SARS-CoV-2 infectiousness is not well understood. We compared longitudinal viral shedding dynamics in unvaccinated and fully vaccinated adults. SARS-CoV-2-infected adults were enrolled within 5 days of symptom onset and nasal specimens were self-collected daily for two weeks and intermittently for an additional two weeks. SARS-CoV-2 RNA load and infectious virus were analyzed relative to symptom onset stratified by vaccination status. We tested 1080 nasal specimens from 52 unvaccinated adults enrolled in the pre-Delta period and 32 fully vaccinated adults with predominantly Delta infections. While we observed no differences by vaccination status in maximum RNA levels, maximum infectious titers and the median duration of viral RNA shedding, the rate of decay from the maximum RNA load was faster among vaccinated;maximum infectious titers and maximum RNA levels were highly correlated. Furthermore, amongst participants with infectious virus, median duration of infectious virus detection was reduced from 7.5 days (IQR: 6.0-9.0) in unvaccinated participants to 6 days (IQR: 5.0-8.0) in those vaccinated (P=0.02). Accordingly, the odds of shedding infectious virus from days 6 to 12 post-onset were lower among vaccinated participants than unvaccinated participants (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.19-0.89). These results indicate that vaccination had reduced the probability of shedding infectious virus after 5 days from symptom onset. Significance statement We present longitudinal data on the magnitude, duration and decay rate of viral RNA and the magnitude and duration of infectious virus in nasal specimens from vaccinated and unvaccinated participants. On average, vaccinated participants (infected with the highly transmissible Delta variant) showed a lower probability of having infectious virus after 5 days of symptoms compared to unvaccinated participants (infected with mostly pre-delta viral lineages), even though both groups had a similar magnitude of infectious virus at or near the peak. These data help improve our understanding of the duration of the infectious period when infection occurs following vaccination and serves as a reference for future studies of shedding dynamics following infections with novel variants of concern.

11.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335503

ABSTRACT

As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to evolve, efforts to understand variability in COVID-19 recovery, as well as the impact of factors including viral variants, vaccine status, and COVID-19 treatment on the development and persistence of Long COVID symptoms have intensified. We report three cases that demonstrate that variability in the timing of nirmatrelvir therapy may be associated with different outcomes and underscores the need for systematic study of antiviral therapy for this disease condition.

13.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332871

ABSTRACT

Long COVID, a type of Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS CoV-2 infection (PASC), has been associated with sustained elevated levels of immune activation and inflammation. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms that drive this inflammation remain unknown. Inflammation during acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be exacerbated by microbial translocation (from the gut and/or lung) to the blood. Whether microbial translocation contributes to inflammation during PASC is unknown. We found higher levels of fungal translocation - measured as beta-glucan, a fungal cell wall polysaccharide - in the plasma of individuals experiencing PASC compared to those without PASC or SARS-CoV-2 negative controls. The higher beta-glucan correlated with higher levels of markers of inflammation and elevated levels of host metabolites involved in activating N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (such as metabolites within the tryptophan catabolism pathway) with established neuro-toxic properties. Mechanistically, beta-glucan can directly induce inflammation by binding to myeloid cells (via the Dectin-1 receptor) and activating Syk/NF-kB signaling. Using an in vitro Dectin-1/NF-kB reporter model, we found that plasma from individuals experiencing PASC induced higher NF-kB signaling compared to plasma from SARS-CoV-2 negative controls. This higher NF-kB signaling was abrogated by the Syk inhibitor Piceatannol. These data suggest a potential targetable mechanism linking fungal translocation and inflammation during PASC.

14.
Trials ; 23(1): 263, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to dramatic improvements in survival for people living with HIV, but is unable to cure infection, or induce viral control off therapy. Designing intervention trials with novel agents with the potential to confer a period of HIV remission without ART remains a key scientific and community goal. We detail the rationale, design, and outcomes of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of two HIV-specific long-acting broadly neutralising antibodies (bNAbs): 3BNC117-LS and 10-1074-LS, which target CD4 binding site and V3 loop respectively, on post-treatment viral control. METHODS: RIO is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded prospective phase II study. Eligible individuals will have started ART within 3 months of primary HIV infection and have viral sequences that appear to be sensitive to both bNAbs. It will randomise 72 eligible participants 1:1 to the following arms via a two-stage design. In Stage 1, arm A participants are given dual long-acting (LS-variants) bNAbs infusions, followed by intensively monitored Analytical Treatment Interruption (ATI) (n = 36); in arm B, participants receive placebo infusions followed by ATI. The primary endpoint will be time to viral rebound within 36 weeks after ATI. Upon viral rebound, the participant and researcher are unblinded. Participants in arm A recommence ART and complete the study. Participants in arm B are invited to restart ART and enroll into Stage 2 where they will receive open-label LS bNAbs, followed by a second ATI 24 weeks after. Secondary and exploratory endpoints include adverse events, time to undetectable viraemia after restarting ART, immunological markers, HIV proviral DNA, serum bNAb concentrations in blood, bNAb resistance at viral rebound, and quality of life measures. DISCUSSION: The two-stage design was determined in collaboration with community involvement. This design allows all participants the option to receive bNAbs. It also tests the hypothesis that bNAbs may drive sustained HIV control beyond the duration of detectable bNAb concentrations. Community representatives were involved at all stages. This included the two-stage design, discussion on the criteria to restart ART, frequency of monitoring visits off ART, and reducing the risk of onward transmission to HIV-negative partners. It also included responding to the challenges of COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol is registered on Clinical. TRIALS: gov and EudraCT and has approval from UK Ethics and MHRA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Community Participation , HIV Antibodies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
16.
Ann Neurol ; 91(6): 772-781, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As SARS-CoV-2 is known to invade neural cell mitochondria, a plasma system for quantifying central nervous system proteins in living humans was used to investigate neuropathogenic mechanisms of long-COVID-19. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 proteins and mitochondrial proteins (MPs) in enriched plasma neuron-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) and astrocyte-derived EVs (ADEVs) were quantified in resolved acute COVID-19 without post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), PASC without neuropsychiatric manifestations (NP), PASC with NP and healthy controls. RESULTS: NDEV and ADEV mean levels of SARS-CoV-2 S1 and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were higher in all PASC sub-groups than controls, but only N levels were higher in PASC with than without NP. Exosome marker CD81-normalized NDEV mean levels of subunit 6 of MP respiratory chain complex I and subunit 10 of complex III, and neuroprotective MPs Humanin and mitochondrial open-reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c) all were decreased significantly in PASC with NP but not in PASC without NP relative to controls. NDEV levels of MPs voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) were decreased in PASC without and with NP, whereas those of calcium channel MPs mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), sodium/calcium exchanger (NCLX) and leucine zipper EF-hand containing transmembrane 1 protein (LETM1) were decreased only in PASC with NP. ADEV levels of MCU and NCLX only were increased in PASC without and with NP. INTERPRETATION: Abnormal NDEV and ADEV levels of SARS-CoV-2 N and S1 protein and MPs correlate with NP and may be biomarkers for long-COVID prognostics and therapeutic trials. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:772-781.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Mitochondrial Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Trends Immunol ; 43(4): 268-270, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729846

ABSTRACT

Intense investigation into the predictors and determinants of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), including 'long COVID', is underway. Recent studies provide clues to the mechanisms that might drive this condition, with the goal of identifying host or virus factors that can be intervened upon to prevent or reverse PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Nat Immunol ; 23(3): 360-370, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713200

ABSTRACT

Host genetic and environmental factors including age, biological sex, diet, geographical location, microbiome composition and metabolites converge to influence innate and adaptive immune responses to vaccines. Failure to understand and account for these factors when investigating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine efficacy may impair the development of the next generation of vaccines. Most studies aimed at identifying mechanisms of vaccine-mediated immune protection have focused on adaptive immune responses. It is well established, however, that mobilization of the innate immune response is essential to the development of effective cellular and humoral immunity. A comprehensive understanding of the innate immune response and environmental factors that contribute to the development of broad and durable cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and other vaccines requires a holistic and unbiased approach. Along with optimization of the immunogen and vectors, the development of adjuvants based on our evolving understanding of how the innate immune system shapes vaccine responses will be essential. Defining the innate immune mechanisms underlying the establishment of long-lived plasma cells and memory T cells could lead to a universal vaccine for coronaviruses, a key biomedical priority.


Subject(s)
Biological Variation, Population , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Global Health , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory , Microbiota/immunology , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance , Vaccination
20.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to fully understand the impact of variable COVID-19 experiences and the optimal management of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We characterized the variability in the acute illness experience and ongoing recovery process from participants in a COVID-19 recovery cohort study in Northern California in 2020. METHOD: We completed 24 semi-structured in-depth interviews with adults with confirmed positive SARV-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test result, had recovered or were recovering from acute infection, and underwent serial evaluations. We purposefully sampled English- and Spanish-speaking adults with asymptomatic, mild, and severe symptomatic infection, including those who were hospitalized and those with HIV co-infection. We used a thematic analysis to analyze interviews and identify salient themes. RESULTS: After integrating the thematic analysis with clinical data, we identified key themes: (1) across symptom profiles and severity, experiencing COVID-19 was associated with psychological distress; (2) symptomatic infection carried uncertainty in symptom presentation and ongoing recovery (e.g., long COVID); and (3) health information-seeking behavior was facilitated by access to medical care and uncertainty with the recovery process. CONCLUSION: Our data informs the emerging field of "long COVID" research and shows a need to provide information and continuous support to persons with post-acute sequelae to ensure they feel secure along the path to recovery.

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