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Stroke ; 51(7):2002-2011, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2287355


Background and Purpose: With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the current worldwide pandemic, there is mounting evidence that patients affected by the illness may develop clinically significant coagulopathy with thromboembolic complications including ischemic stroke. However, there is limited data on the clinical characteristics, stroke mechanism, and outcomes of patients who have a stroke and COVID-19. Method(s): We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between March 15, 2020, and April 19, 2020, within a major health system in New York, the current global epicenter of the pandemic. We compared the clinical characteristics of stroke patients with a concurrent diagnosis of COVID-19 to stroke patients without COVID-19 (contemporary controls). In addition, we compared patients to a historical cohort of patients with ischemic stroke discharged from our hospital system between March 15, 2019, and April 15, 2019 (historical controls). Result(s): During the study period in 2020, out of 3556 hospitalized patients with diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, 32 patients (0.9%) had imaging proven ischemic stroke. Cryptogenic stroke was more common in patients with COVID-19 (65.6%) as compared to contemporary controls (30.4%, P=0.003) and historical controls (25.0%, P<0.001). When compared with contemporary controls, COVID-19 positive patients had higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and higher peak D-dimer levels. When compared with historical controls, COVID-19 positive patients were more likely to be younger men with elevated troponin, higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Patients with COVID-19 and stroke had significantly higher mortality than historical and contemporary controls. Conclusion(s): We observed a low rate of imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Most strokes were cryptogenic, possibly related to an acquired hypercoagulability, and mortality was increased. Studies are needed to determine the utility of therapeutic anticoagulation for stroke and other thrombotic event prevention in patients with COVID-19.Copyright © 2020 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.

Stroke ; 52(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1234365


Introduction: While the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 have been described, there are limited data on its implications in hemorrhagic stroke. The clinical characteristics, underlying stroke mechanism, and outcomes in this group of patients are especially salient as empiric therapeutic anticoagulation becomes increasingly common in the treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hemorrhagic stroke (both nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage) who were hospitalized between 3/1/20-5/15/20 at a NYC hospital system, during the coronavirus pandemic. We compared the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with hemorrhagic stroke and COVID-19 to those without COVID-19 admitted to our hospital between 3/1/20-5/15/20 (contemporary controls) and 3/1/19-5/15/19 (historical controls), using Fischer's exact test and nonparametric testing. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. Results: During the study period, 19 out of 4071 (0.5%) patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 had hemorrhagic stroke on imaging. Of all COVID-19 with hemorrhagic stroke, only 3 had non-aneurysmal SAH without intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Among hemorrhagic stroke and COVID-19 patients, coagulopathy was the most common etiology (73.7%);empiric anticoagulation was started in 89.5% vs 4.2% of contemporary and 10.0% of historical controls (both with p = <0.001). Compared to contemporary and historical controls, COVID-19 patients had higher initial NIHSS scores, INR, PTT and fibrinogen levels. These patients also had higher rates of in-hospital mortality [84.6% vs. 4.6%, p =<0.001]. Sensitivity analyses excluding patients with strictly subarachnoid hemorrhage yielded similar results. Conclusion: We observed an overall low rate of imaging-confirmed hemorrhagic stroke among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most hemorrhages in COVID-19 patients occurred in the setting of therapeutic anticoagulation and were associated with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(8): 1370-1376, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608376


Despite the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) being more frequently related to acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute cardiac and renal injuries, thromboembolic events have been increasingly reported. We report a unique series of young patients with COVID-19 presenting with cerebral venous system thrombosis. Three patients younger than 41 years of age with confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection had neurologic findings related to cerebral venous thrombosis. They were admitted during the short period of 10 days between March and April 2020 and were managed in an academic institution in a large city. One patient had thrombosis in both the superficial and deep systems; another had involvement of the straight sinus, vein of Galen, and internal cerebral veins; and a third patient had thrombosis of the deep medullary veins. Two patients presented with hemorrhagic venous infarcts. The median time from COVID-19 symptoms to a thrombotic event was 7 days (range, 2-7 days). One patient was diagnosed with new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis, and another one used oral contraceptive pills. Two patients were managed with both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; one was treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. All patients had a fatal outcome. Severe and potentially fatal deep cerebral thrombosis may complicate the initial clinical presentation of COVID-19. We urge awareness of this atypical manifestation.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced , Young Adult , COVID-19 Drug Treatment