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1.
JAMA ; 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872106
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(Suppl_3): S219-S221, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868252

ABSTRACT

This supplement demonstrates the profound reach of social media across several domains: improved clinical care and advocacy, data analysis, broad reach to diverse patient populations, educational access, best practices in medical education, peer review, digital strategy for individuals and institutions, and combating misinformation.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Social Media , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communication , Humans
5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(11): 2856-2860, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492385

ABSTRACT

Although there have been several case reports and simulation models of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission associated with air travel, there are limited data to guide testing strategy to minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and transmission onboard commercial aircraft. Among 9853 passengers with a negative SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test performed within 72 hours of departure from December 2020 through May 2021, five (0.05%) passengers with active SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified with rapid antigen tests and confirmed with rapid molecular test performed before and after an international flight from the United States to Italy. This translates to a case detection rate of 1 per 1970 travelers during a time of high prevalence of active infection in the United States. A negative molecular test for SARS-CoV-2 within 72 hours of international airline departure results in a low probability of active infection identified on antigen testing during commercial airline flight.


Subject(s)
Air Travel , COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , Humans , Italy , Risk Assessment , United States
8.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(8): e25771, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332985

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 parallels HIV in many ways. Socio-behavioural science has been critical in elucidating the context and factors surrounding individual levels of engagement with known effective prevention and treatment tools for HIV, thus offering important lessons for ongoing efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. DISCUSSION: Non-adherence to effective disease mitigation strategies (e.g. condoms for HIV and masks for COVID-19) can be attributed in part to prioritizing comfort, convenience and individual autonomy over public health. Importantly, misinformation can fuel denialism and conspiracies that discredit scientific knowledge and motivate nonadherence. These preferences and the extent to which individuals can act on their preferences may be constrained by the structures and culture in which they live. Both HIV and COVID-19 have been politicized and influenced by evolving recommendations from scientists, clinicians, policymakers and politically motivated organizations. While vaccines are vital for ending both pandemics, their impact will depend on availability and uptake. Four decades of experience with the HIV epidemic have shown that information alone is insufficient to overcome these challenges; interventions must address the underlying, often complex factors that influence human behaviour. This article builds from socio-behavioural science theory and describes practical and successful approaches to enable and support adherence to prevention and treatment strategies, including vaccine adoption. Key methods include reframing tools to enhance motivation, promoting centralized sources of trusted information, strategic development and messaging with and within key populations (e.g. through social media) and appealing to self-empowerment, altruism and informed decision making. Orchestrated evidence-based activism is needed to overcome manipulative politicization, while consistent transparent messaging around scientific discoveries and clinical recommendations are critical for public acceptance and support. Ultimately, the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines will depend on our ability to engender trust in the communities most affected. CONCLUSIONS: Many lessons learned from socio-behavioural science in the HIV pandemic are applicable to the COVID-19 pandemic. Individual behaviour must be understood within its interpersonal and societal context to address the current barriers to adherence to disease-mitigating strategies and promote an effective response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which is likely to be endured for the foreseeable future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Behavior , Pandemics/prevention & control , Behavioral Sciences , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): 1062-1064, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275786
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofab027, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254809

ABSTRACT

Rapid information dissemination is critical in a world changing rapidly due to global threats. Ubiquitous internet access has created new methods of information dissemination that are rapid, far-reaching, and universally accessible. However, inaccuracies may accompany rapid information dissemination, and rigorous evaluation of primary data through various forms of peer review is crucial. In an era in which high-quality information can save lives, it is critical that infectious diseases specialists are well versed in digital strategy to effectively disseminate information to colleagues and the community and diminish voices spreading misinformation. In this study, we review how social media can be used for rapid dissemination of quality information, benefits and pitfalls of social media use, and general recommendations for developing a digital strategy as an infectious diseases specialist. We will describe how the Infectious Diseases Society of America has leveraged digital strategy and social media and how individuals can amplify these resources to disseminate information, provide clinical knowledge, community guidance, and build their own person brand. We conclude in providing guidance to infectious diseases specialists in aiming to build and preserve public trust, consider their audience and specific goals, and use social media to highlight the value of the field of infectious diseases.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): e828-e834, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Widespread viral and serological testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present a unique opportunity to also test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We estimated the potential impact of adding linked, opt-out HIV testing alongside SARS-CoV-2 testing on the HIV incidence and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in 6 US cities. METHODS: Using a previously calibrated dynamic HIV transmission model, we constructed 3 sets of scenarios for each city: (1) sustained current levels of HIV-related treatment and prevention services (status quo); (2) temporary disruptions in health services and changes in sexual and injection risk behaviors at discrete levels between 0%-50%; and (3) linked HIV and SARS-CoV-2 testing offered to 10%-90% of the adult population in addition to Scenario 2. We estimated the cumulative number of HIV infections between 2020-2025 and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of linked HIV testing over 20 years. RESULTS: In the absence of linked, opt-out HIV testing, we estimated a total of a 16.5% decrease in HIV infections between 2020-2025 in the best-case scenario (50% reduction in risk behaviors and no service disruptions), and a 9.0% increase in the worst-case scenario (no behavioral change and 50% reduction in service access). We estimated that HIV testing (offered at 10%-90% levels) could avert a total of 576-7225 (1.6%-17.2%) new infections. The intervention would require an initial investment of $20.6M-$220.7M across cities; however, the intervention would ultimately result in savings in health-care costs in each city. CONCLUSIONS: A campaign in which HIV testing is linked with SARS-CoV-2 testing could substantially reduce the HIV incidence and reduce direct and indirect health care costs attributable to HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cities , Cost-Benefit Analysis , HIV , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(6): e428-e433, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219196

ABSTRACT

As shown by COVID-19, infectious diseases with a pandemic potential present a grave threat to health and wellbeing. Although the International Health Regulations provide a framework of binding legal obligations for pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response, many countries do not comply with these regulations. There is a need for a renewed framework for global collective action that ensures conformity with international regulations and promotes effective prevention and response to pandemic infectious diseases. This Health Policy identifies the necessary characteristics for a new global public health security convention designed to optimise prevention, preparedness, and response to pandemic infectious diseases. We propose ten recommendations to strengthen global public health governance and promote compliance with global health security regulations. Recommendations for a new global public health security convention include greater authority for a global governing body, an improved ability to respond to pandemics, an objective evaluation system for national core public health capacities, more effective enforcement mechanisms, independent and sustainable funding, representativeness, and investment from multiple sectors, among others. The next steps to achieve these recommendations include assembling an invested alliance, specifying the operational structures of a global public health security system, and overcoming barriers such as insufficient political will, scarcity of resources, and individual national interests.


Subject(s)
Congresses as Topic , Global Health , Public Health , COVID-19 , History, 21st Century , Humans
14.
American Journal of Public Health ; 111(5):768-769, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1194934

ABSTRACT

Despite not having a vaccine for HCV, the availability of curative direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) led the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in 2017 to conclude that HCV could be eliminated as a public health problem in the United States if considerable will and resources existed to do so.1 HCV INFECTION AND THE INJECTION DRUG USE EPIDEMIC In the current issue of AJPH, Holtzman et al. from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention document the changing epidemiology of acute HCV in the United States between 2010 and 2018 (p. 949). The fact that injection drug use is now the major driver of HCV transmission in the United States indicates that any program to eliminate or even control HCV in the absence of a vaccine must directly address treatment of substance use disorders. Because injection of opioids was found to be the major cause of injection drug use-related acute HCV incidence during that period, specifically addressing the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) and integrating infectious disease prevention and treatment services with addiction services are critical to eliminating or controlling HCV infection in the United States. Harmreduction services such as syringe service programs have helped to curb the epidemic of not only HCV but also HIV infection.2 Importantly, use of medication to treat OUD (e.g., buprenorphine, methadone, extended-release naltrexone) has been shown to reduce transmission of HCV and HIV as well as lead to cure of HCV and increased viral suppression among individuals with HIV infection.36 HCV reinfection is also uncommon among persons who inject drugs on opioid agonist therapy.7 A recent report from the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine that evaluated opportunities to improve OUD and infectious disease services outlined a series of recommendations that undoubtedly could impact the HCV epidemic.8,9 Among them was the elimination of prior authorization policies and removing the X-waiver requirement to prescribe buprenorphine, which would make the effective opioid agonist medications to treat OUD more accessible and available to all who need them.

15.
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2259-2261, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153153

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing and contact tracing have been proposed as critical components of a safe and effective coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) public health strategy. We argue that COVID-19 contact tracing may provide a unique opportunity to also conduct widespread HIV testing, among other health-promotion activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Mass Screening , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037640, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092150

ABSTRACT

Importance: Medical research has not equitably included members of racial/ethnic minority groups or female and older individuals. There are limited data on participant demographic characteristics in vaccine trials despite the importance of these data to current trials aimed at preventing coronavirus disease 2019. Objective: To investigate whether racial/ethnic minority groups and female and older adults are underrepresented among participants in vaccine clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study examined data from completed US-based vaccine trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2020. The terms vaccine, vaccination, immunization, and inoculation were used to identify trials. Only those addressing vaccine immunogenicity or efficacy of preventative vaccines were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: The numbers and percentages of racial/ethnic minority, female, and older individuals compared with US census data from 2011 and 2018. Secondary outcome measures were inclusion by trial phase and year of completion. Results: A total of 230 US-based trials with 219 555 participants were included in the study. Most trials were randomized (180 [78.3%]), included viral vaccinations (159 [69.1%]), and represented all trial phases. Every trial reported age and sex; 134 (58.3%) reported race and 79 (34.3%) reported ethnicity. Overall, among adult study participants, White individuals were overrepresented (77.9%; 95% CI, 77.4%-78.4%), and Black or African American individuals (10.6%; 95% CI, 10.2%-11.0%) and American Indian or Alaska Native individuals (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.5%) were underrepresented compared with US census data; enrollment of Asian individuals was similar (5.7%; 95% CI, 5.5%-6.0%). Enrollment of Hispanic or Latino individuals (11.6%; 95% CI, 11.1%-12.0%) was also low even among the limited number of adult trials reporting ethnicity. Adult trials were composed of more female participants (75 325 [56.0%]), but among those reporting age as a percentage, enrollment of participants who were aged 65 years or older was low (12.1%; 95% CI, 12.0%-12.3%). Black or African American participants (10.1%; 95% CI, 9.7%-10.6%) and Hispanic or Latino participants (22.5%; 95% CI, 21.6%-23.4%) were also underrepresented in pediatric trials. Among trials reporting race/ethnicity, 65 (48.5%) did not include American Indian or Alaska Native participants and 81 (60.4%) did not include Hawaiian or Pacific Islander participants. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that among US-based vaccine clinical trials, members of racial/ethnic minority groups and older adults were underrepresented, whereas female adults were overrepresented. These findings suggest that diversity enrollment targets should be included for all vaccine trials targeting epidemiologically important infections.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Patient Selection , Sexism/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Sexism/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(3):261-263, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742302

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT While the outbreak has reached every region of the world, it is undeniable that countries in the southern hemisphere seem to be less affected, where cases have been reported, these have been imported and travel related. We analyzed the climate temperature from various regions according to their current ongoing human-to-human transmission status. We studied 3 groups;Group 1, 10 provinces from China with majority of COVID-19 cases;Group 2, areas where continuous horizontal transmission outside of China had been reported;and group 3, areas where imported cases had been detected and no horizontal transmission had been documented after at least seven days since the first case was reported. The regions without ongoing human-to-human transmission showed significantly higher temperatures when compared to China and countries with ongoing human-to-human transmission, with over an 11-degree difference. The average rainfall during the study period was significantly higher in those regions without OHHT when compared to the Chinese provinces with ongoing human-to-human transmission and the regions with active transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings show statistically significant differences between regions with ongoing human-to-human transmission of COVID-19 cases compared to those regions without horizontal transmission. This phenomenon could have implications in the behavior of the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak in the following months.

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