Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 44
Filter
1.
Kidney360 ; 2(6): 924-936, 2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776841

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection has, as of April 2021, affected >133 million people worldwide, causing >2.5 million deaths. Because the large majority of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 are asymptomatic, major concerns have been raised about possible long-term consequences of the infection. Methods: Wedeveloped an antigen capture assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in urine samples from patients with COVID-19whose diagnosis was confirmed by positive PCR results from nasopharyngeal swabs (NP-PCR+) forSARS-CoV-2. We used a collection of 233 urine samples from 132 participants from Yale New Haven Hospital and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia that were obtained during the pandemic (106 NP-PCR+ and 26 NP-PCR-), and a collection of 20 urine samples from 20 individuals collected before the pandemic. Results: Our analysis identified 23 out of 91 (25%) NP-PCR+ adult participants with SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein in urine (Ur-S+). Interestingly, although all NP-PCR+ children were Ur-S-, one child who was NP-PCR- was found to be positive for spike protein in their urine. Of the 23 adults who were Ur-S+, only one individual showed detectable viral RNA in urine. Our analysis further showed that 24% and 21% of adults who were NP-PCR+ had high levels of albumin and cystatin C, respectively, in their urine. Among individuals with albuminuria (>0.3 mg/mg of creatinine), statistical correlation could be found between albumin and spike protein in urine. Conclusions: Together, our data showed that one of four individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop renal abnormalities, such as albuminuria. Awareness about the long-term effect of these findings is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713197

ABSTRACT

As the biomedical community produces datasets that are increasingly complex and high dimensional, there is a need for more sophisticated computational tools to extract biological insights. We present Multiscale PHATE, a method that sweeps through all levels of data granularity to learn abstracted biological features directly predictive of disease outcome. Built on a coarse-graining process called diffusion condensation, Multiscale PHATE learns a data topology that can be analyzed at coarse resolutions for high-level summarizations of data and at fine resolutions for detailed representations of subsets. We apply Multiscale PHATE to a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) dataset with 54 million cells from 168 hospitalized patients and find that patients who die show CD16hiCD66blo neutrophil and IFN-γ+ granzyme B+ Th17 cell responses. We also show that population groupings from Multiscale PHATE directly fed into a classifier predict disease outcome more accurately than naive featurizations of the data. Multiscale PHATE is broadly generalizable to different data types, including flow cytometry, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), single-cell sequencing assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (scATAC-seq), and clinical variables.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 440, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641960

ABSTRACT

Dysregulated immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 virus are instrumental in severe COVID-19. However, the immune signatures associated with immunopathology are poorly understood. Here we use multi-omics single-cell analysis to probe the dynamic immune responses in hospitalized patients with stable or progressive course of COVID-19, explore V(D)J repertoires, and assess the cellular effects of tocilizumab. Coordinated profiling of gene expression and cell lineage protein markers shows that S100Ahi/HLA-DRlo classical monocytes and activated LAG-3hi T cells are hallmarks of progressive disease and highlights the abnormal MHC-II/LAG-3 interaction on myeloid and T cells, respectively. We also find skewed T cell receptor repertories in expanded effector CD8+ clones, unmutated IGHG+ B cell clones, and mutated B cell clones with stable somatic hypermutation frequency over time. In conclusion, our in-depth immune profiling reveals dyssynchrony of the innate and adaptive immune interaction in progressive COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Male , RNA-Seq/methods , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1317, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528032

ABSTRACT

As Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread, characterization of its antibody epitopes, emerging strains, related coronaviruses, and even the human proteome in naturally infected patients can guide the development of effective vaccines and therapies. Since traditional epitope identification tools are dependent upon pre-defined peptide sequences, they are not readily adaptable to diverse viral proteomes. The Serum Epitope Repertoire Analysis (SERA) platform leverages a high diversity random bacterial display library to identify proteome-independent epitope binding specificities which are then analyzed in the context of organisms of interest. When evaluating immune response in the context of SARS-CoV-2, we identify dominant epitope regions and motifs which demonstrate potential to classify mild from severe disease and relate to neutralization activity. We highlight SARS-CoV-2 epitopes that are cross-reactive with other coronaviruses and demonstrate decreased epitope signal for mutant SARS-CoV-2 strains. Collectively, the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 mutants towards reduced antibody response highlight the importance of data-driven development of the vaccines and therapies to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Epitope Mapping , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Cross Reactions , Humans
5.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292787

ABSTRACT

Most currently approved strategies for the collection of saliva for COVID-19 diagnostics require specialized tubes containing buffers promoted for the stabilization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and virus inactivation. Yet many of these are expensive, in limited supply, and not necessarily validated specifically for viral RNA. While saliva is a promising sample type as it can be reliably self-collected for the sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2, the expense and availability of these collection tubes are prohibitive to mass testing efforts. Therefore, we investigated the stability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and infectious virus detection from saliva without supplementation. We tested RNA stability over extended periods of time (2-25 days) and at temperatures representing at-home storage and elevated temperatures which might be experienced when cold chain transport may be unavailable. We found SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva from infected individuals is stable at 4°C, room temperature (~19°C), and 30°C for prolonged periods and found limited evidence for viral replication in saliva. This work demonstrates that expensive saliva collection options involving RNA stabilization and virus inactivation buffers are not always needed, permitting the use of cheaper collection options. Affordable testing methods are urgently needed to meet current testing demands and for continued surveillance in reopening strategies.

6.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 110: 106547, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite improvement in the standard of care (SOC) for hospitalized COVID-19 patients, rates of morbidity and mortality remain high. There continues to be a need for easily available and cost-effective treatments. Colchicine and rosuvastatin are both safe and well-studied medications with anti-inflammatory and other pleiotropic effects that may provide additional benefits to hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Colchicine/Statin for the Prevention of COVID-19 Complications (COLSTAT) trial is a pragmatic, open-label, multicenter, randomized trial comparing the combination of colchicine and rosuvastatin in addition to SOC to SOC alone in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Four centers in the Yale New Haven Health network will enroll a total of 466 patients with 1:1 randomization. The trial will utilize the electronic health record (Epic® Systems, Verona, Wisconsin, USA) at all stages including screening, randomization, intervention, event ascertainment, and follow-up. The primary endpoint is the 30-day composite of progression to severe COVID-19 disease as defined by the World Health Organization ordinal scale of clinical improvement and arterial/venous thromboembolic events. The secondary powered endpoint is the 30-day composite of death, respiratory failure requiring intubation, and myocardial injury. CONCLUSIONS: The COLSTAT trial will provide evidence on the efficacy of repurposing colchicine and rosuvastatin for the treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Moreover, it is designed to be a pragmatic trial that will demonstrate the power of using electronic health records to improve efficiency and enrollment in clinical trials in an adapting landscape. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04472611 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04472611).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Med (N Y) ; 2(3): 263-280.e6, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scaling SARS-CoV-2 testing to meet demands of safe reopenings continues to be plagued by assay costs and supply chain shortages. In response, we developed SalivaDirect, which received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). METHODS: We simplified our saliva-based diagnostic test by (1) not requiring collection tubes with preservatives, (2) replacing nucleic acid extraction with a simple enzymatic and heating step, and (3) testing specimens with a dualplex qRT-PCR assay. Moreover, we validated SalivaDirect with reagents and instruments from multiple vendors to minimize supply chain issues. FINDINGS: From our hospital cohort, we show a high positive agreement (94%) between saliva tested with SalivaDirect and nasopharyngeal swabs tested with a commercial qRT-PCR kit. In partnership with the National Basketball Association (NBA) and National Basketball Players Association (NBPA), we tested 3,779 saliva specimens from healthy individuals and detected low rates of invalid (0.3%) and false-positive (<0.05%) results. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that saliva is a valid alternative to swabs for SARS-CoV-2 screening and that SalivaDirect can make large-scale testing more accessible and affordable. Uniquely, we can designate other laboratories to use our sensitive, flexible, and simplified platform under our EUA (https://publichealth.yale.edu/salivadirect/). FUNDING: This study was funded by the NBA and NBPA (N.D.G.), the Huffman Family Donor Advised Fund (N.D.G.), a Fast Grant from Emergent Ventures at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University (N.D.G.), the Yale Institute for Global Health (N.D.G.), and the Beatrice Kleinberg Neuwirth Fund (A.I.K.). C.B.F.V. is supported by NWO Rubicon 019.181EN.004.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009683, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282318

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global crisis of unimagined dimensions. Currently, Remedesivir is only fully licensed FDA therapeutic. A major target of the vaccine effort is the SARS-CoV-2 spike-hACE2 interaction, and assessment of efficacy relies on time consuming neutralization assay. Here, we developed a cell fusion assay based upon spike-hACE2 interaction. The system was tested by transient co-transfection of 293T cells, which demonstrated good correlation with standard spike pseudotyping for inhibition by sera and biologics. Then established stable cell lines were very well behaved and gave even better correlation with pseudotyping results, after a short, overnight co-incubation. Results with the stable cell fusion assay also correlated well with those of a live virus assay. In summary we have established a rapid, reliable, and reproducible cell fusion assay that will serve to complement the other neutralization assays currently in use, is easy to implement in most laboratories, and may serve as the basis for high throughput screens to identify inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 virus-cell binding and entry.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/virology , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/blood , Cell Fusion , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transfection , Virus Attachment
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 646780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256408

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant health threat. Health care worker (HCWs) are at a significant risk of infection which may cause high levels of psychological distress. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of the COVID-19 on HCWs and factors which were associated with these stresses during the first outbreak in Shanghai. Methods: Between February 9 and 21, 2020, a total of 3,114 frontline HCWs from 26 hospitals in Shanghai completed an online survey. The questionnaire included questions on their sociodemographic characteristics, 15 stress-related questions, and General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the 15 stress-related questions which produced four distinct factors for evaluation. Multiple linear regression models were performed to explore the association of personal characteristics with each score of the four factors. Binary logistic analysis was used to explain the association of personal characteristics and these four factors with the GHQ-12. Results: There were 2,691 valid surveys received. The prevalence of emotional distress (defined as GHQ-12 ≥ 12) was noted in 47.7% (95%CI:45.7-49.6%) HCWs. Females (OR = 1.43, 95%CI:1.09-1.86) were more likely to have a psychological distress than males. However, HCWs who work in secondary hospitals (OR = 0.71, 95% CI:0.58-0.87) or had a no contact history (OR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.35-0.58) were less likely to suffer psychological distress. HCWs who were nurses, married, and had a known contact history were highly likely to have anxiety. HCWs working at tertiary hospitals felt an elevated anxiety regarding the infection, a lack of knowledge, and less protected compared to those who worked at secondary hospitals. Conclusions: Our study shows that the frontline HCWs had a significant psychosocial distress during the COVID-19 outbreak in Shanghai. HCWs felt a lack of knowledge and had feelings of being not protected. It is necessary for hospitals and governments to provide additional trainings and psychological counseling to support the first-line HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Immunol ; 206(12): 2785-2790, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248085

ABSTRACT

Protective immunity against COVID-19 likely depends on the production of SARS-CoV-2-specific plasma cells and memory B cells postinfection or postvaccination. Previous work has found that germinal center reactions are disrupted in severe COVID-19. This may adversely affect long-term immunity against reinfection. Consistent with an extrafollicular B cell response, patients with severe COVID-19 have elevated frequencies of clonally expanded, class-switched, unmutated plasmablasts. However, it is unclear whether B cell populations in individuals with mild COVID-19 are similarly skewed. In this study, we use single-cell RNA sequencing of B cells to show that in contrast to patients with severe COVID-19, subjects with mildly symptomatic COVID-19 have B cell repertoires enriched for clonally diverse, somatically hypermutated memory B cells ∼30 d after the onset of symptoms. This provides evidence that B cell responses are less disrupted in mild COVID-19 and result in the production of memory B cells.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(9): 1070-1087, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223640

ABSTRACT

Background: This document provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the diagnostic utility of nucleic acid-based testing of respiratory samples for viral pathogens other than influenza in adults with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).Methods: A multidisciplinary panel developed a Population-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome question, conducted a pragmatic systematic review, and applied Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for clinical recommendations.Results: The panel evaluated the literature to develop recommendations regarding whether routine diagnostics should include nucleic acid-based testing of respiratory samples for viral pathogens other than influenza in suspected CAP. The evidence addressing this topic was generally adjudicated to be of very low quality because of risk of bias and imprecision. Furthermore, there was little direct evidence supporting a role for routine nucleic acid-based testing of respiratory samples in improving critical outcomes such as overall survival or antibiotic use patterns. However, on the basis of direct and indirect evidence, recommendations were made for both outpatient and hospitalized patients with suspected CAP. Testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was not addressed in the literature at the time of the evidence review.Conclusions: The panel formulated and provided their rationale for recommendations on nucleic acid-based diagnostics for viral pathogens other than influenza for patients with suspected CAP.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Pneumonia/virology , Societies, Medical , Viruses/genetics , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 778-785, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major healthcare threat. The current method of detection involves a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based technique, which identifies the viral nucleic acids when present in sufficient quantity. False-negative results can be achieved and failure to quarantine the infected patient would be a major setback in containing the viral transmission. We aim to describe the time kinetics of various antibodies produced against the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and evaluate the potential of antibody testing to diagnose COVID-19. METHODS: The host humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, including IgA, IgM, and IgG response, was examined by using an ELISA-based assay on the recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. 208 plasma samples were collected from 82 confirmed and 58 probable cases (qPCR negative but with typical manifestation). The diagnostic value of IgM was evaluated in this cohort. RESULTS: The median duration of IgM and IgA antibody detection was 5 (IQR, 3-6) days, while IgG was detected 14 (IQR, 10-18) days after symptom onset, with a positive rate of 85.4%, 92.7%, and 77.9%, respectively. In confirmed and probable cases, the positive rates of IgM antibodies were 75.6% and 93.1%, respectively. The detection efficiency by IgM ELISA is higher than that of qPCR after 5.5 days of symptom onset. The positive detection rate is significantly increased (98.6%) when combining IgM ELISA assay with PCR for each patient compared with a single qPCR test (51.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 can aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19, including subclinical cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Immunity ; 54(5): 1083-1095.e7, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179682

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a life-threatening post-infectious complication occurring unpredictably weeks after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. We profiled MIS-C, adult COVID-19, and healthy pediatric and adult individuals using single-cell RNA sequencing, flow cytometry, antigen receptor repertoire analysis, and unbiased serum proteomics, which collectively identified a signature in MIS-C patients that correlated with disease severity. Despite having no evidence of active infection, MIS-C patients had elevated S100A-family alarmins and decreased antigen presentation signatures, indicative of myeloid dysfunction. MIS-C patients showed elevated expression of cytotoxicity genes in NK and CD8+ T cells and expansion of specific IgG-expressing plasmablasts. Clinically severe MIS-C patients displayed skewed memory T cell TCR repertoires and autoimmunity characterized by endothelium-reactive IgG. The alarmin, cytotoxicity, TCR repertoire, and plasmablast signatures we defined have potential for application in the clinic to better diagnose and potentially predict disease severity early in the course of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adolescent , Alarmins/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/genetics , Endothelium/immunology , Endothelium/pathology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Plasma Cells/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
15.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 1207-1216, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease severity in COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe disease and death, especially in older subjects. The risk for severe infection and death has been reported to be 2X in those between 30 and 40 years, 3X in those between 40 and 50 years, and 4X in those between 50 and 65 years, compared to the reference group of 18-29 years. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the early changes in host immune responses that are altered with age and the difference in the early host inflammatory response that dictates a symptomatic versus asymptomatic course of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: COVID-19 subjects were identified by screening at the airport upon arrival from a foreign destination to China. Patients were either asymptomatic or had a mild disease when the first oro-pharyngeal (OP) swab samples were collected. Patients were quarantined and blood and throat swabs were collected during the course of the disease, allowing identification of the earliest host response to COVID-19. These patients were followed until their OP sample turned COVID-19 negative. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 126 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients. The blood samples were obtained within 48 days of qPCR confirmation of viral infection. Older subjects (>30 years) had significantly elevated levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, a significant decrease in the percentage of CD8+ T cells, and expansion in NKT cell fraction. This was associated with significantly elevated viral load and a delayed humoral response in older subjects. Compared to symptomatic subjects, asymptomatic patients had an early increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-2, while a decrease in both T regulatory cells and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Further, asymptomatic disease was associated with early humoral response and faster viral clearance. CONCLUSION: Early inflammatory response potentially plays a critical role for host-defense in COVID-19. The impaired early inflammatory response was associated with older age while a robust early inflammation was associated with asymptomatic disease.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0243291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people worldwide. Our goal was to identify risk factors associated with admission and disease severity in patients with SARS-CoV-2. DESIGN: This was an observational, retrospective study based on real-world data for 7,995 patients with SARS-CoV-2 from a clinical data repository. SETTING: Yale New Haven Health (YNHH) is a five-hospital academic health system serving a diverse patient population with community and teaching facilities in both urban and suburban areas. POPULATIONS: The study included adult patients who had SARS-CoV-2 testing at YNHH between March 1 and April 30, 2020. MAIN OUTCOME AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES: Primary outcomes were admission and in-hospital mortality for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection as determined by RT-PCR testing. We also assessed features associated with the need for respiratory support. RESULTS: Of the 28605 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, 7995 patients (27.9%) had an infection (median age 52.3 years) and 2154 (26.9%) of these had an associated admission (median age 66.2 years). Of admitted patients, 2152 (99.9%) had a discharge disposition at the end of the study period. Of these, 329 (15.3%) required invasive mechanical ventilation and 305 (14.2%) expired. Increased age and male sex were positively associated with admission and in-hospital mortality (median age 80.7 years), while comorbidities had a much weaker association with the risk of admission or mortality. Black race (OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.14-1.78) and Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.50-2.18) were identified as risk factors for admission, but, among discharged patients, age-adjusted in-hospital mortality was not significantly different among racial and ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study identified, among people testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, older age and male sex as the most strongly associated risks for admission and in-hospital mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. While minority racial and ethnic groups had increased burden of disease and risk of admission, age-adjusted in-hospital mortality for discharged patients was not significantly different among racial and ethnic groups. Ongoing studies will be needed to continue to evaluate these risks, particularly in the setting of evolving treatment guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1146-1150, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147295

ABSTRACT

The expense of saliva collection devices designed to stabilize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA is prohibitive to mass testing. However, virus RNA in nonsupplemented saliva is stable for extended periods and at elevated temperatures. Simple plastic tubes for saliva collection will make large-scale testing and continued surveillance easier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Capacity Building/methods , Humans , RNA Stability , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Resource Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/economics , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Specimen Handling/methods
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146720

ABSTRACT

We analyzed feasibility of pooling saliva samples for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 testing and found that sensitivity decreased according to pool size: 5 samples/pool, 7.4% reduction; 10 samples/pool, 11.1%; and 20 samples/pool, 14.8%. When virus prevalence is >2.6%, pools of 5 require fewer tests; when <0.6%, pools of 20 support screening strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Capacity Building/methods , Health Care Rationing , Humans , Limit of Detection , Resource Allocation/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , United States
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL