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Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 70: 103206, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878178


BACKGROUND: From the beginning, the COVID-19 pandemic increased ICU workloads and created exceptionally difficult ethical dilemmas. ICU staff around the world have been subject to high levels of moral stress, potentially leading to mental health problems. There is only limited evidence on moral distress levels and coping styles among Spanish ICU staff, and how they influenced health professionals' mental health during the pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To assess moral distress, related mental health problems (anxiety and depression), and coping styles among ICU staff during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: The study setting consisted of intensive care unit and areas converted into intensive care units in public and private hospitals. A total of 434 permanent and temporary intensive care staff (reassigned due to the pandemic from other departments to units) answered an online questionnaire between March and June 2020. METHODS: Sociodemographic and job variables, moral distress, anxiety, depression, and coping mechanisms were anonymously evaluated through a self-reported questionnaire. Descriptive and correlation analyses were conducted and multivariate linear regression models were developed to explore the predictive ability of moral distress and coping on anxiety and depression. RESULTS: Moral distress during the pandemic is determined by situations related to the patient and family, the intensive care unit, and resource management of the organisations themselves. intensive care unit staff already reached moderate levels of moral distress, anxiety, and depression during the first wave of the pandemic. Temporary staff (redeployed from other units) obtained higher scores in these variables (p = 0.04, p = 0.038, and p = 0.009, respectively) than permanent staff, as well as in greater intention to leave their current position (p = 0.03). This intention was also stronger in health staff working in areas converted into intensive care units (45.2%) than in normal intensive care units (40.2%) (p = 0.02). Moral distress, coupled with primarily avoidance-oriented coping styles, explains 37% (AdR2) of the variance in anxiety and 38% (AdR2) of the variance in depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that the emotional well-being of intensive care unit staff was already at risk during the first wave of the pandemic. The moral distress they experienced was related to anxiety and depression issues, as well as the desire to leave the profession, and should be addressed, not only in permanent staff, but also in temporary staff, redeployed to these units as reinforcement workers.

COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adaptation, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Morals , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512277


Intensive care unit discharge is an important transition that impacts a patient's wellbeing. Nurses can play an essential role in this scenario, potentiating patient empowerment. A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (the PRISMA Statement. Embase), PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CUIDEN Plus, and LILACS databases; these were evaluated in May 2021. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. Quality of the studies included was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Of the 274 articles initially identified, eight randomized controlled trials that reported on nursing interventions had mainly focused on patients' ICU discharge preparation through information and education. The creation of ICU nurse-led teams and nurses' involvement in critical care multidisciplinary teams also aimed to support patients during ICU discharge. This systematic review provides an update on the clinical practice aimed at improving the patient experience during ICU discharge. The main nursing interventions were based on information and education, as well as the development of new nursing roles. Understanding transitional needs and patient empowerment are key to making the transition easier.

Intensive Care Units , Patient Participation , Critical Care , Humans , Patient Discharge