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1.
Pathogens ; 11(9):1001, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2010226

ABSTRACT

Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines may trigger immune-mediated adverse events, including myocarditis. Evidence of vaccine safety in patients with rheumatic disorders and underlying autoimmune myocarditis is scarce. To address this issue, we studied 13 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and allied conditions with a history of myocarditis and receiving mRNA-based vaccines. Data about general and cardiac laboratory tests, treatment, and disease status were collected during routine consultations before and after the primary vaccination course and after each vaccine dose administration, while myocarditis symptoms were closely monitored. A significant increase in troponin levels from baseline was found after 13 (6–20) days from the first (p = 0.046) and 17 (4–29) days after the second dose (p = 0.013). Troponin levels progressively decreased within 3 (1–6) months in the absence of typical symptoms or signs of myocarditis. A significant increase in the constitutional domain of the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index (p = 0.046) was observed in SLE patients. However, no patient needed any treatment change. mRNA-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines can apparently be safely administered to patients with SLE and lupus-like disorders with previous myocarditis despite potential subclinical and transient rises in cardiac damage markers.

6.
Vaccine ; 39(44): 6464-6469, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440395

ABSTRACT

Among 6146 hospital employees, 118 subjects with severe allergic background were identified through a screening questionnaire and stratified into 3 groups (Low-risk (LR), Intermediate (IR) and High-risk (HR) group), based on their allergic anamnesis. Data reports on hypersensitivity reactions (HypR) have been collected in both allergic and non-allergic subjects. Seventeen patients (14%) in the allergic population had a HypR after the first, the second or both doses. Skin manifestations were the most frequent ones. Allergic events were more frequent in HR (35%) than IR (10%; p = 0.005) or LR (0%; p = 0.074) subjects. No patient had anaphylaxis. All patients completed the vaccination schedule. 13 HypR occurred in patients without severe allergic background (13/6028, 0,2%) including one (1/6148, 0.016% of total population) WAO grade-4 anaphylaxis. Our data suggest that BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine is relatively safe also in patients with severe allergic background; however, some precautions are required for high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Algorithms , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/adverse effects
8.
Clin Immunol ; 231: 108845, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377685

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to the care of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the long-term. By crossing population data with the results of a web-based survey focused on the timeframes January-April and May-December 2020, we found that among 334/518 responders, 28 had COVID-19 in 2020. Seventeen cases occurred in May-December, in parallel with trends in the general population and loosening of containment policy strength. Age > 40 years (p = 0.026), prednisone escalation (p = 0.008) and infected relatives (p < 0.001) were most significantly associated with COVID-19. Weaker associations were found with asthma, lymphadenopathy and azathioprine or cyclosporine treatment. Only 31% of patients with infected relatives developed COVID-19. Healthcare service disruptions were not associated with rising hospitalisations. Vaccination prospects were generally welcomed. Our data suggest that COVID-19 has a moderate impact on patients with SLE, which might be significantly modulated by public health policies, including vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aging , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Data Collection , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Incidence , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Refusal , Young Adult
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 675678, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restraining maladaptive inflammation is considered a rationale strategy to treat severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) but available studies with selective inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cytokines have not provided unequivocal evidence of survival advantage. Late administration is commonly regarded as a major cause of treatment failure but the optimal timing for anti-cytokine therapy initiation in COVID-19 patients has never been clearly established. OBJECTIVES: To identify a window of therapeutic opportunity for maximizing the efficacy of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockade in COVID-19. METHODS: Survival at the longest available follow-up was assessed in severe hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra, tocilizumab, sarilumab, or standard of care, stratified according to respiratory impairment at the time of treatment initiation. RESULTS: 107 patients treated with biologics and 103 contemporary patients treated with standard of care were studied. After a median of 106 days of follow-up (range 3-186), treatment with biologics was associated with a significantly higher survival rate compared to standard therapy when initiated in patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ≥ 100 mmHg (p < 0.001). Anakinra reduced mortality also in patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: IL-1 and IL-6 blocking therapies are more likely to provide survival advantage in hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients when initiated before the establishment of severe respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Interleukin-1/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
12.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(4): e253-e261, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe COVID-19 develop a life-threatening hyperinflammatory response to the virus. Interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 inhibitors have been used to treat this patient population, but the comparative effectiveness of these different strategies remains undetermined. We aimed to compare IL-1 and IL-6 inhibition in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, and hyperinflammation. METHODS: This cohort study included patients admitted to San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, defined as a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and hyperinflammation, defined as serum C-reactive protein concentration of 100 mg/L or more or ferritin concentration of 900 ng/mL or more. The primary endpoint was survival, and the secondary endpoint was a composite of death or mechanical ventilation (adverse clinical outcome). Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to compare clinical outcomes of patients receiving IL-1 inhibition (anakinra) or IL-6 inhibition (tocilizumab or sarilumab) with those of patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors, after accounting for baseline differences. All patients received standard care. Interaction tests were used to assess the probability of survival according to C-reactive protein or lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. FINDINGS: Of 392 patients included between Feb 25 and May 20, 2020, 275 did not receive interleukin inhibitors, 62 received the IL-1 inhibitor anakinra, and 55 received an IL-6 inhibitor (29 received tocilizumab and 26 received sarilumab). In the multivariable analysis, compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors, patients treated with IL-1 inhibition had a significantly reduced mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0·450, 95% CI 0·204-0·990, p=0·047), but those treated with IL-6 inhibition did not (0·900, 0·412-1·966; p=0·79). In the multivariable analysis, there was no difference in adverse clinical outcome risk in patients treated with IL-1 inhibition (HR 0·866, 95% CI 0·482-1·553; p=0·63) or IL-6 inhibition (0·882, 0·452-1·722; p=0·71) relative to patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. For increasing C-reactive protein concentrations, patients treated with IL-6 inhibition had a significantly reduced risk of mortality (HR 0·990, 95% CI 0·981-0·999; p=0·031) and adverse clinical outcome (0·987, 0·979-0·995; p=0·0021) compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. For decreasing concentrations of serum lactate dehydrogenase, patients treated with an IL-1 inhibitor and patients treated with IL-6 inhibitors had a reduced risk of mortality; increasing concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase in patients receiving either interleukin inhibitor were associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR 1·009, 95% CI 1·003-1·014, p=0·0011 for IL-1 inhibitors and 1·006, 1·001-1·011, p=0·028 for IL-6 inhibitors) and adverse clinical outcome (1·006, 1·002-1·010, p=0·0031 for IL-1 inhibitors and 1·005, 1·001-1·010, p=0·016 for IL-6 inhibitors) compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: IL-1 inhibition, but not IL-6 inhibition, was associated with a significant reduction of mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, and hyperinflammation. IL-6 inhibition was effective in a subgroup of patients with markedly high C-reactive protein concentrations, whereas both IL-1 and IL-6 inhibition were effective in patients with low lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. FUNDING: None.

13.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is effective for symptom relief and respiratory support in patients with respiratory insufficiency, severe comorbidities and no indication to intubation. Experience with NIV as the ceiling of treatment in severely compromised novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients is lacking. METHODS: We evaluated 159 patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), 38 of whom with NIV as the ceiling of treatment, admitted to an ordinary ward and treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and respiratory physiotherapy. Treatment failure and death were correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters in the whole cohort and in patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment. RESULTS: Patients who had NIV as the ceiling of treatment were elderly, with a low BMI and a high burden of comorbidities, showed clinical and laboratory signs of multi-organ insufficiency on admission and of rapidly deteriorating vital signs during the first week of treatment. NIV failure occurred overall in 77 (48%) patients, and 27/38 patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment died. Congestive heart failure, chronic benign haematological diseases and inability/refusal to receive respiratory physiotherapy were independently associated to NIV failure and mortality. Need for increased positive end-expiratory pressures and low platelets were associated with NIV failure. Death was associated to cerebrovascular disease, need for CPAP cycles longer than 12h and, in the subgroup of patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment, was heralded by vital sign deterioration within 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: NIV and physiotherapy are a viable treatment option for patients with severe COVID-19 and severe comorbidities.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 598308, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028187

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a condition caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Severe cases of COVID-19 result in acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. A detrimental, hyper-inflammatory immune response with excess release of cytokines is the main driver of disease development and of tissue damage in these patients. Thus, repurposing of biologic agents and other pharmacological inhibitors of cytokines used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions emerged as a logical therapeutic strategy to quench inflammation and improve the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients. Evaluated agents include the interleukin one receptor blocker anakinra, monoclonal antibodies inhibiting IL-6 tocilizumab and sarilumab, monoclonal antibodies inhibiting granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor and tumor necrosis factor, and Janus kinase inhibitors. In this review, we discuss the efficacy and safety of these therapeutic options based on direct personal experience and on published evidence from observational studies and randomized clinical trials.

15.
Microvasc Res ; 133: 104071, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-850352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence points to endothelial dysfunction as a key pathophysiological factor in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). No specific methods have been identified to predict, detect and quantify the microvascular alterations during COVID-19. Our aim was to assess microvasculature through nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed NVC in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Elementary alterations were reported for each finger according to a semi-quantitative score. Capillary density, number of enlarged and giant capillaries, number of micro-hemorrhages and micro-thrombosis (NEMO score) were registered. RESULTS: We enrolled 82 patients (mean age 58.8 ± 13.2 years, male 68.3%) of whom 28 during the hospitalization and 54 after recovery and hospital discharge. At NVC examination we found abnormalities classifiable as non-specific pattern in 53 patients (64.6%). Common abnormalities were pericapillary edema (80.5%), enlarged capillaries (61.0%), sludge flow (53.7%), meandering capillaries and reduced capillary density (50.0%). No pictures suggestive of scleroderma pattern have been observed. Acute COVID-19 patients, compared to recovered patients, showed a higher prevalence of hemosiderin deposits as a result of micro-hemorrhages (P = .027) and micro-thrombosis (P < .016), sludge flow (P = .001), and pericapillary edema (P < .001), while recovered patients showed a higher prevalence of enlarged capillaries (P < .001), loss of capillaries (P = .002), meandering capillaries (P < .001), and empty dermal papillae (P = .006). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients present microvascular abnormalities at NVC. Currently ill and recovered subjects are characterized by a different distribution of elementary capillaroscopic alterations, resembling acute and post-acute microvascular damage. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical relevance of NVC in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Capillaries/pathology , Microscopic Angioscopy , Nails/blood supply , Vascular Diseases/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Vascular Diseases/etiology
16.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(5): 1150-1157, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-765611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic disease characterised by autoimmunity and increased susceptibility to infections. COVID-19 is a systemic viral disease currently spreading as a pandemic. Little is known about the impact of COVID-19 in patients with SLE. OBJECTIVE: to acquire information on the impact of COVID-19 in SLE. METHODS: A 26-item anonymous questionnaire investigating demographics, SLE clinical features, COVID-19 diagnoses and changes in treatments and daily habits was administered to patients with SLE from three referral centres through www.surveymonkey.com over 10 days. Data from the survey were compared to those from published estimates about the general population. RESULTS: Four-hundred-seventeen patients responded to the survey. More than 60% of subjects complained of symptoms that are also associated to COVID-19. Fourteen COVID-19 diagnoses (five confirmed by polymerase chain reaction) were reported, in contrast to a 0.73% prevalence of confirmed cases in Lombardy. One hospitalisation was reported. Fever, anosmia, dry cough, a self-reported history of neuropsychiatric SLE and a recent contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases were more strongly associated with COVID-19, as were symptoms and lower compliance to behavioural preventive measures in patients' contacts. No protective effect was seen in subjects on hydroxychloroquine. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 morbidity might only moderately be increased in most patients with SLE, although limited information can be inferred on more severe cases. Hydroxychloroquine apparently seems not to confer protection to infection per se, although other beneficial roles cannot be excluded. Containment policies and behavioural preventive measures could have a major role in limiting the impact of COVID-19 in patients with SLE.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Isolation/psychology , Symptom Assessment , Adult , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
17.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(11): e662-e663, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748133
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