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Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management ; 29(1):27-31, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884742

ABSTRACT

Background: Patient outcomes of COVID-19 have improved throughout the pandemic. However, because it is not known whether outcomes of COVID-19 in the type 1 diabetes (T1D) population improved over time, we investigated differences in COVID-19 outcomes for patients with T1D in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data collected via a registry of patients with T1D and COVID-19 from 56 sites between April 2020 and January 2021. We grouped cases into first surge (April 9, 2020, to July 31, 2020, n = 188) and late surge (August 1, 2020, to January 31, 2021, n = 410), and then compared outcomes between both groups using descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. Results: Adverse outcomes were more frequent during the first surge, including diabetic ketoacidosis (32% vs 15%, P< .001), severe hypoglycemia (4% vs 1%, P= .04), and hospitalization (52% vs 22%, P< .001). Patients in the first surge were older (28 [SD,18.8] years vs 18.0 [SD, 11.1] years, P< .001), had higher median hemoglobin A1c levels (9.3 [interquartile range {IQR}, 4.0] vs 8.4 (IQR, 2.8), P< .001), and were more likely to use public insurance (107 [57%] vs 154 [38%], P< .001). The odds of hospitalization for adults in the first surge were 5 times higher compared to the late surge (odds ratio, 5.01;95% CI, 2.11-12.63). Conclusion: Patients with T1D who presented with COVID-19 during the first surge had a higher proportion of adverse outcomes than those who presented in a later surge.

2.
Pediatric Diabetes ; 22(SUPPL 30):33, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1571042

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An increase in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been posited during the COVID-19 pandemic, but data have been conflicting. Objectives: We aimed to determine trends in newly diagnosed T1D and severity of presentation at diagnosis for pediatric and adolescent patients during COVID-19 year (2020) as compared to the previous year (2019) in a multi-center data analysis across the United States. Methods: This retrospective multi-center study included data from seven large U.S. clinical centers recruited from the T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative (T1DX-QI). Data on diagnosis, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and clinical characteristics were collected from January 1 to December 31, 2020, compared to the prior year. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in patient characteristics during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic comparison group. Results: Across seven member sites, there were 1399 newly diagnosed patients with T1D in 2020, compared to 1277 in 2019 (p=0.007). Of the newly diagnosed patients, a greater number, presented in DKA in 2020 compared to 2019 (599/1399 (42.8%) v. 493/1277 (38.6%), p<0.001), and a higher proportion of these patients presented with severe DKA (p=0.01) as characterized by a pH<7.1 or bicarbonate of <5mmol/L. The mean age at diagnosis was not different, but there were fewer females (p=0.004), and fewer NH White youth diagnosed in 2020 (p<0.001). Newly diagnosed T1D patients in 2020 were less likely to have private insurance (p=0.001). Monthly data trends demonstrated a higher number of new diagnoses of T1D over the spring and summer months (April to September) of 2020 compared to 2019 (p=0.007). Conclusions: We found an increase in newly diagnosed T1D and a greater proportion of newly diagnosed T1D patients presenting in DKA at diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the prior year. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings with population level data and determine the long-term impact of COVID-19 on diabetes trends.

3.
Pediatric Diabetes ; 22(SUPPL 30):36, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1571014

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching consequences for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and has laid bare inequities in health care. Objectives: We sought to examine the United States (US) trends in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) across the lifespan during the COVID-19 pandemic and factors associated with these trends, compared to DKA rates the year prior to the pandemic. Methods: The T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative (T1DX-QI) collected aggregate data on the incidence of DKA among children and adults with established and new-onset T1D from 7 large medical centers in the US (total T1D population >15,000). We compared DKA rates during COVID-19 Wave 1 (March-May 2020) and COVID-19 Wave 2 (August-October 2020) to the same periods in 2019. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in patient characteristics. Results: DKA rates were higher in patients with established T1D during COVID-19 Wave 1 compared to the same period in 2019 (6.15% vs 4.71%, p=<0.001). DKA rates were also higher in patients with established T1D during COVID-19 Wave 2 compared to 2019 (5.55% vs 4.90%, p=0.02). There were no differences in rates of DKA by age or DKA severity. DKA rates were lower among individuals on insulin pumps during both COVID-19 waves compared to 2019 (Wave 1: 6.43% vs 10.25%, p=0.008;Wave 2: 8.14% vs 11.21%, p=0.03). Consistent with known T1D inequities, DKA rates were exacerbated for NH Black patients in 2020, with 18% of NH Blacks with T1D experiencing DKA compared to 6% of NH Whites. Conclusions: DKA rates rose among patients with T1D during US COVID-19 Waves 1 and 2, with the highest rates among NH Blacks. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved strategies to decrease the risk of DKA in individuals with T1D under pandemic conditions, especially among populations most affected by health inequities.

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