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AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(5): 150, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910399


The present review discusses the current status and difficulties of the analytical methods used to evaluate size and surface modifications of nanoparticle-based pharmaceutical products (NPs) such as liposomal drugs and new SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We identified the challenges in the development of methods for (1) measurement of a wide range of solid-state NPs, (2) evaluation of the sizes of polydisperse NPs, and (3) measurement of non-spherical NPs. Although a few methods have been established to analyze surface modifications of NPs, the feasibility of their application to NPs is unknown. The present review also examined the trends in standardization required to validate the size and surface measurements of NPs. It was determined that there is a lack of available reference materials and it is difficult to select appropriate ones for modified NP surface characterization. Research and development are in progress on innovative surface-modified NP-based cancer and gene therapies targeting cells, tissues, and organs. Next-generation nanomedicine should compile studies on the practice and standardization of the measurement methods for NPs to design surface modifications and ensure the quality of NPs.

COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , COVID-19 Vaccines , Drug Compounding , Humans , Particle Size , SARS-CoV-2
J Pharmacol Sci ; 149(3): 81-84, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796436


Ciclesonide (Cic) is approved as an inhalant for asthma and was clinically tested as a candidate therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Its active metabolite Cic2 was recently reported to suppress genomic RNA replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In this study, we designed and synthesized a set of ciclesonide-acetal (Cic-acetal) derivatives. Among designated compounds, some Cic-acetal derivatives with a linear alkyl chain exhibited strong viral copy-number reduction activities compared with Cic2. These compounds might serve as lead compounds for developing novel anti-COVID-19 agents.

Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Acetals/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pregnenediones , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/genetics
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 43: 128052, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196690


Ciclesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid used to treat asthma and is currently undergoing clinical trials for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An active metabolite of ciclesonide, Cic2, was recently reported to repress severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic RNA replication. Herein, we designed and synthesized a few types of ciclesonide analogues. Cic4 (bearing an azide group) and Cic6 (bearing a chloro group) potently decreased SARS-CoV-2 viral replication and had low cytotoxicity compared with Cic2 (bearing a hydroxy group). These compounds are promising as novel therapeutic agents for COVID-19 that show significant antiviral activity.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Pregnenediones/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics