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1.
QJM ; 2020 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients on dialysis were susceptible to COVID-19 and were prone to severe clinical characteristics after infection; acute kidney injury was related to mortality in COVID-19 cases. Limited is known about the characteristics of COVID-19 patients with end-stage renal disease not requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). AIM: Evaluate clinical characteristics, course and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who did not require RRT and those on dialysis. DESIGN: A two-center retrospective study. METHODS: 836 adult patients with COVID-19 (24 CKD not on dialysis; 15 dialysis-dependent CKD) were included. The study includes no patients with renal transplantation. Risk factors were explored. RESULTS: CKD not requiring RRT is an independent risk factor for in-hospital death [adjusted OR (aOR) 7.35 (95%CI 2.41-22.44)] and poor prognosis [aOR 3.01 (95%CI 1.23-7.33)]. Compared to COVID-19 cases without CKD, those with CKD not requiring RRT showed similar percentage of initial moderate cases (75.00% vs. 73.65%) but higher incidence of in-hospital neutrophilia (50.00% vs. 27.30%) or death (50.00% vs. 9.03%). The odds ratio of dialysis associated to mortality in CKD patients was 2.00 (95%CI 0.52-7.63), suggesting COVID-19 patients with dialysis-dependent CKD were at greater risk of in-hospital death. For COVID-19 patients with CKD not requiring RRT, statins reduced the risk of neutrophilia [OR 0.10 (95%CI 0.01-0.69)] while diuretics increased the risk of neutrophilia [OR 15.4 (95%CI 1.47-160.97)], although both showed no association to mortality. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with CKD presented high incidence of neutrophilia, poor prognosis and in-hospital death, with dialysis patients being more vulnerable.

2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1546-1553, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627739

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to estimate the attack rates, and identify the risk factors of COVID-19 infection. Based on a retrospective cohort study, we investigated 11,580 contacts of COVID-19 cases in Guangdong Province from 10 January to 15 March 2020. All contacts were tested by RT-PCR to detect their infection of SARS-COV-2. Attack rates by characteristics were calculated. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors of infection for COVID-19. A total of 515 of 11,580 contacts were identified to be infected with SARS-COV-2. Compared to young adults aged 20-29 years, the infected risk was higher in children (RR: 2.59, 95%CI: 1.79-3.76), and old people aged 60-69 years (RR: 5.29, 95%CI: 3.76-7.46). Females also had higher infected risk (RR: 1.66, 95%CI: 1.39-2.00). People having close relationship with index cases encountered higher infected risk (RR for spouse: 20.68, 95%CI: 14.28-29.95; RR for non-spouse family members: 9.55, 95%CI: 6.73-13.55; RR for close relatives: 5.90, 95%CI: 4.06-8.59). Moreover, contacts exposed to index case in symptomatic period (RR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.67-2.79), with critically severe symptoms (RR: 1.61, 95%CI: 1.00-2.57), with symptoms of dizzy (RR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.08-2.30), myalgia (RR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.15-1.94), and chill (RR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) had higher infected risks. Children, old people, females, and family members are susceptible of COVID-19 infection, while index cases in the incubation period had lower contagiousness. Our findings will be helpful for developing targeted prevention and control strategies to combat the worldwide pandemic.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cohort Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
3.
Biomark Med ; 14(10): 827-837, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-506060

ABSTRACT

Aim: We aimed to explore the biomarkers for disease progression or the risk of nonsurvivors. Materials & methods: This study included 134 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. The outcome of moderate versus severe versus critically ill patients and survivors versus nonsurvivors were compared. Results: An increase in the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia was positively associated with lower levels of platelets and albumin (all p < 0.05). In the critical group, the plasma levels of albumin continued to have a significant association for the risk of nonsurvivors (p < 0.05), even after adjusting for confounding factors. Conclusion: Albumin levels could be used as an independent predictor of the risk of nonsurvivors in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 43(7): 1399-1407, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-272617

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is one of the most distinct comorbidities of COVID-19. Here, we describe the clinical characteristics of and outcomes in patients with diabetes in whom COVID-19 was confirmed or clinically diagnosed (with typical features on lung imaging and symptoms) and their association with glucose-lowering or blood pressure-lowering medications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this retrospective study involving 904 patients with COVID-19 (136 with diabetes, mostly type 2 diabetes), clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected and compared between the group with diabetes and the group without diabetes, and between groups taking different medications. Logistic regression was used to explore risk factors associated with mortality or poor prognosis. RESULTS: The proportion of comorbid diabetes is similar between cases of confirmed and of clinically diagnosed COVID-19. Risk factors for higher mortality of patients with diabetes and COVID-19 were older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.09 [95% CI 1.04, 1.15] per year increase; P = 0.001) and elevated C-reactive protein (aOR 1.12 [95% CI 1.00, 1.24]; P = 0.043). Insulin usage (aOR 3.58 [95% CI 1.37, 9.35]; P = 0.009) was associated with poor prognosis. Clinical outcomes of those who use an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II type-I receptor blocker (ARB) were comparable with those of patients who do not use ACEI/ARB among COVID-19 patients with diabetes and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: C-reactive protein may help to identify patients with diabetes who are at greater risk of dying during hospitalization. Older patients with diabetes were prone to death related to COVID-19. Attention needs to be paid to patients with diabetes and COVID-19 who use insulin. ACEI/ARB use showed no significant impact on patients with diabetes and hypertension who have COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Female , Glucose/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
6.
Epilepsia ; 61(6): 1166-1173, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-143876

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the severity of psychological distress between patients with epilepsy and healthy controls during the COVID-19 outbreak in southwest China, as well as identify potential risk factors of severe psychological distress among patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This cross-sectional case-control study examined a consecutive sample of patients older than 15 years treated at the epilepsy center of West China Hospital between February 1 and February 29, 2020. As controls, sex- and age-matched healthy visitors of inpatients (unrelated to the patients) were also enrolled during the same period. Data on demographics and attention paid to COVID-19 were collected by online questionnaire, data on epilepsy features were collected from electronic medical records, and psychological distress was evaluated using the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-6). Potential risk factors of severe psychological distress were identified using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The 252 patients and 252 controls in this study were similar along all demographic variables except family income. Patients with epilepsy showed significantly higher K-6 scores than healthy controls and spent significantly more time following the COVID-19 outbreak (both P < .001). Univariate analyses associated both diagnosis of drug-resistant epilepsy and time spent paying attention to COVID-19 with severe psychological distress (defined as K-6 score >12; both P ≤ .001). Multivariate logistic regression identified two independent predictors of severe psychological distress: time spent paying attention to COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.172, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.073-1.280) and diagnosis of drug-resistant epilepsy (OR = 0.283, 95% CI = 0.128-0.623). SIGNIFICANCE: During public health outbreaks, clinicians and caregivers should focus not only on seizure control but also on mental health of patients with epilepsy, especially those with drug-resistant epilepsy. K-6 scores > 12 indicate severe psychological distress. This may mean, for example, encouraging patients to engage in other activities instead of excessively following media coverage of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Attention , Betacoronavirus , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(7): 825-830, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108870

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data are lacking whether patients with hypertension who are taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have increased severity or risk of mortality during hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To investigate the association between ACEIs/ARBs and severity of illness and mortality in patients with hypertension hospitalized for COVID-19 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective, single-center case series of the 1178 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infections at the Central Hospital of Wuhan, China, from January 15 to March 15, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and drug therapy data were analyzed in all patients. The percentage of patients with hypertension taking ACEIs/ARBs was compared between those with severe vs nonsevere illness and between survivors vs nonsurvivors. Results: Of the 1178 patients with COVID-19, the median age was 55.5 years (interquartile range, 38-67 years) and 545 (46.3%) were men. The overall in-hospital mortality was 11.0%. There were 362 patients with hypertension (30.7% of the total group; median age, 66.0 years [interquartile range, 59-73 years]; 189 [52.2%] were men), of whom 115 (31.8%) were taking ACEI/ARBs. The in-hospital mortality in the patients with hypertension was 21.3%. The percentage of patients with hypertension taking ACEIs/ARBs did not differ between those with severe and nonsevere infections (32.9% vs 30.7%; P = .65) nor did it differ between nonsurvivors and survivors (27.3% vs 33.0%; P = .34). Similar findings were observed when data were analyzed for patients taking ACEIs and those taking ARBs. Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides clinical data on the association between ACEIs/ARBs and outcomes in patients with hypertension hospitalized with COVID-19 infections, suggesting that ACEIs/ARBs are not associated with the severity or mortality of COVID-19 in such patients. These data support current guidelines and societal recommendations for treating hypertension during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-99622

ABSTRACT

The present study included 658 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. Forty-two (6.4%) out of 658 patients presented with ketosis on admission with no obvious fever or diarrhoea. They had a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 47.0 (38.0-70.3) years, and 16 (38.1%) were men. Patients with ketosis were younger (median age 47.0 vs. 58.0 years; P = 0.003) and had a greater prevalence of fatigue (31.0% vs. 10.6%; P < 0.001), diabetes (35.7% vs. 18.5%; P = 0.007) and digestive disorders (31.0% vs. 12.0%; P < 0.001). They had a longer median (IQR) length of hospital stay (19.0 [12.8-33.3] vs. 16.0 [10.0-24.0] days; P < 0.001) and a higher mortality rate (21.4% vs. 8.9%; P = 0.017). Three (20.0%) out of the 15 patients with diabetic ketosis developed acidosis, five patients (26.7%) with diabetic ketosis died, and one of these (25.0%) presented with acidosis. Two (7.4%) and four (14.3%) of the 27 non-diabetic ketotic patients developed severe acidosis and died, respectively, and one (25.0%) of these presented with acidosis. This suggests that COVID-19 infection caused ketosis or ketoacidosis, and induced diabetic ketoacidosis for those with diabetes. Ketosis increased the length of hospital stay and mortality. Meanwhile, diabetes increased the length of hospital stay for patients with ketosis but had no effect on their mortality.

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