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1.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 19: 100429, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926750

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to explore the effectiveness of one-dose BNT162b2 vaccination upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, its effect on COVID-19 presentation, and post-vaccination symptoms in children and adolescents (CA) in the UK during periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance. Methods: In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, we analysed data from 115,775 CA aged 12-17 years, proxy-reported through the Covid Symptom Study (CSS) smartphone application. We calculated post-vaccination infection risk after one dose of BNT162b2, and described the illness profile of CA with post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to unvaccinated CA, and post-vaccination side-effects. Findings: Between August 5, 2021 and February 14, 2022, 25,971 UK CA aged 12-17 years received one dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. The probability of testing positive for infection diverged soon after vaccination, and was lower in CA with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccination reduced proxy-reported infection risk (-80·4% (95% CI -0·82 -0·78) and -53·7% (95% CI -0·62 -0·43) at 14-30 days with Delta and Omicron variants respectively, and -61·5% (95% CI -0·74 -0·44) and -63·7% (95% CI -0·68 -0.59) after 61-90 days). Vaccinated CA who contracted SARS-CoV-2 during the Delta period had milder disease than unvaccinated CA; during the Omicron period this was only evident in children aged 12-15 years. Overall disease profile was similar in both vaccinated and unvaccinated CA. Post-vaccination local side-effects were common, systemic side-effects were uncommon, and both resolved within few days (3 days in most cases). Interpretation: One dose of BNT162b2 vaccine reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for at least 90 days in CA aged 12-17 years. Vaccine protection varied for SARS-CoV-2 variant type (lower for Omicron than Delta variant), and was enhanced by pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection. Severity of COVID-19 presentation after vaccination was generally milder, although unvaccinated CA also had generally mild disease. Overall, vaccination was well-tolerated. Funding: UK Government Department of Health and Social Care, Chronic Disease Research Foundation, The Wellcome Trust, UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK Research and Innovation London Medical Imaging & Artificial Intelligence Centre for Value Based Healthcare, UK National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation and Alzheimer's Society, and ZOE Limited.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10904, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908282

ABSTRACT

The Delta (B.1.617.2) variant was the predominant UK circulating SARS-CoV-2 strain between May and December 2021. How Delta infection compares with previous variants is unknown. This prospective observational cohort study assessed symptomatic adults participating in the app-based COVID Symptom Study who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from May 26 to July 1, 2021 (Delta overwhelmingly the predominant circulating UK variant), compared (1:1, age- and sex-matched) with individuals presenting from December 28, 2020 to May 6, 2021 (Alpha (B.1.1.7) the predominant variant). We assessed illness (symptoms, duration, presentation to hospital) during Alpha- and Delta-predominant timeframes; and transmission, reinfection, and vaccine effectiveness during the Delta-predominant period. 3581 individuals (aged 18 to 100 years) from each timeframe were assessed. The seven most frequent symptoms were common to both variants. Within the first 28 days of illness, some symptoms were more common with Delta versus Alpha infection (including fever, sore throat, and headache) and some vice versa (dyspnoea). Symptom burden in the first week was higher with Delta versus Alpha infection; however, the odds of any given symptom lasting ≥ 7 days was either lower or unchanged. Illness duration ≥ 28 days was lower with Delta versus Alpha infection, though unchanged in unvaccinated individuals. Hospitalisation for COVID-19 was unchanged. The Delta variant appeared more (1.49) transmissible than Alpha. Re-infections were low in all UK regions. Vaccination markedly reduced the risk of Delta infection (by 69-84%). We conclude that COVID-19 from Delta or Alpha infections is similar. The Delta variant is more transmissible than Alpha; however, current vaccines showed good efficacy against disease. This research framework can be useful for future comparisons with new emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis D , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884136

ABSTRACT

We aimed to review the data available to evaluate the long-term consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 6 months and above. We searched relevant observational cohort studies up to 9 February 2022 in Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science. Random-effects inverse-variance models were used to evaluate the Pooled Prevalence (PP) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of long-term consequences. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale was used to assess the quality of the included cohort studies. A total of 40 studies involving 10,945 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were included. Of the patients, 63.87% had at least one consequence at the 6 month follow-up, which decreased to 58.89% at 12 months. The most common symptoms were fatigue or muscle weakness (PP 6-12 m = 54.21%, PP ≥ 12 m = 34.22%) and mild dyspnea (Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, mMRC = 0, PP 6-12 m = 74.60%, PP ≥ 12 m = 80.64%). Abnormal computerized tomography (CT; PP 6-12 m = 55.68%, PP ≥ 12 m = 43.76%) and lung diffuse function impairment, i.e., a carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) of < 80% were common (PP 6-12 m = 49.10%, PP ≥ 12 m = 31.80%). Anxiety and depression (PP 6-12 m = 33.49%, PP ≥ 12 m = 35.40%) and pain or discomfort (PP 6-12 m = 33.26%, PP ≥ 12 m = 35.31%) were the most common problems that affected patients' quality of life. Our findings suggest a significant long-term impact on health and quality of life due to COVID-19, and as waves of ASRS-CoV-2 infections emerge, the long-term effects of COVID-19 will not only increase the difficulty of care for COVID-19 survivors and the setting of public health policy but also might lead to another public health crisis following the current pandemic, which would also increase the global long-term burden of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1550-1553, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860765

ABSTRACT

In order to overcome the pandemic of COVID-19, messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccine has been extensively researched as a rapid and versatile strategy. Herein, we described the immunogenicity of mRNA-based vaccines for Beta and the most recent Omicron variants. The homologous mRNA-Beta and mRNA-Omicron and heterologous Ad5-nCoV plus mRNA vaccine exhibited high-level cross-reactive neutralization for Beta, original, Delta, and Omicron variants. It indicated that the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have great potential in the clinical use against different SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
5.
Children (Basel) ; 9(5)2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Delta (B.1.617.2) SARS-CoV-2 variant was the predominant UK circulating strain between May and November 2021. We investigated whether COVID-19 from Delta infection differed from infection with previous variants in children. METHODS: Through the prospective COVID Symptom Study, 109,626 UK school-aged children were proxy-reported between 28 December 2020 and 8 July 2021. We selected all symptomatic children who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were proxy-reported at least weekly, within two timeframes: 28 December 2020 to 6 May 2021 (Alpha (B.1.1.7), the main UK circulating variant) and 26 May to 8 July 2021 (Delta, the main UK circulating variant), with all children unvaccinated (as per national policy at the time). We assessed illness profiles (symptom prevalence, duration, and burden), hospital presentation, and presence of long (≥28 day) illness, and calculated odds ratios for symptoms presenting within the first 28 days of illness. RESULTS: 694 (276 younger (5-11 years), 418 older (12-17 years)) symptomatic children tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with Alpha infection and 706 (227 younger and 479 older) children with Delta infection. Median illness duration was short with either variant (overall cohort: 5 days (IQR 2-9.75) with Alpha, 5 days (IQR 2-9) with Delta). The seven most prevalent symptoms were common to both variants. Symptom burden over the first 28 days was slightly greater with Delta compared with Alpha infection (in younger children, 3 (IQR 2-5) symptoms with Alpha, 4 (IQR 2-7) with Delta; in older children, 5 (IQR 3-8) symptoms with Alpha, 6 (IQR 3-9) with Delta infection ). The odds of presenting several symptoms were higher with Delta than Alpha infection, including headache and fever. Few children presented to hospital, and long illness duration was uncommon, with either variant. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 in UK school-aged children due to SARS-CoV-2 Delta strain B.1.617.2 resembles illness due to the Alpha variant B.1.1.7., with short duration and similar symptom burden.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330263

ABSTRACT

Background We aimed to explore the effectiveness of one-dose BNT162b2 vaccination upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, its effect on COVID-19 presentation, and post-vaccination symptoms in children and young people (CYP) in the UK during periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance. Methods In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, we analysed data from 115,775 CYP aged 12-17 years, proxy-reported through the Covid Symptom Study (CSS) smartphone application. We calculated post-vaccination infection risk after one dose of BNT162b2, and described the illness profile of CYP with post-vaccination SARS- CoV-2 infection, compared to unvaccinated CYP, and post-vaccination side-effects. Findings Between August 5, 2021 and February 14, 2022, 25,971 UK CYP aged 12-17 years received one dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. Vaccination reduced (proxy-reported) infection risk (-80·4% and -53·7% at 14–30 days with Delta and Omicron variants respectively, and -61·5% and -63·7% after 61–90 days). The probability of remaining infection-free diverged soon after vaccination, and was greater in CYP with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccinated CYP who contracted SARS-CoV-2 during the Delta period had milder disease than unvaccinated CYP;during the Omicron period this was only evident in children aged 12-15 years. Overall disease profile was similar in both vaccinated and unvaccinated CYP. Post-vaccination local side-effects were common, systemic side-effects were uncommon, and both resolved quickly. Interpretation One dose of BNT162b2 vaccine reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for at least 90 days in CYP aged 12-17 years. Vaccine protection varied for SARS-CoV-2 variant type (lower for Omicron than Delta variant), and was enhanced by pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection. Severity of COVID-19 presentation after vaccination was generally milder, although unvaccinated CYP also had generally mild disease. Overall, vaccination was well-tolerated. Funding UK Government Department of Health and Social Care, Chronic Disease Research Foundation, The Wellcome Trust, UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK Research and Innovation London Medical Imaging & Artificial Intelligence Centre for Value Based Healthcare, UK National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation and Alzheimer’s Society, and ZOE Limited. Research in context Evidence before this study: We searched PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles and medRxiv for preprint papers, published between January 1, 2021 and February 15, 2022 using keywords (“SARS-CoV-2” OR “COVID-19”) AND (child* OR p?ediatric* OR teenager*) AND (“vaccin*” OR “immunization campaign”) AND (“efficacy” OR “effectiveness” OR “symptoms”) AND (“delta” or “omicron” OR “B.1.617.2” OR “B.1.1.529”). The PubMed search retrieved 36 studies, of which fewer than 30% specifically investigated individuals <18 years. Eleven studies explored SARS-CoV-2 viral transmission: seroprevalence in children (n=4), including age-dependency of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection (n=1), SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools (n=5), and the effect of school closure on viral transmission (n=1). Eighteen documents reported clinical aspects, including manifestation of infection (n=13), symptomatology, disease duration, and severity in children. Other studies estimated emergency department visits, hospitalization, need for intensive care, and/or deaths in children (n=4), and explored prognostic factors (n=1). Thirteen studies explored vaccination-related aspects, including vaccination of children within specific paediatric co-morbidity groups (e.g., children with Down syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer survivors, n=4), mRNA vaccine efficacy in children and adolescents from the general population (n=7), and the relation between vaccination and severity of disease and hospitalization cases (n=2). Four clinical trials were conducted using mRNA vaccines in minors, also xploring side effects. Sixty percent of children were found to have side effects after BNT162b2 vaccination, and especially after the second dose;however, most symptoms were mild and transient apart from rare uncomplicated skin ulcers. Two studies focused on severe adverse effects and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in children, reporting on myocarditis episodes and two cases of Guillain-Barrè syndrome. All other studies were beyond the scope of our research. Added value of this study: We assessed multiple components of the UK vaccination campaign in a cohort of children and young people (CYP) aged 12-17 years drawn from a large UK community-based citizen-science study, who received a first dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. We describe a variant-dependent protective effect of the first dose against both Delta and Omicron, with additional protective effect of pre-vaccination SARS- CoV-2 infection on post-vaccination re-infection. We compare the illness profile in CYP infected post-vaccination with that of unvaccinated CYP, demonstrating overall milder disease with fewer symptoms for vaccinated CYP. We describe local and systemic side-effects during the first week following first-dose vaccination, confirming that local symptoms are common, systemic symptoms uncommon, and both usually transient. Implications of all the available evidence: Our data confirm that first dose BNT162b2 vaccination in CYP reduces risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2 variants, with generally local and brief side-effects. If infected after vaccination, COVID-19 is milder, if manifest at all. The study aims to contribute quantitative evidence to the risk-benefit evaluation of vaccination in CYP to inform discussion regarding rationale for their vaccination and the designing of national immunisation campaigns for this age group;and applies citizen-science approaches in the conduct of epidemiological surveillance and data collection in the UK community. Importantly, this study was conducted during Delta and Omicron predominance in UK;specificity of vaccine efficacy to variants is also illustrated;and results may not be generalizable to future SARS-CoV-2 strains.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329912

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 with high infectivity and high concealment has been widely spread around the world. This major public health event has caused anxiety among the public, including pregnant women. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of anxiety symptoms in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic and its influencing factors. Methods: Using an ongoing prospective pregnancy registry, we performed a single center cross-sectional analysis to investigate the overall prevalence of anxiety symptoms among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Online questionnaires were used to collect information including sociodemographic data, physical activity and economic situations. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to assess anxiety symptoms. The univariate regression analysis was performed to detect factors potentially influencing anxiety symptoms among pregnant women. The multivariate regression analysis was also conducted to analyze the association of physical exercise and economic burden with anxiety symptoms by adjusting for other variables. Results: A total of 1,517 pregnant women entered the analysis. The study reported that 31.64% of the respondents had anxiety symptoms. Those with bank loans were at higher odds of suffering from anxiety symptoms compared to those without bank loans [(adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.494, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.181~1.889]. Those who took 2,000~5,000 steps/day (aOR 0.825, 95% CI 0.603~0.875) and >5,000 steps/day (aOR 0.924, 95% CI 0.439~0.945) were at lower odds of suffering from anxiety symptoms compared to those who took <500 steps/day. Similarly, the adjusted odds ratios for anxiety symptoms was 0.750 (95% CI 0.663~0.790) and 0.800 (95% CI 0.226~0.889) lower in participants with exercise frequencies of 4-6, and ≥7 times/week, compared to those with a frequency of <2 times/week. Conclusions: Three in ten pregnant women experienced anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, and anxiety symptoms showed association with bank loans and physical exercise. To prevent anxiety of pregnant women, the promotion of healthy lifestyles, improvement of mental health services, and expansion of social support should be implemented during epidemics. In parallel, the integration of psycho-educational interventions with mental health services among public health centers is required to minimize anxiety symptoms in pregnancy women.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309349

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 with high infectivity and high concealment has been widely spread around the world. This major public health event has caused anxiety among the public, including pregnant women. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of anxiety symptoms in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic and its influencing factors. Methods: : Using an ongoing prospective pregnancy registry, we performed a single center cross-sectional analysis to investigate the overall prevalence of anxiety symptoms among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Online questionnaires were used to collect information including sociodemographic data, physical activity and economic situations. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to assess anxiety symptoms. The univariate regression analysis was performed to detect factors potentially influencing anxiety symptoms among pregnant women. The multivariate regression analysis was also conducted to analyze the association of physical exercise and economic burden with anxiety symptoms by adjusting for other variables. Results: : A total of 1,517 pregnant women entered the analysis. The study reported that 31.64% of the respondents had anxiety symptoms. Those with bank loans were at higher odds of suffering from anxiety symptoms compared to those without bank loans [(adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.494, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.181~1.889]. Those who took 2,000~5,000 steps/day (aOR 0.825, 95% CI 0.603~0.875) and >5,000 steps/day (aOR 0.924, 95% CI 0.439~0.945) were at lower odds of suffering from anxiety symptoms compared to those who took <500 steps/day. Similarly, the adjusted odds ratios for anxiety symptoms was 0.750 (95% CI 0.663~0.790) and 0.800 (95% CI 0.226~0.889) lower in participants with exercise frequencies of 4-6, and ≥7 times/week, compared to those with a frequency of <2 times/week. Conclusions: : Three in ten pregnant women experienced anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, and anxiety symptoms showed association with bank loans and physical exercise. To prevent anxiety of pregnant women, the promotion of healthy lifestyles, improvement of mental health services, and expansion of social support should be implemented during epidemics. In parallel, the integration of psycho-educational interventions with mental health services among public health centers is required to minimize anxiety symptoms in pregnancy women.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674867

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines for pregnant women in real-world studies. We searched for observational studies about the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines among vaccinated pregnant women from inception to 6 November 2021. A total of 6 studies were included. We found that vaccination prevented pregnant women from SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.35-0.79) and COVID-19-related hospitalization (OR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.31-0.82). Messenger-RNA vaccines could reduce the risk of infection in pregnant women (OR = 0.13, 95% CI, 0.03-0.57). No adverse events of COVID-19 vaccination were found on pregnant, fetal, or neonatal outcomes. Our analysis confirmed the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines for pregnant women. Policy makers should formulate targeted strategies to improve vaccine coverage in pregnant women.

10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 42: 101212, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying and testing individuals likely to have SARS-CoV-2 is critical for infection control, including post-vaccination. Vaccination is a major public health strategy to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection globally. Some individuals experience systemic symptoms post-vaccination, which overlap with COVID-19 symptoms. This study compared early post-vaccination symptoms in individuals who subsequently tested positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2, using data from the COVID Symptom Study (CSS) app. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in 1,072,313 UK CSS participants who were asymptomatic when vaccinated with Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) or Oxford-AstraZeneca adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) between 8 December 2020 and 17 May 2021, who subsequently reported symptoms within seven days (N=362,770) (other than local symptoms at injection site) and were tested for SARS-CoV-2 (N=14,842), aiming to differentiate vaccination side-effects per se from superimposed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The post-vaccination symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 test results were contemporaneously logged by participants. Demographic and clinical information (including comorbidities) were recorded. Symptom profiles in individuals testing positive were compared with a 1:1 matched population testing negative, including using machine learning and multiple models considering UK testing criteria. FINDINGS: Differentiating post-vaccination side-effects alone from early COVID-19 was challenging, with a sensitivity in identification of individuals testing positive of 0.6 at best. Most of these individuals did not have fever, persistent cough, or anosmia/dysosmia, requisite symptoms for accessing UK testing; and many only had systemic symptoms commonly seen post-vaccination in individuals negative for SARS-CoV-2 (headache, myalgia, and fatigue). INTERPRETATION: Post-vaccination symptoms per se cannot be differentiated from COVID-19 with clinical robustness, either using symptom profiles or machine-derived models. Individuals presenting with systemic symptoms post-vaccination should be tested for SARS-CoV-2 or quarantining, to prevent community spread. FUNDING: UK Government Department of Health and Social Care, Wellcome Trust, UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council and British Heart Foundation, Chronic Disease Research Foundation, Zoe Limited.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292996

ABSTRACT

Background: The Delta (B.1.617.2) variant became the predominant UK circulating SARS-CoV-2 strain in May 2021. How Delta infection compares with previous variants is unknown. Methods This prospective observational cohort study assessed symptomatic adults participating in the app-based COVID Symptom Study who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from May 26 to July 1, 2021 (Delta overwhelmingly predominant circulating UK variant), compared (1:1, age- and sex-matched) with individuals presenting from December 28, 2020 to May 6, 2021 (Alpha (B.1.1.7) predominant variant). We assessed illness (symptoms, duration, presentation to hospital) during Alpha- and Delta-predominant timeframes;and transmission, reinfection, and vaccine effectiveness during the Delta-predominant period. Findings 3,581 individuals (aged 18 to 100 years) from each timeframe were assessed. The seven most frequent symptoms were common to both variants. Within the first 28 days of illness, some symptoms were more common with Delta vs. Alpha infection (including fever, sore throat and headache) and vice versa (dyspnoea). Symptom burden in the first week was higher with Delta vs. Alpha infection;however, the odds of any given symptom lasting ≥7 days was either lower or unchanged. Illness duration ≥28 days was lower with Delta vs. Alpha infection, though unchanged in unvaccinated individuals. Hospitalisation for COVID-19 was unchanged. The Delta variant appeared more (1.47) transmissible than Alpha. Re-infections were low in all UK regions. Vaccination markedly (69-84%) reduced risk of Delta infection. Interpretation COVID-19 from Delta or Alpha infections is clinically similar. The Delta variant is more transmissible than Alpha;however, current vaccines show good efficacy against disease. Funding UK Government Department of Health and Social Care, Wellcome Trust, UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK Research and Innovation London Medical Imaging & Artificial Intelligence Centre for Value Based Healthcare, UK National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Alzheimer's Society, and ZOE Limited.

12.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 297, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528020

ABSTRACT

The Covid Symptom Study, a smartphone-based surveillance study on COVID-19 symptoms in the population, is an exemplar of big data citizen science. As of May 23rd, 2021, over 5 million participants have collectively logged over 360 million self-assessment reports since its introduction in March 2020. The success of the Covid Symptom Study creates significant technical challenges around effective data curation. The primary issue is scale. The size of the dataset means that it can no longer be readily processed using standard Python-based data analytics software such as Pandas on commodity hardware. Alternative technologies exist but carry a higher technical complexity and are less accessible to many researchers. We present ExeTera, a Python-based open source software package designed to provide Pandas-like data analytics on datasets that approach terabyte scales. We present its design and capabilities, and show how it is a critical component of a data curation pipeline that enables reproducible research across an international research group for the Covid Symptom Study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Citizen Science , Data Curation , Big Data , Data Science , Datasets as Topic , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Mobile Applications , Smartphone , Software
13.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(10): 708-718, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, SARS-CoV-2 infection is usually asymptomatic or causes a mild illness of short duration. Persistent illness has been reported; however, its prevalence and characteristics are unclear. We aimed to determine illness duration and characteristics in symptomatic UK school-aged children tested for SARS-CoV-2 using data from the COVID Symptom Study, one of the largest UK citizen participatory epidemiological studies to date. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, data from UK school-aged children (age 5-17 years) were reported by an adult proxy. Participants were voluntary, and used a mobile application (app) launched jointly by Zoe Limited and King's College London. Illness duration and symptom prevalence, duration, and burden were analysed for children testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 for whom illness duration could be determined, and were assessed overall and for younger (age 5-11 years) and older (age 12-17 years) groups. Children with longer than 1 week between symptomatic reports on the app were excluded from analysis. Data from symptomatic children testing negative for SARS-CoV-2, matched 1:1 for age, gender, and week of testing, were also assessed. FINDINGS: 258 790 children aged 5-17 years were reported by an adult proxy between March 24, 2020, and Feb 22, 2021, of whom 75 529 had valid test results for SARS-CoV-2. 1734 children (588 younger and 1146 older children) had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result and calculable illness duration within the study timeframe (illness onset between Sept 1, 2020, and Jan 24, 2021). The most common symptoms were headache (1079 [62·2%] of 1734 children), and fatigue (954 [55·0%] of 1734 children). Median illness duration was 6 days (IQR 3-11) versus 3 days (2-7) in children testing negative, and was positively associated with age (Spearman's rank-order rs 0·19, p<0·0001). Median illness duration was longer for older children (7 days, IQR 3-12) than younger children (5 days, 2-9). 77 (4·4%) of 1734 children had illness duration of at least 28 days, more commonly in older than younger children (59 [5·1%] of 1146 older children vs 18 [3·1%] of 588 younger children; p=0·046). The commonest symptoms experienced by these children during the first 4 weeks of illness were fatigue (65 [84·4%] of 77), headache (60 [77·9%] of 77), and anosmia (60 [77·9%] of 77); however, after day 28 the symptom burden was low (median 2 symptoms, IQR 1-4) compared with the first week of illness (median 6 symptoms, 4-8). Only 25 (1·8%) of 1379 children experienced symptoms for at least 56 days. Few children (15 children, 0·9%) in the negatively tested cohort had symptoms for at least 28 days; however, these children experienced greater symptom burden throughout their illness (9 symptoms, IQR 7·7-11·0 vs 8, 6-9) and after day 28 (5 symptoms, IQR 1·5-6·5 vs 2, 1-4) than did children who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. INTERPRETATION: Although COVID-19 in children is usually of short duration with low symptom burden, some children with COVID-19 experience prolonged illness duration. Reassuringly, symptom burden in these children did not increase with time, and most recovered by day 56. Some children who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 also had persistent and burdensome illness. A holistic approach for all children with persistent illness during the pandemic is appropriate. FUNDING: Zoe Limited, UK Government Department of Health and Social Care, Wellcome Trust, UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK Research and Innovation London Medical Imaging and Artificial Intelligence Centre for Value Based Healthcare, UK National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, and Alzheimer's Society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Citizen Science , Cohort Studies , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United Kingdom
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(1): 43-55, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccines show excellent efficacy in clinical trials and effectiveness in real-world data, but some people still become infected with SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination. This study aimed to identify risk factors for post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection and describe the characteristics of post-vaccination illness. METHODS: This prospective, community-based, nested, case-control study used self-reported data (eg, on demographics, geographical location, health risk factors, and COVID-19 test results, symptoms, and vaccinations) from UK-based, adult (≥18 years) users of the COVID Symptom Study mobile phone app. For the risk factor analysis, cases had received a first or second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine between Dec 8, 2020, and July 4, 2021; had either a positive COVID-19 test at least 14 days after their first vaccination (but before their second; cases 1) or a positive test at least 7 days after their second vaccination (cases 2); and had no positive test before vaccination. Two control groups were selected (who also had not tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 before vaccination): users reporting a negative test at least 14 days after their first vaccination but before their second (controls 1) and users reporting a negative test at least 7 days after their second vaccination (controls 2). Controls 1 and controls 2 were matched (1:1) with cases 1 and cases 2, respectively, by the date of the post-vaccination test, health-care worker status, and sex. In the disease profile analysis, we sub-selected participants from cases 1 and cases 2 who had used the app for at least 14 consecutive days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (cases 3 and cases 4, respectively). Controls 3 and controls 4 were unvaccinated participants reporting a positive SARS-CoV-2 test who had used the app for at least 14 consecutive days after the test, and were matched (1:1) with cases 3 and 4, respectively, by the date of the positive test, health-care worker status, sex, body-mass index (BMI), and age. We used univariate logistic regression models (adjusted for age, BMI, and sex) to analyse the associations between risk factors and post-vaccination infection, and the associations of individual symptoms, overall disease duration, and disease severity with vaccination status. FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, 2020, and July 4, 2021, 1 240 009 COVID Symptom Study app users reported a first vaccine dose, of whom 6030 (0·5%) subsequently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (cases 1), and 971 504 reported a second dose, of whom 2370 (0·2%) subsequently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (cases 2). In the risk factor analysis, frailty was associated with post-vaccination infection in older adults (≥60 years) after their first vaccine dose (odds ratio [OR] 1·93, 95% CI 1·50-2·48; p<0·0001), and individuals living in highly deprived areas had increased odds of post-vaccination infection following their first vaccine dose (OR 1·11, 95% CI 1·01-1·23; p=0·039). Individuals without obesity (BMI <30 kg/m2) had lower odds of infection following their first vaccine dose (OR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·94; p=0·0030). For the disease profile analysis, 3825 users from cases 1 were included in cases 3 and 906 users from cases 2 were included in cases 4. Vaccination (compared with no vaccination) was associated with reduced odds of hospitalisation or having more than five symptoms in the first week of illness following the first or second dose, and long-duration (≥28 days) symptoms following the second dose. Almost all symptoms were reported less frequently in infected vaccinated individuals than in infected unvaccinated individuals, and vaccinated participants were more likely to be completely asymptomatic, especially if they were 60 years or older. INTERPRETATION: To minimise SARS-CoV-2 infection, at-risk populations must be targeted in efforts to boost vaccine effectiveness and infection control measures. Our findings might support caution around relaxing physical distancing and other personal protective measures in the post-vaccination era, particularly around frail older adults and individuals living in more deprived areas, even if these individuals are vaccinated, and might have implications for strategies such as booster vaccinations. FUNDING: ZOE, the UK Government Department of Health and Social Care, the Wellcome Trust, the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK Research and Innovation London Medical Imaging and Artificial Intelligence Centre for Value Based Healthcare, the UK National Institute for Health Research, the UK Medical Research Council, the British Heart Foundation, and the Alzheimer's Society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Self Report , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 5337-5347, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470719

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Clinically, it is challenging to manage diabetic patients with periodontitis. Biochemically, both involve a wide range of inflammatory/collagenolytic conditions which exacerbate each other in a "bi-directional manner." However, standard treatments for this type of periodontitis rely on reducing the bacterial burden and less on controlling hyper-inflammation/excessive-collagenolysis. Thus, there is a crucial need for new therapeutic strategies to modulate this excessive host response and to promote enhanced resolution of inflammation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the impact of a novel chemically-modified curcumin 2.24 (CMC2.24) on host inflammatory response in diabetic rats. METHODS: Type I diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection; periodontal breakdown then results as a complication of uncontrolled hyperglycemia. Non-diabetic rats served as controls. CMC2.24, or the vehicle-alone, was administered by oral gavage daily for 3 weeks to the diabetics. Micro-CT was used to analyze morphometric changes and quantify bone loss. MMPs were analyzed by gelatin zymography. Cell function was examined by cell migration assay, and cytokines and resolvins were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: In this severe inflammatory disease model, administration of the pleiotropic CMC2.24 was found to normalize the excessive accumulation and impaired chemotactic activity of macrophages in peritoneal exudates, significantly decrease MMP-9 and pro-inflammatory cytokines to near normal levels, and markedly increase resolvin D1 (RvD1) levels in the thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal exudates (tPE). Similar effects on MMPs and RvD1 were observed in the non-elicited resident peritoneal washes (rPW). Regarding clinical relevance, CMC2.24 significantly inhibited the loss of alveolar bone height, volume and mineral density (ie, diabetes-induced periodontitis and osteoporosis). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, treating hyperglycemic diabetic rats with CMC2.24 (a tri-ketonic phenylaminocarbonyl curcumin) promotes the resolution of local and systemic inflammation, reduces bone loss, in addition to suppressing collagenolytic MMPs and pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy for treating periodontitis complicated by other chronic diseases.

16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 227: 113910, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458683

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 epidemic has greatly accelerated the application of mRNA technology to our real world, and during this battle mRNA has proven it's unique advantages compared to traditional biopharmaceutical and vaccine technology. In order to overcome mRNA instability in human physiological environments, mRNA chemical modifications and nano delivery systems are two key factors for their in vivo applications. In this review, we would like to summarize the challenges for clinical translation of mRNA-based therapeutics, with an emphasis on recent advances in innovative materials and delivery strategies. The nano delivery systems include lipid delivery systems (lipid nanoparticles and liposomes), polymer complexes, micelles, cationic peptides and so on. The similarities and differences of lipid nanoparticles and liposomes are also discussed. In addition, this review also present the applications of mRNA to other areas than COVID-19 vaccine, such as infectious diseases, tumors, and cardiovascular disease, for which a variety of candidate vaccines or drugs have entered clinical trials. Furthermore, mRNA was found that it might be used to treat some genetic disease, overcome the immaturity of the immune system due to the small fetal size in utero, treat some neurological diseases that are difficult to be treated surgically, even be used in advancing the translation of iPSC technology et al. In short, mRNA has a wide range of applications, and its era has just begun.


Subject(s)
/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Humans , Liposomes/chemistry , Micelles , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(12): 1254-1258, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health issues have been reported after SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, comparison to prevalence in uninfected individuals and contribution from common risk factors (eg, obesity and comorbidities) have not been examined. We identified how COVID-19 relates to mental health in the large community-based COVID Symptom Study. METHODS: We assessed anxiety and depression symptoms using two validated questionnaires in 413148 individuals between February and April 2021; 26998 had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We adjusted for physical and mental prepandemic comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), age and sex. FINDINGS: Overall, 26.4% of participants met screening criteria for general anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression were slightly more prevalent in previously SARS-CoV-2-positive (30.4%) vs SARS-CoV-2-negative (26.1%) individuals. This association was small compared with the effect of an unhealthy BMI and the presence of other comorbidities, and not evident in younger participants (≤40 years). Findings were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses. Association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and anxiety and depression was stronger in individuals with recent (<30 days) versus more distant (>120 days) infection, suggesting a short-term effect. INTERPRETATION: A small association was identified between SARS-CoV-2 infection and anxiety and depression symptoms. The proportion meeting criteria for self-reported anxiety and depression disorders is only slightly higher than prepandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mobile Applications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Young Adult
18.
OTO Open ; 4(3): 2473974X20948835, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729457

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Nonphysician health care workers are involved in high-risk patient care during the COVID-19 pandemic, placing them at high risk of mental health burden. The mental health impact of COVID-19 in this crucial population has not been studied thus far. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the psychosocial well-being of these providers. STUDY DESIGN: National cross-sectional online survey (no control group). SETTING: Academic otolaryngology programs in the United States. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We distributed a survey to nonphysician health care workers in otolaryngology departments across the United States. The survey incorporated a variety of validated mental health assessment tools to measure participant burnout (Mini-Z assessment), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), distress (Impact of Event Scale), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-2). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictive factors associated with these mental health outcomes. RESULTS: We received 347 survey responses: 248 (71.5%) nurses, 63 (18.2%) administrative staff, and 36 (10.4%) advanced practice providers. A total of 104 (30.0%) respondents reported symptoms of burnout; 241 (69.5%), symptoms of anxiety; 292 (84.1%), symptoms of at least mild distress; and 79 (22.8%), symptoms of depression. Upon further analysis, development of these symptoms was associated with factors such as occupation, practice setting, and case load. CONCLUSION: Frontline otolaryngology health care providers exhibit high rates of mental health complications, particularly anxiety and distress, in the wake of COVID-19. Adequate support systems must be put into place to address these issues.

20.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(5): 923-931, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been unprecedented use of telemedicine for otolaryngology ambulatory visits. Patient satisfaction with telemedicine is an important metric, but survey-based questionnaires do not capture the nuances of the patient experience. This study aims to understand head and neck patients' perceptions about telemedicine clinic visits during COVID-19. METHODS: Fifty-six established patients who had video-based telemedicine visits with an otolaryngology-head and neck surgery faculty member between March 25, 2020, and April 24, 2020, completed unstructured telephone interviews. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted to determine the patients' demographic, disease, and treatment information. RESULTS: The primary benefits of telemedicine were accessibility and cost and time savings. Primary limitations included the ability to perform a physical examination. Most patients expressed a willingness to participate in future remote visits if appropriate or necessitated by social circumstances. DISCUSSION: Telemedicine is a disruptive process, and long-term adoption requires understanding patient perception of and satisfaction with telemedicine. Head and neck cancer patients were generally satisfied with telemedicine. The study elucidated patient perceived benefits and limitations of telemedicine. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Continued implementation of telemedicine in otolaryngology-head and neck ambulatory clinics will require consideration of contextual features surrounding the virtual delivery of care, with particular attention to visit appropriateness for telemedicine and social circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Otolaryngology/methods , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Telemedicine , Adult , Ambulatory Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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