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1.
J Infect Dis ; 221(11): 1762-1769, 2020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan and has since rapidly spread throughout China. We aimed to clarify the characteristics and clinical significance of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in COVID-19. METHODS: The levels of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry in 60 hospitalized COVID-19 patients before and after treatment, and their association with clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy was analyzed. RESULTS: Total lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells decreased in COVID-19 patients, and severe cases had a lower level than mild cases. The subsets showed a significant association with inflammatory status in COVID-19, especially CD8+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio. After treatment, 37 patients (67%) showed clinical response, with an increase in CD8+ T cells and B cells. No significant change in any subset was detected in nonresponsive cases. In multivariate analysis, posttreatment decrease in CD8+ T cells and B cells and increase in CD4+/CD8+ ratio were indicated as independent predictors of poor efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration was associated with clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy of COVID-19. CD8+ T cells tended to be an independent predictor for COVID-19 severity and treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Lymphocyte Subsets , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
2.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 2020 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the indicators for severity in young COVID-19 patients age between 18 to 40. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study includes 65 consecutively admitted COVID-19 patients age between 18 to 40 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University. Among them, 53 were moderate cases, 12 were severe or critical cases. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics and treatment data were collected. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was implemented to explore risk factors. RESULTS: The severe/critical cases have obviously higher BMI (average 29.23 vs. 22.79kg/m2 ) and lower liver CT value (average 50.00 vs. 65.00mU) than moderate cases group. The severe/critical cases have higher fasting glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , and creatinine (Cr) compared with moderate cases (All P<0.01) . More severe/critical cases (58.33% vs. 1.92%) have positive urine protein. The severe/critical cases will experience a significant process of serum albumin decline. Logistic regression analysis showed that male, high body mass index (especially obesity), elevated fasting blood glucose and urinary protein positive are all risk factors for severe young COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Obesity is an important predictor of severity in young COVID-19 patients. The main mechanism is related to the damage of liver and kidney.

3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1259-1268, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342833

ABSTRACT

Quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) is widely used as the gold standard for clinical detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, due to the low viral load specimens and the limitations of RT-PCR, significant numbers of false negative reports are inevitable, which results in failure to timely diagnose, cut off transmission, and assess discharge criteria. To improve this situation, an optimized droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used for detection of SARS-CoV-2, which showed that the limit of detection of ddPCR is significantly lower than that of RT-PCR. We further explored the feasibility of ddPCR to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA from 77 patients, and compared with RT-PCR in terms of the diagnostic accuracy based on the results of follow-up survey. 26 patients of COVID-19 with negative RT-PCR reports were reported as positive by ddPCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and accuracy were improved from 40% (95% CI: 27-55%), 100% (95% CI: 54-100%), 100%, 16% (95% CI: 13-19%), 0.6 (95% CI: 0.48-0.75) and 47% (95% CI: 33-60%) for RT-PCR to 94% (95% CI: 83-99%), 100% (95% CI: 48-100%), 100%, 63% (95% CI: 36-83%), 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.18), and 95% (95% CI: 84-99%) for ddPCR, respectively. Moreover, 6/14 (42.9%) convalescents were detected as positive by ddPCR at 5-12 days post discharge. Overall, ddPCR shows superiority for clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to reduce the false negative reports, which could be a powerful complement to the RT-PCR.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Load/methods
4.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(7): e29-e36, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276626

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Describir las estrategias, manejo de emergencias y los procedimientos de control de infecciones de nuestro departamento durante el brote de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). MéTODOS: Creamos un equipo de manejo de emergencias. El equipo estableció varias medidas: Reconfiguración del flujo de trabajo en el departamento de radiología, distribución de material de protección personal y adiestramiento del personal, procedimientos para la obtención de imágenes en pacientes sospechosos o confirmados con COVID-19, así como para pacientes sin historial de exposición o síntomas. Aquellos con sospecha o confirmación de COVID-19 fueron escaneados en una unidad dedicada para ello. RESULTADOS: Del 21 de enero del 2020 hasta el 9 de marzo del 2020, 3,083 personas con sospecha o confirmación de COVID-19 recibieron CT de torax. Incluyendo los exámenes iniciales y repetidos, el número total de CT fue 3,340. Como resultado de nuestras medidas de precaución, ninguno de los miembros del personal del departamento de radiología fue infectado con COVID-19. CONCLUSIóN: Las estrategias de planificación y las protecciones adecuadas pueden ayudar a proteger a los pacientes y al personal contra una enfermedad altamente infecciosa. Y a la misma vez ayudar a mantener la capacidad de atender un volumen alto de pacientes.

5.
Infect. Preven. Prac. ; 3(2)20200901.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-276710

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in China, attracted a large number of medical staff to help in the city's hospitals and this put them at a high risk of infection. We describe twenty medical staff who were diagnosed with COVID-19 within one week in the department of surgery in a Wuhan hospital. Epidemiological investigation of these cases identified misdiagnosed patients (source of infection), an inappropriate clinical meeting and working without wearing face masks to be the causes of the outbreaks. This report emphasizes the importance of wearing a facemask and applying other standard infection control precautions to protect medical personnel from infection with the virus.

6.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 2020 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan city and spread rapidly throughout China and the world. In this study, we aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of older patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective investigation of hospitalized older patients with confirmed COVID-19 at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1, 2020, to February 10, 2020. RESULTS: In total, 203 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, with a median age of 54 years (interquartile range, 41-68; range, 20-91 years). Men accounted for 108 (53.2%) of the cases, and 55 patients (27.1%) were >65 years of age. Among patients who were 65 years and older, the mortality rate was 34.5% (19/55), which was significantly higher than that of younger patients at 4.7% (7/148). Common symptoms of older patients with COVID-19 included fever (94.5%; n=52), dry cough (69.1%; n=38), and chest distress (63.6%; n=35). Compared with young patients, older patients had more laboratory abnormalities and comorbidities. Through a multivariate analysis of the causes of death in older patients, we found that males, comorbidities, time from disease onset to hospitalization, abnormal kidney function, and elevated procalcitonin levels were all significantly associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: In the recent outbreak of COVID-19, our local hospital in Wuhan found that patients aged 65 and older had greater initial comorbidities, more severe symptoms, and were more likely to experience multi-organ involvement and death, as compared with younger patients.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-infected pneumonia (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of patients with refractory COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, we included 155 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1st to February 5th. The cases were divided into general and refractory COVID-19 groups according to the clinical efficacy after hospitalization, and the difference between groups were compared. RESULTS: Compared with general COVID-19 patients (45.2%), refractory patients had an older age, male sex, more underlying comorbidities, lower incidence of fever, higher levels of maximum temperature among fever cases, higher incidence of breath shortness and anorexia, severer disease assessment on admission, high levels of neutrophil, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein, lower levels of platelets and albumin, and higher incidence of bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion (P<0.05). Refractory COVID-19 patients were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, and adjunctive treatment including corticosteroid, antiviral drugs and immune enhancer (P<0.05). After adjustment, those with refractory COVID-19 were also more likely to have a male sex and manifestations of anorexia and fever on admission, and receive oxygen, expectorant and adjunctive agents (P<0.05) when considering the factors of disease severity on admission, mechanical ventilation, and ICU transfer. CONCLUSION: Nearly 50% COVID-19 patients could not reach obvious clinical and radiological remission within 10 days after hospitalization. The patients with male sex, anorexia and no fever on admission predicted poor efficacy.

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