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2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 676560, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337649

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 emerged and rapidly spread throughout the world. Testing strategies focussing on patients with COVID-19 require assays that are high-throughput, low-risk of infection, and with small sample volumes. Antigen surveillance can be used to identify exposure to pathogens and measure acute infections. Methods: A total of 914 serum samples, collected from 309 currently infected COVID-19 patients, 48 recovered ones, and 410 non-COVID-19 patients, were used to measure N protein antigen levels by a chemilumineseent immunoassay. Diagnostic performances were analyzed in different periods after onset. Results: There was a high level of N protein antigen in COVID-19 patients (0.56 COI), comparing to the recovered patients (0.12 COI) and controls (0.19 COI). In receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve of serum N protein antigen was 0.911 in the first week after onset. In this period, Sensitivity and specificity of serologic N protein antigen testing was 76.27 and 98.78%. Diagnosis performance of specific antibodies became better from the third week after onset. Subgroup analysis suggested that severe patients had higher levels of antigens than mild patients. Conclusions: High level of serum antigen suggested early infection and serious illness. Serum N protein antigen testing by chemiluminescence immunoassay is considered as a viable assay used to improve diagnostic sensitivity for current patients.

3.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 833-840, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-164692

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in Wuhan, China, and has spread globally. However, the transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 has not been fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate SARS-CoV-2 shedding in the excreta of COVID-19 patients. Electronical medical records, including demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings of enrolled patients were extracted and analyzed. Pharyngeal swab, stool, and urine specimens were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Viral shedding at multiple time points in specimens was recorded, and its correlation analyzed with clinical manifestations and the severity of illness. A total of 42 laboratory-confirmed patients were enrolled, 8 (19.05%) of whom had gastrointestinal symptoms. A total of 28 (66.67%) patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool specimens, and this was not associated with the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the severity of illness. Among them, 18 (64.29%) patients remained positive for viral RNA in the feces after the pharyngeal swabs turned negative. The duration of viral shedding from the feces after negative conversion in pharyngeal swabs was 7 (6-10) days, regardless of COVID-19 severity. The demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiologic findings did not differ between patients who tested positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the feces. Viral RNA was not detectable in urine specimens from 10 patients. Our results demonstrated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the feces of COVID-19 patients and suggested the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via the fecal-oral route.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Clin Transl Med ; 10(1): 161-168, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2-infected pneumonia (COVID-19) resembles that of other etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to identify clinical laboratory features to distinguish COVID-19 from CAP. METHODS: We compared the hematological and biochemical features of 84 patients with COVID-19 at hospital admission and 221 patients with CAP. Parameters independently predictive of COVID-19 were calculated by multivariate logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was measured to evaluate the discriminative ability. RESULTS: Most hematological and biochemical indexes of patients with COVID-19 were significantly different from patients with CAP. Nine laboratory parameters were identified to be predictive of a diagnosis of COVID-19. The AUCs demonstrated good discriminatory ability for red cell distribution width (RDW) with an AUC of 0.87 and hemoglobin with an AUC of 0.81. Red blood cell, albumin, eosinophil, hematocrit, alkaline phosphatase, and mean platelet volume had fair discriminatory ability. Combinations of any two parameters performed better than did the RDW alone. CONCLUSIONS: Routine laboratory examinations may be helpful for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Application of laboratory tests may help to optimize the use of isolation rooms for patients when they present with unexplained febrile respiratory illnesses.

6.
J Infect ; 80(5): e14-e17, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-6742

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. However, limited data was available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reactivation. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 reactivation. METHODS: Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for 55 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (i.e., with throat swab samples that were positive for SARS-CoV-2) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan. 8 to Feb. 10, 2020. RESULTS: All 55 patients had a history of epidemiological exposure to COVID-19, and 5 (9%) patients who discharged from hospital presented with SARS-CoV-2 reactivation. Among the 5 reactivated patients, other symptoms were also observed, including fever, cough, sore throat, and fatigue. One of the 5 patients had progressive lymphopenia (from 1.3 to 0.56 × 109 cells per L) and progressive neutrophilia (from 4.5 to 18.28 × 109 cells per L). All 5 reactivated patients presented normal aminotransferase levels. Throat swab samples from the 5 reactivated patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2, indicating all positive for the virus. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this small group of cases suggested that there was currently evidence for reactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and there might be no specific clinical characteristics to distinguish them.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transaminases/blood
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