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1.
Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 53(9):2819-2832, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2080952

ABSTRACT

The 13th Five-Year National Key Research and Development Program has established a key project of "Prevention and Control of Major Animal Diseases, Efficient and Safe Husbandry Technology Research and Development" (Animal Project), which supported scientific and technological innovation research in the field of animal epidemic prevention and control, efficient and safe breeding and breeding environment treatment. This project carried out the design of "whole chain design and integrated implementation" according to basic research, key technology research and development and integrated demonstration to solve the important basic theory and technical bottleneck of animal breeding in China. Based on the method of bibliometric, a statistical analysis was conducted of the papers supported mainly by the project to master the research progress and hot spots of the special project in basic research and frontier theory. Moreover, the future key research direction and development trend in the field of animal husbandry and veterinary medicine was discussed in combination with the layout of animal husbandry and veterinary related projects in the 14th Five-Year Plan. The results showed that this special funded papers had achieved breakthrough research in the basic research fields of major animal diseases and zoonotic diseases such as the COVID-19, Zika virus and African Swine Fever Achievements: Agriculture-related universities and scientific research institutes cooperate closely and have made great contributions;International cooperation is not only with the United States and other developed countries, but also closely cooperated with developing countries such as Pakistan and Egypt related to the "Belt and Road" initiative. The probability of publishing high-quality papers which cooperated with scientific research teams in developed countries has increased significantly;Research hotspots mainly focus on epidemiology, pathogen replication and evolution, drug resistance, pathogen and host interaction and network regulation, immune and pathogenic mechanisms, cross-species transmission, etc. The livestock and poultry special project focuses on the research direction of the prevention and control of major livestock and poultry diseases and efficient and safe breeding, and has made important research progress in major basic theories, supporting the research and application demonstration of key core technologies. The 14th Five-Year National Key Research and Development Program will make a comprehensive layout in the field of animal seed industry innovation, prevention and control of animal diseases, purification and eradication, nutrition regulation and efficient breeding, waste resource utilization and green breeding, breeding equipment and intelligent breeding. Copyright © 2022 Editorial Board, Institute of Animal Science of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

2.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 22(8):932-947, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006473

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the evidence of the experience with medical sewage treatment procedures in medical institutions in China. Methods Databases including CNKI, WanFang Data, PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCO were electronically searched to collect studies on the medical sewage treatment process, flow, and specifications in medical institutions in China. We used the quality evaluation system to classify and grade the experiences based on the principles and methods of evidence-based science and performed a descriptive analysis. Results After the SARS pandemic in 2003, China systematically established and standardized the technical criteria of medical sewage treatment and discharge. Moreover, a prevention system for the epidemic using medical sewage was constructed, which guaranteed that the quality of medical sewage treatment and discharge would meet the criteria and protect the citizens, and the technical specifications of medical sewage treatment would progress and increase strictly. At present, medical sewage treatment in medical institutions in China was based on mechanical and biological methods, and disinfection was mainly performed using chlorine and its compounds, ozone, and ultraviolet light. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic requires a higher quality of medical sewage treatment and discharge criteria for medical institutions in China. To meet these criteria, all medical institutions in China should check, replace, and update their old facilities;strengthen personnel training and effectively ensure the quality of medical sewage treatment.

3.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005714

ABSTRACT

Background: Fatigue is common in patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). Melatonin, an inexpensive natural supplement, may improve symptoms and attenuate the side effects of RT. The effect of melatonin for prevention of fatigue and other symptoms was evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Early-stage or ductal carcinoma in-situ breast cancer patients ≥ 18 years, female, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) < 3, hemoglobin ≥9 g/dL. RT with curative intent, randomized 1:1 to melatonin 20 mg or oral placebo, starting night before RT initiation until 2 weeks post-RT. Sample size of 142 evaluable patients in each arm for 80% power and interim analysis at mid recruitment using the unified family method rho = 0.3. Randomization stratified to RT duration (< 3 weeks, ≥3 weeks) and prior chemotherapy. Primary outcome : Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-Fatigue subscale after completion of RT with additional scores measured at baseline, 2 and 8 weeks post-RT. Secondary outcomes : FACIT-F subscales, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Fatigue-Short Form 8a. Secondary analyses reported using an F-test at a 5% significance level. Results: For this interim analysis, 85 patients screened;80 randomized;39 received melatonin and 38 placebo. 72 included in the analysis as 5 patients had no post baseline FACIT score. Characteristics of age, race, and ECOG PS similar in both arms. Treatment X time for FACIT-Fatigue not significant for melatonin compared to placebo (p .83). FACIT physical, emotional, and functional wellbeing scores not significantly different (p .35, .62, and .71) but showing a trend for social well-being (p .06). PROMIS scores not changed over time (p .34). ESAS individual symptoms of anxiety, well-being, drowsiness, poor appetite, nausea, pain, shortness of breath, sleep and tiredness not significant, except for depression (p.04). However, a decrease of 0.01 unit in depression score is not considered clinically significant. No grade 3 or 4 adverse events. No participants died during study, 2 died after study completion from breast cancer recurrence. 16 withdrew prior to study completion because of adverse events, unrelated hospitalizations, RT discontinuation, and COVID-19 precautions. Trial was stopped based on statistical analysis demonstrating no difference for primary outcome and imminent expiry of available drug. Discontinuation was approved by Data Safety Monitoring Committee. Conclusions: Melatonin did not prevent fatigue in patients with early stage breast cancer undergoing RT. Melatonin also demonstrated no benefit for other symptoms, except depression. Analysis showed little evidence of an effect, and the trial was terminated early.

4.
Engineering Construction and Architectural Management ; : 33, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927485

ABSTRACT

Purpose This paper aims to explore the key risk factors affecting the Personnel Localization Management of international construction projects under the major public emergencies represented by the novel coronavirus pneumonia pandemic (hereinafter COVID-19) and how the public emergency affected the Personnel Localization Management from three levels: staff turnover rate, the number of different personnel, the salary and performance of workers. The paper also helps to enhance the construction enterprises' response capacity of major public emergencies and provides a comprehensive framework of optimization strategies for the Personnel Localization Management of international construction projects (hereinafter projects). Design/methodology/approach The main research method of this paper is the case study, and ten representative international construction projects are selected for case study in China construction enterprises (hereinafter CCE). And this study used the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and comparative analysis to find out all potential risk factors under the COVID-19 and analyze how the epidemic affects the Personnel Localization Management of projects which based on the primary data from 10 projects obtained through in-depth interviews and the secondary data from China First Metallurgical Group and Central South Construction Group's Overseas Enterprise. Findings The findings show that the outbreak of the major public emergencies not only greatly increased eight risk factors but also directly led to an increase in staff turnover rate. Meanwhile, the numbers of Chinese and local managers and workers are all affected, and an increase in the number and the salary performance of local workers can be reduced, to a certain extent, to the cost-to-output ratio of the projects. The findings would help construction enterprises better cope with Personnel Localization Management and enhance the response capacity of major public emergencies. Research limitations/implications This study will broaden researchers' horizons regarding "Personnel Localization Management under major public emergencies" and "risk factors of Personnel Localization Management in an international context." Furthermore, construction enterprises looking for a better mechanism of Personnel Localization Management can benefit from research findings and lessons learned from the authors' case study during or before an outbreak of major public emergency. Lastly, the framework of optimization strategies for Personnel Localization Management can be used both for research purposes and practice issues in international construction projects. Practical implications The findings from the authors' case study offer the direction for international construction enterprises in China and other countries to formulate effective measures, strengthen overseas business and establish a crisis management mechanism for Personnel Localization Management under major public emergencies, and the findings provide emergency plans for projects to improve the public crisis handling capacity and respond to major public emergencies such as the COVID-19. Social implications This study analyzes the impact of the COVID-19 on the Personnel Localization Management of international construction projects from the perspective of personnel. This study provides a theoretical reference for the international construction industry to actively respond to major public emergencies. Besides, the research is conducive to improving the emergency response mechanism in the construction industry, and further promoting the high-quality and globalized development of international construction. Originality/value This study provides other researchers with a comprehensive understanding of the risk factors affecting the Personnel Localization Management of projects under the COVID-19 and insight for further research on localization management, risk management, and project management.

6.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 57(5): 455-461, 2022 May 09.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818247

ABSTRACT

Today, there is greater awareness on the association between oral diseases and respiration diseases after the outbreak of COVID-19. However, confusion regarding the oral health management and medical risk prevention for patients with chronic airway diseases has been remained among dental clinicians. Therefore, the dental experts of the Fifth General Dentistry Special Committee, Chinese Stomatological Association, combined with the experts of respiratory and critical care medicine, undertook the formation of consensus on the oral health management of patients with chronic airway diseases in order to help dental clinicians to evaluate medical risks and make better treatment decision in clinical practice. In the present consensus report, the relationship of oral diseases and chronic airway diseases, the oral health management and the treatment recommendations of patients with chronic airway diseases are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oral Medicine , Consensus , Humans , Oral Health
7.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333498

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) imposed a substanal health burden in mainland China and remains a global epidemic threat. Our objectives are to assess the case fatality risk (CFR) among CO VID-19 patients detected in mainland China, stratified by clinical category and age group. METHODS: We collected individual information on laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases from publicly available official sources from December 29, 2019 to February 23, 2020. We explored the risk factors associated with mortality. We used methods accounting for right-censoring and survival analyses to estimatethe CFR among detected cases. RESULTS: Of 12,863 cases reported outside Hubei, we obtained individual records for 9,651 cases, including 62 deaths and 1,449 discharged cases. The deceased were significantly older than discharged cases (median age: 77 vs 39 years, p<0.001). 58% (36/62) were male. Older age (OR 1.18 per year;95% CI: 1.14 to 1.22), being male (OR 2.02;95% CI: 1.02 to 4.03), and being treated in less developed economic regions (e.g., West and Northeast vs. East, OR 3.93;95 %Cl:1.74 to 8.85) were mortality risk factors. The estimated CFR was 0.89-1.24% among all cases. The fatality risk among critical patients was 2-fold higher than that among severe and critical patients, and 24-fold higher than that among moderate, severe and critical patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates of CFR based on laboratory-confirmed cases ascertained outside of Hubei suggest that COVID-19 is not as severe as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, but more similar to the mortality risk of 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in hospitalized patients. The fatality risk of COVID-19 is higher in males and increases with age. Our study improves the severity assessment of the ongoing epidemic and can inform the COVID-19 outbreak response in China and beyond.

8.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic originated in Wuhan City of Hubei Province in December 2019 and has spread throughout China. Understanding the fast evolving epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the outbreak beyond Hubei would provide timely information to guide intervention policy. METHODS: We collected individual information on 8,579 laboratory-confirmed cases from official publically sources reported outside Hubei in mainland China, as of February 17, 2020. We estimated the temporal variation of the demographic characteristics of cases and key time-to-event intervals. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the dynamics of the net reproduction number (Rt) at the provincial level. RESULTS: The median age of the cases was 44 years, with an increasing of cases in younger age groups and the elderly as the epidemic progressed. The delay from symptom onset to hospital admission decreased from 4.4 days (95%CI: 0.0-14.0) until January 27 to 2.6 days (0.0-9.0) from January 28 to February 17. The mean incubation period was estimated at 5.2 days (1.8-12.4) and the mean serial interval at 5.1 days (1.3-11.6). The epidemic dynamics in provinces outside Hubei was highly variable, but consistently included a mix of case importations and local transmission. We estimate that the epidemic was self-sustained for less than three weeks with Rt reaching peaks between 1.40 (1.04-1.85) in Shenzhen City of Guangdong Province and 2.17 (1.69-2.76) in Shandong Province. In all the analyzed locations (n=10) Rt was estimated to be below the epidemic threshold since the end of January. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the strict containment measures and movement restrictions in place may contribute to the interruption of local COVID-19 transmission outside Hubei Province. The shorter serial interval estimated here implies that transmissibility is not as high as initial estimates suggested.

9.
Cancer Research ; 82(4 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1779458

ABSTRACT

Background: Adjuvant endocrine therapy remains the standard of care for patients (pts) with early stage, HR+ BC who can safely omit chemotherapy based on RS results;however, the role of NET remains unclear. There are limited data regarding the optimal duration of treatment with NET and the ideal patient (pt) population for NET in terms of age and RS result. This question rose to critical importance amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, during which NET was utilized more broadly in attempts to delay surgery or chemotherapy while preserving optimal pt outcomes. This study re-examines the use of NET among a cohort of pts with HR+ BC randomized to NET or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) based on RS (performed on initial core biopsy specimens). Methods:Data were pooled from two independent studies performed at Emory's Winship Cancer Institute and Massey Cancer Center at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) from 2010-2012. These studies evaluated rates of clinical and pathologic complete response (pCR) among pts with early stage, HR+ BC assigned to treatment groups based on RS results. Pts with RS 0-10 received NET (Group (Grp) A), RS 11-24/25 (Emory 11-24 vs VCU 11-25) were randomized to NET (Grp B) or NCT (Grp SC), and those with RS 25/26-100 received NCT (Grp D). Associations between RS result, neoadjuvant therapy and pCR in the breast, lymph nodes (LN) and breast plus LN were evaluated using Fisher's exact test. Results:109 pts were included in this analysis. The Emory cohort was younger (median age 56 years (yrs) vs 63 yrs in VCU cohort) and more diverse (37.5% African American (AA) vs 18.6% AA in VCU cohort). The pts were predominantly post-menopausal (69.6% Emory vs 83.1% VCU). Nodal status among the Emory cohort was evenly divided with 50% N0 and 50% N+, while the majority of VCU pts were N0 (76.3% N0 vs 22.0% N+). Pts were grouped based on RS result: RS <11 (18% Emory vs 20.3% VCU), RS 11-24/25 (36% Emory vs 55.9% VCU) and RS 24/25 or higher (46% Emory vs 23.7% VCU). Pts with low RS result were older (median 64 yrs vs 59 yrs among RS > 24/25) with higher percentage of low-grade tumors (47.6% grade 1 vs 5.4% grade 1 among RS >24/25). With regard to pCR, there were no significant differences among pts with low or intermediate RS results, as no pts in these groups achieved pCR in the breast or breast + LN (Table). Pts with RS result 25/26-100 (Grp D) were the only pts shown to achieve pCR in breast + LN (18.9%, p= 0.0043 across groups). Notably, while pts on the Emory study received longer courses of NET (median 10 months vs 5.5 months), there were no significant differences in pCR across RS result subgroups noted between the two institutions. Conclusion:Our results demonstrate that the use of Oncotype DX Breast Recurrence Score® or other genomic assays in the neoadjuvant setting may help guide treatment decisions when considering the use of NET versus NCT. Pt age and length of endocrine therapy as well as pt preferences should be considered when determining neoadjuvant treatment plans. There are currently ongoing studies evaluating the use of NET with CDK4/6 inhibitors that will offer further insight into optimal neoadjuvant treatment strategies in HR+ BC. Subsequent phase III evaluation of the role of genomic assays in the neoadjuvant setting is feasible and may help determine whether NET + CDK 4/6 inhibitors could replace NCT for pts with higher RS values.

10.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-329107

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination has been threatened by recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants. A systematic summary of the landscape of neutralizing antibodies against emerging variants is needed. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and 3 pre-print servers for studies that evaluated neutralizing antibodies titers induced by previous infection or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 variants and comprehensively collected individual data. We calculated lineage-specific GMTs across different study participants and types of neutralization assays. Findings: We identified 56 studies, including 2,483 individuals and 8,590 neutralization tests, meeting the eligibility criteria. Compared with lineage B, we estimate a 1.5-fold (95% CI: 1.0-2.2) reduction in neutralization against the B.1.1.7, 8.7-fold (95% CI: 6.5-11.7) reduction against B.1.351 and 5.0-fold (95% CI: 4.0-6.2) reduction against P.1. The estimated neutralization reductions for B.1.351 compared to lineage B were 240.2-fold (95% CI: 124.0-465.6) reduction for non-replicating vector platform, 4.6-fold (95% CI: 4.0-5.2) reduction for RNA platform, and 1.6-fold (95% CI: 1.2-2.1) reduction for protein subunit platform. The neutralizing antibodies induced by administration of inactivated vaccines and mRNA vaccines against lineage P.1 were also remarkably reduced by an average of 5.9-fold (95% CI: 3.7-9.3) and 1.5-fold (95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Interpretation: Our findings indicate that the antibody response established by natural infection or vaccination might be able to effectively neutralize B.1.1.7, but neutralizing titers against B.1.351 and P.1 suffered large reductions. Standardized protocols for neutralization assays, as well as updating immune-based prevention and treatment, are needed. Funding: Chinese National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars. Research in context: Evidence before this study: Several newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants have raised significant concerns globally, and there is concern that SARS-CoV-2 variants can evade immune responses that are based on the prototype strain. It is not known to what extent do emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants escape the immune response induced by previous infection or vaccination. However, existing studies of neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2 variants are based on limited numbers of samples and lack comparability between different laboratory methods. Furthermore, there are no studies providing whole picture of neutralizing antibodies induced by prior infections or vaccination against emerging variants. Therefore, we systematically reviewed and quantitively synthesized evidence on the degree to which antibodies from previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination effectively neutralize variants. Added value of this study: In this study, 56 studies, including 2,483 individuals and 8,590 neutralization tests, were identified. Antibodies from natural infection or vaccination are likely to effectively neutralize B.1.1.7, but neutralizing titers against B.1.351 and P.1 suffered large reductions. Lineage B.1.351 escaped natural-infection-mediated neutralization the most, with GMT of 79.2 (95% CI: 68.5-91.6), while neutralizing antibody titers against the B.1.1.7 variant were largely preserved (254.6, 95% CI: 214.1-302.8). Compared with lineage B, we estimate a 1.5-fold (95% CI: 1.0-2.2) reduction in neutralization against the B.1.1.7, 8.7-fold (95% CI: 6.5-11.7) reduction against B.1.351 and 5.0-fold (95% CI: 4.0-6.2) reduction against P.1. The neutralizing antibody response after vaccinating with non-replicating vector vaccines against lineage B.1.351 was worse than responses elicited by vaccines on other platforms, with levels lower than that of individuals who were previously infected. The neutralizing antibodies induced by administration of inactivated vaccines and mRNA vaccines against lineage P.1 were also remarkably reduced by an average of 5.9-fold (95% CI: 3.7-9.3) and 1.5-fold (95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Implications of all the available evidence: Our findings indicate that antibodies from natural infection of the parent lineage of SARS-CoV-2 or vaccination may be less able to neutralize some emerging variants, and antibody-based therapies may need to be updated. Furthermore, standardized protocols for neutralizing antibody testing against SARS-CoV-2 are needed to reduce lab-to-lab variations, thus facilitating comparability and interpretability across studies.

11.
Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine ; 3(4):255-268, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582962

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids (GCs) have potential anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. There is plenty of controversy about the application of glucocorticoids in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This paper briefly summarizes the mechanism of glucocorticoids and their receptors and clinical applications in COVID-19. Through reviewing the current literature, our aim is to have a deeper understanding of the mechanism of GCs and their clinical applications, so as to find possible ways to enhance their efficacy and reduce drug resistance or side effects.

12.
Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine ; 3(1):1-9, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582960

ABSTRACT

Based on the naming of diseases in the history and the nomenclature of diseases, especially that of novel human infectious diseases, in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and modern medicine, we put forward the following suggestions for the naming and severity classification of "coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)": (1) Patients with only nucleic acids positive or nucleic acid positive as well as some of the symptoms but without any evidence of pneumonia should be diagnosed more generally such as "Novel coronavirus respiratory infection (NCRI)"or "Novel coronavirus infection (NCI)". (2) The manifestations concerning pneumonia can be used as the main basis for the classification of the severity of the disease. For instance, those with only nucleic acids positive or nucleic acid positive as well as mild symptoms are mild, those with nucleic acid positive as well as symptoms like fever and cough are moderate, those with nucleic acid positive as well as pneumonia are severe, those with severe symptoms as well as respiratory failure and multiple organ damage are critical. (3) Also, those with infections and clinical manifestations but no pneumonia can be called simple type, and those with pneumonia can be called pneumonia type. (4) Under the current background of integrative medicine, the naming of newly emerging infectious diseases by TCM should be changed from an ambiguous concept to a clearly defined one. It may define the disease according to the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation or prognosis of the disease, redefine the original concept in TCM and discard the excessively broad part, or carry out the common naming between TCM and modern medicine based on the specific pathogen. (5) According to the nomenclature of diseases in TCM plus that in modern medicine, the NCI may be named "Jihai (2019) - Pestilence"(Ji Hài (2019) - Yì Lì) in TCM.

13.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(8): 605-609, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556260

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and arbidol in treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the real world. Methods: The clinical data of 178 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital from January 20 to February 10, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to patient's antiviral treatment regimens, 178 patients were divided into 4 groups including LPV/r group (59 patients), arbidol group (36 patients), LPV/r plus arbidol combination group (25 patients) and the supportive care group without any antiviral treatment (58 patients). The primary end point was the negative conversion time of nucleic acid of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by pharyngeal swab. Results: The baseline parameters of 4 groups before treatment was comparable. The negative conversion time of viral nucleic acid was (10.20±3.49), (10.11±4.68), (10.86±4.74), (8.44±3.51) days in LPV/r group, arbidol group, combination group, and supportive care group respectively (F=2.556, P=0.058). There was also no significant difference in negative conversion rate of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid, the improvement of clinical symptoms, and the improvement of pulmonary infections by CT scan (P>0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was found in the changing rates from mild/moderate to severe/critical type at day 7 (χ(2)=9.311, P=0.017), which were 24%(6/25) in combination group, 16.7%(6/36) in arbidol group, 5.4%(3/56) in LPV/r group and 5.2%(3/58) in supportive care group. Moreover, the incidence of adverse reactions in three antiviral groups was significantly higher than that in supportive care group (χ(2)=14.875, P=0.002). Conclusions: Antiviral treatment including LPV/r or arbidol or combination does not shorten the negative conversion time of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid nor improve clinical symptoms. Moreover, these antiviral drugs cause more adverse reactions which should be paid careful attention during the treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Indoles , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(8): 598-604, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555710

ABSTRACT

Objective: To retrospective analyze the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 278 patients with COVID-19 admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital from January 20 to February 10, 2020 were selected. The general demographic data, epidemiological data, clinical symptoms, laboratory examinations, lung CT imaging, treatment and prognosis were analyzed. Results: There were 130 male patients (46.8%) and 148 females (53.2%) with age (48.1±17.0) years and 88.8% patients between 20-69 years. Two hundred and thirty-six (84.9%) patients had comorbidities. Two hundred and eleven cases (75.9%) were common type. The in-hospital mortality was 0.4% (1/278). The majority (201, 72.3%) were imported cases mainly from Wuhan (89, 44.3%). The most common clinical manifestations were fever (70.9%) and dry cough (61.5%). In some patients, hemoglobin (10.4%), platelets (12.6%) and albumin (55.4%) were lower than the normal range. Other biochemical tests according to liver and function were normal, while lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) was elevated in 61 patients (21.9%), creatine kinase increased in 26 patients (9.4%). Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was seen in 52 patients (18.7%), D-dimer higher than normal in 140 patients (50.4%), while 117 patients (42.1%) had elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Typical CT manifestations included single or multiple ground glass shadows especially in lung periphery in early disease which infiltrated and enlarged during progressive stage. Diffuse consolidation with multiple patchy density in severe/critical cases and even "white lung" presented in a few patients. Two hundred and forty-two patients (87.1%) received one or more antiviral agents, 242 (87.1%) combined with antibacterials, 191 (68.7%) with oxygen therapy. There were 198 patients (71.2%) treated with traditional Chinese medicine. Conclusions: COVID-19 could attack patients in all ages with majority of common type and low mortality rate. Clinical manifestations involve multiple organs or systems. Progression of the disease results in critical status which should be paid much attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Fever , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Expert Systems with Applications ; 188:22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1536537

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world's economic condition significantly, and construction projects have faced many challenges and disruptions as well. This should be an alarm bell for project-oriented organizations to be prepared for such events and take necessary actions at the earliest time. In this regard, project-oriented organizations should establish their business based on the resilience concept, making them flexible in dealing with risks and decreasing the recovery time after disruptions. The current study proposes a practical conceptual framework for project-oriented organizations to select the most appropriate portfolio based on organizational resilience strategy. First, portfolios are identified, and the projects are clustered based on organizational resilience strategy using the Elbow and Fuzzy C-Means methods. The projects' scores are then determined employing the stakeholders' opinions and Robust Ordinal Priority Approach (OPA-11), which can handle the uncertainty of the input data. After that, each portfolio's score is determined using the obtained scores of the projects, and the best portfolio linked to the organizational resilience strategy is selected. The application of the proposed method to a project-oriented organization is examined, and its usage for the managers of project-oriented organizations is discussed in detail.

16.
Cmes-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences ; 129(1):65-98, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1390000

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 has resulted in catastrophic situation and the deaths of millions of people all over the world. In this paper, the predictions of epidemiological propagation models, such as SIR and SEIR, are introduced to analyze the earlier COVID-19 propagation. The deep learning methods combined with transfer learning are familiar with classification-detection approaches based on chest X-ray and CT images are presented in detail. Besides, deep learning approaches have also been applied to lung ultrasound (LUS), which has been shown to be more sensitive than chest X-ray and CT images in detecting COVID-19. In the absence of a vaccine, the machine learning-related approaches are applied to analyze vaccine candidates in the realm of biology and medicine. The telehealth system played a major role in combating the pandemic from all aspects and reducing contact with patients during this period. Natural language processing-related methods are utilized to analyze tweets related to the COVID-19 epidemic on social media, and further analyze public sentiment and subject modeling, so as to arrange corresponding measures to appease public sentiment. In particular, this survey is to summarize and analyze the contributions made in various fields during the COVID-19 pandemic by considering both the contribution of deep learning in chest X-ray and CT images, as well as the application of the latest LUS during the COVID-19 pandemic. Telehealth and the importance of public sentiment analysis during a pandemic were also described in detail.

17.
Dili Xuebao/Acta Geographica Sinica ; 76(4):1034-1048, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1296216

ABSTRACT

To scientifically assess the effects of major public health emergencies on economic system, regulate its negative effect and improve the resilience of the economic system is an important national strategic requirement. Currently, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic has been effectively contained in China, while exogenous and regional risks remain. Systematical identification of influence path and strength of COVID-19 epidemic on economic system has guiding significance for economic system recovery. Based on the improved multi-regional computable general equilibrium model for China, this research measures the output changes in economic system and major industries in China under different COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control scenarios with different changes in factors supply and products demand. The results show that the provincial economic growth in China falls by 0.4%-0.8% compared with the normal situation in 2020, and residential consumption and employment falls by about 2% and 0.7% respectively, while commodity prices rise by about 0.9% in the short term. From the perspective of industrial economy, consumption-oriented and labor-intensive industries are the most adversely affected in the short term. For example, the output value of the service sector will decrease by 6.3% compared with normal levels. Besides, regarding the regional differences of the effects of COVID-19 epidemic on the economic system and industrial economy, Hubei province, as one of the regions with first-level epidemic prevention and control risk, faces the greatest challenge. The effects of COVID-19 epidemic present a spatial spreading pattern with Hubei province as the center. The major industries that suffer from the impacts of COVID-19 epidemic vary in different regions. In addition, this research assesses the intensity of the regional economic recovery under the resumption of work and production scenario and the proactive fiscal policy scenario respectively. The results show that compared with the resumption of work and production, the effect of increasing fiscal stimulus has more potential for economic system recovery, up by 0.3% in GDP and by 1.8% in commodity price, while resumption of work and production has a wider range of spatial pulling effects on industries. © 2021, Science Press. All right reserved.

18.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-8058

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination programs have been initiated in several countries to control SARS-CoV-2 transmission and return to a pre-pandemic lifestyle. However, understanding when non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) can be lifted as vaccination builds up and how to update priority groups for vaccination in real-time remain key questions for policy makers. To address these questions, we built a data-driven model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission for China. We estimated that, to prevent local outbreaks to escalate to major widespread epidemics, stringent NPIs need to remain in place at least one year after the start of vaccination. Should NPIs be capable to keep the reproduction number (Rt) around 1.3, a vaccination program could reduce up to 99% of COVID-19 burden and bring Rt below the epidemic threshold in about 9 months. Maintaining strict NPIs throughout 2021 is of paramount importance to reduce COVID-19 burden while vaccines are distributed to the population, especially in large populations with little natural immunity.

19.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; 40(2):131-135, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1055139

ABSTRACT

In order to effectively prevent infection or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission among medical staff during tracheal intubation in patients with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), and to ensure the safety of personnel who will perform the endotracheal intubation, we made a literature review to analyze the airway management for SARS patients from China and abroad in 2003. Relevant documents, consensus of diagnosis and therapy for patients with COVID-19 from the National Health Commission, and guidelines of relevant academic societies were also reviewed.Thus, we provide suggestions on infection control for performing endotracheal intubation in patients with COVID-19 mainly as follows.Medical staff should fully understand the infection risk of COVID-19 and strengthen the training before the procedure.It is suggested that the indication of endotracheal intubation should be properly defined, and the need for intubation as emergent or elective should be evaluated early with preparation made in advance.During the implementation of endotracheal intubation, the procedure should be completed by the most experienced personnel in airway management using the tools they master best, and a rapid sequential induction of endotracheal intubation is recommended. © 2020 Chinese Medical Association

20.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; 40(3):271-274, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1055138

ABSTRACT

During the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the infection of the elderly population will bring great challenges to clinical diagnosis and treatment, outcome and management.Combined with the characteristics of anesthesia and the pathophysiological characteristics of COVID-19 on lung function impairment in elderly patients, Chinese Society of Anesthesiology formulated the " Recommendations for anesthesia management and infection control in elderly patients with COVID-19″. This recommendation expounds preoperative visit and infection control, anesthesia management protocol, anesthesia monitoring, anesthesia induction/endotracheal intubation, anesthesia maintenance and infection control, intraoperative lung protection strategy, anti-stress and anti-inflammatory management, hemodynamic optimization, infection control during emergence from anesthesia, and postoperative analgesia in elderly patients with COVID-19, and provides the reference for the safe and effective implementation of anesthesia management in elderly patients during the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic. © 2020 Chinese Medical Association

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