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1.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.09.06.506768

ABSTRACT

Despite the availability of vaccines and approved therapeutics, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to rise owing to the emergence of newer variants. Several multi-omics studies have made available extensive evidence on host-pathogen interactions and potential therapeutic targets. Nonetheless, an increased understanding of host signaling networks regulated by post-translational modifications and their ensuing effect on the biochemical and cellular dynamics is critical to expanding the current knowledge on the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infections. Here, employing unbiased global transcriptomics, proteomics, acetylomics, phosphoproteomics, and exometabolome analysis of a lung-derived human cell line, we show that SARS-CoV-2 Norway/Trondheim-S15 strain induces time-dependent alterations in the induction of type I IFN response, activation of DNA damage response, dysregulated Hippo signaling, among others. We provide evidence for the interplay of phosphorylation and acetylation dynamics on host proteins and its effect on the altered release of metabolites, especially organic acids and ketone bodies. Together, our findings serve as a resource of potential targets that can aid in designing novel host-directed therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
2.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.06.16.448653

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and its vaccine/immune-escaping variants continue to pose a serious threat to public health due to a paucity of effective, rapidly deployable, and widely available treatments. Here we address these challenges by combining Pegasys (IFNa) and nafamostat to effectively suppress SARS-CoV-2 infection in cell culture and hamsters. Our results indicate that Serpin E1 is an important mediator of the antiviral activity of IFNa and that both Serpin E1 and camostat can target the same cellular factor TMPRSS2, which plays a critical role in viral replication. The low doses of the drugs in combination may have several clinical advantages, including fewer adverse events and improved patient outcome. Thus, our study may provide a proactive solution for the ongoing pandemic and potential future coronavirus outbreaks, which is still urgently required in many parts of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
3.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-189394.v1

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for new antivirals with powerful therapeutic potential and tolerable side effects. In the present study, we found that recombinant human interferon-alpha (IFNa) triggered cell intrinsic and extrinsic antiviral responses and reduced replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells. However, IFNa alone was insufficient to completely abolish SARS-CoV-2 replication. Combinations of IFNa with camostat, remdesivir, EIDD-2801, cycloheximide or convalescent serum showed strong synergy and effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, we demonstrated synergistic antiviral activity of IFNa2a with pimodivir against influenza A virus (FluAV) infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells, as well as of IFNa2a with lamivudine against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in human TZM-bl cells. Our results indicate that IFNa2a-based combinational therapies help to reduce drug dose and improve efficacy in comparison with monotherapies, making them attractive targets for further pre-clinical and clinical development.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , HIV Infections , Addison Disease , COVID-19
4.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.03.424883

ABSTRACT

Here, we demonstrate that our anti-sepsis and COVID-19 drug candidate Rejuveinix (RJX) substantially improves the survival outcome in the LPS-GalN animal model of sepsis and multi-organ failure. One hundred (100) percent (%) of untreated control mice remained alive throughout the experiment. By comparison, 100% of LPS-GalN injected mice died at a median of 4.6 hours. In contrast to the invariably fatal treatment outcome of vehicle-treated control mice, 40% of mice treated with RJX (n=25) remained alive with a 2.4-fold longer median time survival time of 10.9 hours (Log-rank X2=20.60, P<0.0001). Notably, RJX increased the tissue levels of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, and reduced oxidative stress in the brain. These findings demonstrate the clinical impact potential of RJX as a neuroprotective COVID-19 and sepsis drug candidate.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Multiple Organ Failure , COVID-19
5.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.04.424792

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 currently represents a major public health problem. Multiple efforts are being performed to control this disease. Vaccinations are already in progress. However, no effective treatments have been found so far. The disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that through the Spike protein interacts with its cell surface receptor ACE2 to enter into the host cells. Therefore, compounds able to block this interaction may help to stop disease progression. In this study, we have analyzed the effect of compounds reported to interact and modify the activity of ACE2 on the binding of the Spike protein. Among the compounds tested, we found that hydroxyzine could inhibit the binding of the receptor-binding domain of Spike protein to ACE2 in a qualitative in vitro assay. This finding supports the reported clinical data showing the benefits of hydroxyzine on COVID-19 patients, raising the need for further investigation into its effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 given its well-characterized medical properties and affordable cost.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
6.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.09.17.299933

ABSTRACT

Combination therapies have become a standard for the treatment for HIV and HCV infections. They are advantageous over monotherapies due to better efficacy and reduced toxicity, as well as the ability to prevent the development of resistant viral strains and to treat viral co-infections. Here, we identify several new synergistic combinations against emerging and re-emerging viral infections in vitro. We observed synergistic activity of nelfinavir with investigational drug EIDD-2801 and convalescent serum against SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells. We also demonstrated synergistic activity of vemurafenib combination with emetine, homoharringtonine, gemcitabine, or obatoclax against echovirus 1 infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells. We also found that combinations of sofosbuvir with brequinar and niclosamide were synergistic against HCV infection in hepatocyte derived Huh-7.5 cells, whereas combinations of monensin with lamivudine and tenofovir were synergistic against HIV-1 infection in human cervical TZM-bl cells. Finally, we present an online resource that summarizes novel and known antiviral drug combinations and their developmental status. Overall, the development of combinational therapies could have a global impact improving the preparedness and protection of the general population from emerging and re-emerging viral threats.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , HIV Infections , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hepatitis C , COVID-19
7.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.07.27.222943

ABSTRACT

A high-resolution understanding of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 is important for the design of effective diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics. However, SARS-CoV-2 antibody epitopes remain largely uncharacterized, and it is unknown whether and how the response may cross-react with related viruses. Here, we use a multiplexed peptide assay ( PepSeq) to generate an epitope-resolved view of reactivity across all human coronaviruses. PepSeq accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 exposure and resolves epitopes across the Spike and Nucleocapsid proteins. Two of these represent recurrent reactivities to conserved, functionally-important sites in the Spike S2 subunit, regions that we show are also targeted for the endemic coronaviruses in pre-pandemic controls. At one of these sites, we demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 response strongly and recurrently cross-reacts with the endemic virus hCoV-OC43. Our analyses reveal new diagnostic and therapeutic targets, including a site at which SARS-CoV-2 may recruit common pre-existing antibodies and with the potential for broadly-neutralizing responses.

8.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.05.12.091165

ABSTRACT

As of June 2020, the number of people infected with severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to skyrocket, with more than 6,5 million cases worldwide. Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations (UN) has highlighted the need for better control of SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, developing novel virus-specific vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 can be time-consuming and costly. Convalescent sera and safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals (BSAAs) are readily available treatment options. Here we developed a neutralization assay using SARS-CoV-2 strain and Vero-E6 cells. We identified most potent sera from recovered patients for treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We also screened 136 safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero-E6 cells and identified nelfinavir, salinomycin, amodiaquine, obatoclax, emetine and homoharringtonine. We found that combinations of virus-directed nelfinavir along with host-directed amodiaquine exhibited the highest synergy. Finally, we developed a website to disseminate the knowledge on available and emerging treatments of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Coronavirus Infections , Hallucinations , COVID-19
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