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1.
Chest ; 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma has been one of the most common treatments for COVID-19, but most clinical trial data to date have not supported its efficacy. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is rigorously selected COVID-19 convalescent plasma with neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies an efficacious treatment for adults hospitalized with COVID-19? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a multicenter, blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial among adults hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory symptoms for <14 days. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned to receive one unit of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (n=487) or placebo (n=473). The primary outcome was clinical status (illness severity) 14 days after study infusion measured with a seven-category ordinal scale ranging from discharged from the hospital with resumption of normal activities (lowest score) to death (highest score). The primary outcome was analyzed with a multivariable ordinal regression model, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) <1.0 indicating more favorable outcomes with convalescent plasma than placebo. In secondary analyses, trial participants were stratified by the presence of endogenous anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies ("serostatus") at randomization. The trial included 13 secondary efficacy outcomes, including 28-day mortality. RESULTS: Among 974 randomized patients, 960 were included in the primary analysis. Clinical status on the ordinal outcome scale at 14 days did not differ between the convalescent plasma and placebo groups in the overall population (aOR: 1.04; 1/7 support interval (SI): 0.82-1.33), in patients without endogenous antibodies (aOR: 1.15; 1/7 SI: 0.74-1.80), or in patients with endogenous antibodies (aOR: 0.96; 1/7 SI: 0.72-1.30). None of the 13 secondary efficacy outcomes were different between groups. At 28 days, 89/482 (18.5%) patients in the convalescent plasma group and 80/465 (17.2%) patients in the placebo group had died (aOR: 1.04, 1/7 SI: 0.69-1.58). INTERPRETATION: Among adults hospitalized with COVID-19, including those seronegative for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, treatment with convalescent plasma did not improve clinical outcomes.

2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(656): eabo0718, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816673

ABSTRACT

The nucleoside analog remdesivir (RDV) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved antiviral for treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Thus, it is critical to understand factors that promote or prevent RDV resistance. We passaged SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of increasing concentrations of GS-441524, the parent nucleoside of RDV. After 13 passages, we isolated three viral lineages with phenotypic resistance as defined by increases in half-maximal effective concentration from 2.7- to 10.4-fold. Sequence analysis identified nonsynonymous mutations in nonstructural protein 12 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12-RdRp): V166A, N198S, S759A, V792I, and C799F/R. Two lineages encoded the S759A substitution at the RdRp Ser759-Asp-Asp active motif. In one lineage, the V792I substitution emerged first and then combined with S759A. Introduction of S759A and V792I substitutions at homologous nsp12 positions in murine hepatitis virus demonstrated transferability across betacoronaviruses; introduction of these substitutions resulted in up to 38-fold RDV resistance and a replication defect. Biochemical analysis of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp encoding S759A demonstrated a roughly 10-fold decreased preference for RDV-triphosphate (RDV-TP) as a substrate, whereas nsp12-V792I diminished the uridine triphosphate concentration needed to overcome template-dependent inhibition associated with RDV. The in vitro-selected substitutions identified in this study were rare or not detected in the greater than 6 million publicly available nsp12-RdRp consensus sequences in the absence of RDV selection. The results define genetic and biochemical pathways to RDV resistance and emphasize the need for additional studies to define the potential for emergence of these or other RDV resistance mutations in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Mice , Mutation/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics
4.
iScience ; 25(1): 103602, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561444

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed an urgent need for rapid profiling of neutralizing antibody responses and development of antibody therapeutics. The current Food and Drug Administration-approved serological tests do not measure antibody-mediated viral neutralization, and there is a need for standardized quantitative neutralization assays. We report a high-throughput two-step profiling approach for identifying neutralizing convalescent plasma. Screening and downselection for serum antibody binding to the receptor-binding domain are followed by quantitative neutralization testing using a chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus expressing spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in a real-time cell analysis assay. This approach enables a predictive screening process for identifying plasma units that neutralize SARS-CoV-2. To calibrate antibody neutralizing activity in serum from convalescent plasma donors, we introduce a neutralizing antibody standard reagent composed of two human antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV strains, including SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Our results provide a framework for establishing a standardized assessment of antibody-based interventions against COVID-19.

5.
Cell Rep ; 37(5): 109929, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466097

ABSTRACT

Current coronavirus (CoV) vaccines primarily target immunodominant epitopes in the S1 subunit, which are poorly conserved and susceptible to escape mutations, thus threatening vaccine efficacy. Here, we use structure-guided protein engineering to remove the S1 subunit from the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein and develop stabilized stem (SS) antigens. Vaccination with MERS SS elicits cross-reactive ß-CoV antibody responses and protects mice against lethal MERS-CoV challenge. High-throughput screening of antibody-secreting cells from MERS SS-immunized mice led to the discovery of a panel of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies. Among them, antibody IgG22 binds with high affinity to both MERS-CoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 S proteins, and a combination of electron microscopy and crystal structures localizes the epitope to a conserved coiled-coil region in the S2 subunit. Passive transfer of IgG22 protects mice against both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Collectively, these results provide a proof of principle for cross-reactive CoV antibodies and inform the development of pan-CoV vaccines and therapeutic antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Reactions , Drug Design , Epitope Mapping , Female , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/immunology
6.
Trials ; 22(1): 221, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma is being used widely as a treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the clinical efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma is unclear. METHODS: The Passive Immunity Trial for Our Nation (PassITON) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized clinical trial being conducted in the USA to provide high-quality evidence on the efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma as a treatment for adults hospitalized with symptomatic disease. Adults hospitalized with COVID-19 with respiratory symptoms for less than 14 days are eligible. Enrolled patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 1 unit (200-399 mL) of COVID-19 convalescent plasma that has demonstrated neutralizing function using a SARS-CoV-2 chimeric virus neutralization assay. Study treatments are administered in a blinded fashion and patients are followed for 28 days. The primary outcome is clinical status 14 days after study treatment as measured on a 7-category ordinal scale assessing mortality, respiratory support, and return to normal activities of daily living. Key secondary outcomes include mortality and oxygen-free days. The trial is projected to enroll 1000 patients and is designed to detect an odds ratio ≤ 0.73 for the primary outcome. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide the most robust data available to date on the efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma for the treatment of adults hospitalized with acute moderate to severe COVID-19. These data will be useful to guide the treatment of COVID-19 patients in the current pandemic and for informing decisions about whether developing a standardized infrastructure for collecting and disseminating convalescent plasma to prepare for future viral pandemics is indicated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04362176 . Registered on 24 April 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States
7.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(1): 34-48, 2021 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild infection in most children, a small proportion develop severe or critical illness. Data describing agents with potential antiviral activity continue to expand such that updated guidance is needed regarding use of these agents in children. METHODS: A panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 20 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a set of guidance statements was developed and refined based on review of the best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS: Given the typically mild course of COVID-19 in children, supportive care alone is suggested for most cases. For children with severe illness, defined as a supplemental oxygen requirement without need for noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), remdesivir is suggested, preferably as part of a clinical trial if available. Remdesivir should also be considered for critically ill children requiring invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO. A duration of 5 days is appropriate for most patients. The panel recommends against the use of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir (or other protease inhibitors) for COVID-19 in children. CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is not necessary for the great majority of pediatric patients. For children with severe or critical disease, this guidance offers an approach for decision-making regarding use of remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
8.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(6): 701-715, 2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mild in nearly all children, a small proportion of pediatric patients develop severe or critical illness. Guidance is therefore needed regarding use of agents with potential activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in pediatrics. METHODS: A panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 18 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a set of guidance statements was developed and refined based on review of best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS: Given the typically mild course of pediatric COVID-19, supportive care alone is suggested for the overwhelming majority of cases. The panel suggests a decision-making framework for antiviral therapy that weighs risks and benefits based on disease severity as indicated by respiratory support needs, with consideration on a case-by-case basis of potential pediatric risk factors for disease progression. If an antiviral is used, the panel suggests remdesivir as the preferred agent. Hydroxychloroquine could be considered for patients who are not candidates for remdesivir or when remdesivir is not available. Antivirals should preferably be used as part of a clinical trial if available. CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is not necessary for the great majority of pediatric patients. For those rare cases of severe or critical disease, this guidance offers an approach for decision-making regarding antivirals, informed by available data. As evidence continues to evolve rapidly, the need for updates to the guidance is anticipated.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(1): e1009226, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034956

ABSTRACT

Recombination is proposed to be critical for coronavirus (CoV) diversity and emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and other zoonotic CoVs. While RNA recombination is required during normal CoV replication, the mechanisms and determinants of CoV recombination are not known. CoVs encode an RNA proofreading exoribonuclease (nsp14-ExoN) that is distinct from the CoV polymerase and is responsible for high-fidelity RNA synthesis, resistance to nucleoside analogues, immune evasion, and virulence. Here, we demonstrate that CoVs, including SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and the model CoV murine hepatitis virus (MHV), generate extensive and diverse recombination products during replication in culture. We show that the MHV nsp14-ExoN is required for native recombination, and that inactivation of ExoN results in decreased recombination frequency and altered recombination products. These results add yet another critical function to nsp14-ExoN, highlight the uniqueness of the evolved coronavirus replicase, and further emphasize nsp14-ExoN as a central, completely conserved, and vulnerable target for inhibitors and attenuation of SARS-CoV-2 and future emerging zoonotic CoVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Exoribonucleases/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Humans , Recombination, Genetic/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics
10.
Journal of Virology ; 93(24):1-14, 2019.
Article | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1017136

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have emerged from animal reservoirs to cause severe and lethal disease in humans, but there are currently no FDA-approved antivirals to treat the infections. One class of antiviral compounds, nucleoside analogues, mimics naturally occurring nucleosides to inhibit viral replication. While these compounds have been successful therapeutics for several viral infections, mutagenic nucleoside analogues, such as ribavirin and 5-fluorouracil, have been ineffective at inhibiting CoVs. This has been attributed to the proofreading activity of the viral 3'-5' exoribonuclease (ExoN). β-d-N4-Hydroxycytidine (NHC) (EIDD-1931;Emory Institute for Drug Development) has recently been reported to inhibit multiple viruses. Here, we demonstrate that NHC inhibits both murine hepatitis virus (MHV) (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 0.17 μM) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) (EC50 = 0.56 μM) with minimal cytotoxicity. NHC inhibited MHV lacking ExoN proofreading activity similarly to wild-type (WT) MHV, suggesting an ability to evade or overcome ExoN activity. NHC inhibited MHV only when added early during infection, decreased viral specific infectivity, and increased the number and proportion of G:A and C:U transition mutations present after a single infection. Low-level NHC resistance was difficult to achieve and was associated with multiple transition mutations across the genome in both MHV and MERS-CoV. These results point to a virus-mutagenic mechanism of NHC inhibition in CoVs and indicate a high genetic barrier to NHC resistance. Together, the data support further development of NHC for treatment of CoVs and suggest a novel mechanism of NHC interaction with the CoV replication complex that may shed light on critical aspects of replication. IMPORTANCE The emergence of coronaviruses (CoVs) into human populations from animal reservoirs has demonstrated their epidemic capability, pandemic potential, and ability to cause severe disease. However, no antivirals have been approved to treat these infections. Here, we demonstrate the potent antiviral activity of a broad-spectrum ribonucleoside analogue, β-d-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC), against two divergent CoVs. Viral proofreading activity does not markedly impact sensitivity to NHC inhibition, suggesting a novel interaction between a nucleoside analogue inhibitor and the CoV replicase. Further, passage in the presence of NHC generates only low-level resistance, likely due to the accumulation of multiple potentially deleterious transition mutations. Together, these data support a mutagenic mechanism of inhibition by NHC and further support the development of NHC for treatment of CoV infections. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Virology is the property of American Society for Microbiology and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

11.
N Engl J Med ; 383(20): 1920-1931, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and spread globally, prompting an international effort to accelerate development of a vaccine. The candidate vaccine mRNA-1273 encodes the stabilized prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial including 45 healthy adults, 18 to 55 years of age, who received two vaccinations, 28 days apart, with mRNA-1273 in a dose of 25 µg, 100 µg, or 250 µg. There were 15 participants in each dose group. RESULTS: After the first vaccination, antibody responses were higher with higher dose (day 29 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay anti-S-2P antibody geometric mean titer [GMT], 40,227 in the 25-µg group, 109,209 in the 100-µg group, and 213,526 in the 250-µg group). After the second vaccination, the titers increased (day 57 GMT, 299,751, 782,719, and 1,192,154, respectively). After the second vaccination, serum-neutralizing activity was detected by two methods in all participants evaluated, with values generally similar to those in the upper half of the distribution of a panel of control convalescent serum specimens. Solicited adverse events that occurred in more than half the participants included fatigue, chills, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. Systemic adverse events were more common after the second vaccination, particularly with the highest dose, and three participants (21%) in the 250-µg dose group reported one or more severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA-1273 vaccine induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in all participants, and no trial-limiting safety concerns were identified. These findings support further development of this vaccine. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; mRNA-1273 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
13.
N Engl J Med ; 383(25): 2427-2438, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Testing of vaccine candidates to prevent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in an older population is important, since increased incidences of illness and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have been associated with an older age. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of a messenger RNA vaccine, mRNA-1273, which encodes the stabilized prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-2P) in healthy adults. The trial was expanded to include 40 older adults, who were stratified according to age (56 to 70 years or ≥71 years). All the participants were assigned sequentially to receive two doses of either 25 µg or 100 µg of vaccine administered 28 days apart. RESULTS: Solicited adverse events were predominantly mild or moderate in severity and most frequently included fatigue, chills, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. Such adverse events were dose-dependent and were more common after the second immunization. Binding-antibody responses increased rapidly after the first immunization. By day 57, among the participants who received the 25-µg dose, the anti-S-2P geometric mean titer (GMT) was 323,945 among those between the ages of 56 and 70 years and 1,128,391 among those who were 71 years of age or older; among the participants who received the 100-µg dose, the GMT in the two age subgroups was 1,183,066 and 3,638,522, respectively. After the second immunization, serum neutralizing activity was detected in all the participants by multiple methods. Binding- and neutralizing-antibody responses appeared to be similar to those previously reported among vaccine recipients between the ages of 18 and 55 years and were above the median of a panel of controls who had donated convalescent serum. The vaccine elicited a strong CD4 cytokine response involving type 1 helper T cells. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study involving older adults, adverse events associated with the mRNA-1273 vaccine were mainly mild or moderate. The 100-µg dose induced higher binding- and neutralizing-antibody titers than the 25-µg dose, which supports the use of the 100-µg dose in a phase 3 vaccine trial. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; mRNA-1273 Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , T-Lymphocytes/physiology
14.
Cell Rep ; 32(3): 107940, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635658

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the novel viral disease COVID-19. With no approved therapies, this pandemic illustrates the urgent need for broad-spectrum antiviral countermeasures against SARS-CoV-2 and future emerging CoVs. We report that remdesivir (RDV) potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells and primary human airway epithelial cultures (EC50 = 0.01 µM). Weaker activity is observed in Vero E6 cells (EC50 = 1.65 µM) because of their low capacity to metabolize RDV. To rapidly evaluate in vivo efficacy, we engineered a chimeric SARS-CoV encoding the viral target of RDV, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2. In mice infected with the chimeric virus, therapeutic RDV administration diminishes lung viral load and improves pulmonary function compared with vehicle-treated animals. These data demonstrate that RDV is potently active against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo, supporting its further clinical testing for treatment of COVID-19.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 222, 2020 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326513

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the causative agent of a severe respiratory disease associated with more than 2468 human infections and over 851 deaths in 27 countries since 2012. There are no approved treatments for MERS-CoV infection although a combination of lopinavir, ritonavir and interferon beta (LPV/RTV-IFNb) is currently being evaluated in humans in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Here, we show that remdesivir (RDV) and IFNb have superior antiviral activity to LPV and RTV in vitro. In mice, both prophylactic and therapeutic RDV improve pulmonary function and reduce lung viral loads and severe lung pathology. In contrast, prophylactic LPV/RTV-IFNb slightly reduces viral loads without impacting other disease parameters. Therapeutic LPV/RTV-IFNb improves pulmonary function but does not reduce virus replication or severe lung pathology. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence of the potential for RDV to treat MERS-CoV infections.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carboxylesterase/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Development , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Viral Load , Virus Replication/drug effects
16.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(541)2020 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38274

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) traffic frequently between species resulting in novel disease outbreaks, most recently exemplified by the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Here, we show that the ribonucleoside analog ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC; EIDD-1931) has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and related zoonotic group 2b or 2c bat-CoVs, as well as increased potency against a CoV bearing resistance mutations to the nucleoside analog inhibitor remdesivir. In mice infected with SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV, both prophylactic and therapeutic administration of EIDD-2801, an orally bioavailable NHC prodrug (ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine-5'-isopropyl ester), improved pulmonary function and reduced virus titer and body weight loss. Decreased MERS-CoV yields in vitro and in vivo were associated with increased transition mutation frequency in viral, but not host cell RNA, supporting a mechanism of lethal mutagenesis in CoV. The potency of NHC/EIDD-2801 against multiple CoVs and oral bioavailability highlights its potential utility as an effective antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 and other future zoonotic CoVs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ribonucleosides/administration & dosage , Virus Replication/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Resistance, Viral , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Models, Molecular , Mutation/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Primary Cell Culture , RNA, Viral , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Random Allocation , Respiratory System/cytology , SARS-CoV-2
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