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1.
Am J Transl Res ; 14(8): 5693-5711, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral illness with public health importance. The Cabarrus County COVID-19 Prevalence and Immunity (C3PI) Study is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study designed to contribute valuable information on community prevalence of active COVID-19 infection and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as the pandemic and responses to it have and continue to evolve. We present the rationale, study design, and baseline characteristics of the C3PI Study. METHODS: We recruited 1,426 participants between June 2020 and August 2020 from the Measurement to Understand the Reclassification of Disease of Cabarrus/Kannapolis (MURDOCK) Study Community Registry and Biorepository, a previously established, community-based, longitudinal cohort. Participants completed a baseline survey and follow-up surveys every two weeks. A nested weighted, random sub-cohort (n=300) was recruited to measure the incidence and prevalence of active COVID-19 infection and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. RESULTS: The sub-cohort was younger (56 vs 61 years), had more men (39.0% vs 30.9%), and a higher proportion of Hispanic (11.0% vs 5.1%) and Black participants (17.0% vs 8.2%) compared with the overall cohort. They had similar anthropometrics and medical histories, but a greater proportion of the sub-cohort had a higher educational degree (36.1% vs 31.3%) and reported a pre-pandemic annual household income of >$90,000 (57.1% vs 47.9%). CONCLUSION: This study is part of a multisite consortium that will provide critical data on the epidemiology of COVID-19 and community perspectives about the pandemic, behaviors and mitigation strategies, and individual and community burden in North Carolina.

2.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(4): e554, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955906

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Several cases of symptomatic reinfection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after full recovery from a prior episode have been reported. As reinfection has become an increasingly common phenomenon, an improved understanding of the risk factors for reinfection and the character and duration of the serological responses to infection and vaccination is critical for managing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: We described four cases of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in individuals representing a spectrum of healthy and immunocompromised states, including (1) a healthy 41-year-old pediatrician, (2) an immunocompromised 31-year-old with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, (3) a healthy 26-year-old pregnant woman, and (4) a 50-year-old with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. We performed confirmatory quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and qualitative immunoglobulin M and quantitative IgG testing on all available patient samples to confirm the presence of infection and serological response to infection. Results: Our analysis showed that patients 1 and 2, a healthy and an immunocompromised patient, both failed to mount a robust serologic response to the initial infection. In contrast, patients 3 and 4, with minimal comorbid disease, both mounted a strong serological response to their initial infection, but were still susceptible to reinfection. Conclusion: Repeat episodes of COVID-19 are capable of occurring in patients regardless of the presence of known risk factors for infection or level of serological response to infection, although this did not trigger critical illness in any instance.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11714, 2022 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927103

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers profound and variable immune responses in human hosts. Chromatin remodeling has been observed in individuals severely ill or convalescing with COVID-19, but chromatin remodeling early in disease prior to anti-spike protein IgG seroconversion has not been defined. We performed the Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) and RNA-seq on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from outpatients with mild or moderate symptom severity at different stages of clinical illness. Early in the disease course prior to IgG seroconversion, modifications in chromatin accessibility associated with mild or moderate symptoms were already robust and included severity-associated changes in accessibility of genes in interleukin signaling, regulation of cell differentiation and cell morphology. Furthermore, single-cell analyses revealed evolution of the chromatin accessibility landscape and transcription factor motif accessibility for individual PBMC cell types over time. The most extensive remodeling occurred in CD14+ monocytes, where sub-populations with distinct chromatin accessibility profiles were observed prior to seroconversion. Mild symptom severity was marked by upregulation of classical antiviral pathways, including those regulating IRF1 and IRF7, whereas in moderate disease, these classical antiviral signals diminished, suggesting dysregulated and less effective responses. Together, these observations offer novel insight into the epigenome of early mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and suggest that detection of chromatin remodeling in early disease may offer promise for a new class of diagnostic tools for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chromatin , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/genetics , Chromatin/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 6(7): 791-805, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921614

ABSTRACT

The first two mRNA vaccines against infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that were approved by regulators require a cold chain and were designed to elicit systemic immunity via intramuscular injection. Here we report the design and preclinical testing of an inhalable virus-like-particle as a COVID-19 vaccine that, after lyophilisation, is stable at room temperature for over three months. The vaccine consists of a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) conjugated to lung-derived exosomes which, with respect to liposomes, enhance the retention of the RBD in both the mucus-lined respiratory airway and in lung parenchyma. In mice, the vaccine elicited RBD-specific IgG antibodies, mucosal IgA responses and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with a Th1-like cytokine expression profile in the animals' lungs, and cleared them of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus after a challenge. In hamsters, two doses of the vaccine attenuated severe pneumonia and reduced inflammatory infiltrates after a challenge with live SARS-CoV-2. Inhalable and room-temperature-stable virus-like particles may become promising vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e928-e937, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and typically have milder illness courses than adults, but the factors underlying these age-associated differences are not well understood. The upper respiratory microbiome undergoes substantial shifts during childhood and is increasingly recognized to influence host defense against respiratory pathogens. Thus, we sought to identify upper respiratory microbiome features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and illness severity. METHODS: We collected clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs from 285 children, adolescents, and young adults (<21 years) with documented SARS-CoV-2 exposure. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome and evaluated for age-adjusted associations between microbiome characteristics and SARS-CoV-2 infection status and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal microbiome composition varied with age (PERMANOVA, P < .001; R2 = 0.06) and between SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with and without respiratory symptoms (PERMANOVA, P  = .002; R2 = 0.009). SARS-CoV-2-infected participants with Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant microbiome profiles were less likely to have respiratory symptoms than infected participants with other nasopharyngeal microbiome profiles (OR: .38; 95% CI: .18-.81). Using generalized joint attributed modeling, we identified 9 bacterial taxa associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 6 taxa differentially abundant among SARS-CoV-2-infected participants with respiratory symptoms; the magnitude of these associations was strongly influenced by age. CONCLUSIONS: We identified interactive relationships between age and specific nasopharyngeal microbiome features that are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and symptoms in children, adolescents, and young adults. Our data suggest that the upper respiratory microbiome may be a mechanism by which age influences SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and illness severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Adolescent , Bacteria/genetics , Child , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
JAMA Health Forum ; 2(10): e213035, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858105

ABSTRACT

Importance: The importance of surveillance testing and quarantine on university campuses to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission needs to be reevaluated in the context of a complex and rapidly changing environment that includes vaccines, variants, and waning immunity. Also, recent US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines suggest that vaccinated students do not need to participate in surveillance testing. Objective: To evaluate the use of surveillance testing and quarantine in a fully vaccinated student population for whom vaccine effectiveness may be affected by the type of vaccination, presence of variants, and loss of vaccine-induced or natural immunity over time. Design Setting and Participants: In this simulation study, an agent-based Susceptible, Exposed, Infected, Recovered model was developed with some parameters estimated using data from the 2020 to 2021 academic year at Duke University (Durham, North Carolina) that described a simulated population of 5000 undergraduate students residing on campus in residential dormitories. This study assumed that 100% of residential undergraduates are vaccinated. Under varying levels of vaccine effectiveness (90%, 75%, and 50%), the reductions in the numbers of positive cases under various mitigation strategies that involved surveillance testing and quarantine were estimated. Main Outcomes and Measures: The percentage of students infected with SARS-CoV-2 each day for the course of the semester (100 days) and the total number of isolated or quarantined students were estimated. Results: A total of 5000 undergraduates were simulated in the study. In simulations with 90% vaccine effectiveness, weekly surveillance testing was associated with only marginally reduced viral transmission. At 50% to 75% effectiveness, surveillance testing was estimated to reduce the number of infections by as much as 93.6%. A 10-day quarantine protocol for exposures was associated with only modest reduction in infections until vaccine effectiveness dropped to 50%. Increased testing of reported contacts was estimated to be at least as effective as quarantine at limiting infections. Conclusions and Relevance: In this simulated modeling study of infection dynamics on a college campus where 100% of the student body is vaccinated, weekly surveillance testing was associated with a substantial reduction of campus infections with even a modest loss of vaccine effectiveness. Model simulations also suggested that an increased testing cadence can be as effective as a 10-day quarantine period at limiting infections. Together, these findings provide a potential foundation for universities to design appropriate mitigation protocols for the 2021 to 2022 academic year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Quarantine , Students , Universities
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 672-683, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700734

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurveys can estimate cumulative incidence for monitoring epidemics, requiring assessment of serologic assays to inform testing algorithm development and interpretation of results. We conducted a multilaboratory evaluation of 21 commercial high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays using blinded panels of 1,000 highly characterized specimens. Assays demonstrated a range of sensitivities (96%-63%), specificities (99%-96%), and precision (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.55-0.99). Durability of antibody detection was dependent on antigen and immunoglobulin targets; antispike and total Ig assays demonstrated more stable longitudinal reactivity than antinucleocapsid and IgG assays. Assays with high sensitivity, specificity, and durable antibody detection are ideal for serosurveillance, but assays demonstrating waning reactivity are appropriate for other applications, including correlation with neutralizing activity and detection of anamnestic boosting by reinfections. Assay performance must be evaluated in context of intended use, particularly in the context of widespread vaccination and circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods
8.
Transl Res ; 242: 38-55, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550105

ABSTRACT

The remarkable success of SARS CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccines and the ensuing interest in mRNA vaccines and therapeutics have highlighted the need for a scalable clinical-enabling manufacturing process to produce such products, and robust analytical methods to demonstrate safety, potency, and purity. To date, production processes have either not been disclosed or are bench-scale in nature and cannot be readily adapted to clinical and commercial scale production. To address these needs, we have advanced an aqueous-based scalable process that is readily adaptable to GMP-compliant manufacturing, and developed the required analytical methods for product characterization, quality control release, and stability testing. We also have demonstrated the products produced at manufacturing scale under such approaches display good potency and protection in relevant animal models with mRNA products encoding both vaccine immunogens and antibodies. Finally, we discuss continued challenges in raw material identification, sourcing and supply, and the cold chain requirements for mRNA therapeutic and vaccine products. While ultimate solutions have yet to be elucidated, we discuss approaches that can be taken that are aligned with regulatory guidance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2875-e2882, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Child with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection typically have mild symptoms that do not require medical attention, leaving a gap in our understanding of the spectrum of SARS-CoV-2-related illnesses that the viruses causes in children. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of children and adolescents (aged <21 years) with a SARS-CoV-2-infected close contact. We collected nasopharyngeal or nasal swabs at enrollment and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: Of 382 children, 293 (77%) were SARS-CoV-2-infected. SARS-CoV-2-infected children were more likely to be Hispanic (P < .0001), less likely to have asthma (P = .005), and more likely to have an infected sibling contact (P = .001) than uninfected children. Children aged 6-13 years were frequently asymptomatic (39%) and had respiratory symptoms less often than younger children (29% vs 48%; P = .01) or adolescents (29% vs 60%; P < .001). Compared with children aged 6-13 years, adolescents more frequently reported influenza-like (61% vs 39%; P < .001) , and gastrointestinal (27% vs 9%; P = .002), and sensory symptoms (42% vs 9%; P < .0001) and had more prolonged illnesses (median [interquartile range] duration: 7 [4-12] vs 4 [3-8] days; P = 0.01). Despite the age-related variability in symptoms, wWe found no difference in nasopharyngeal viral load by age or between symptomatic and asymptomatic children. CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic ethnicity and an infected sibling close contact are associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 infection risk among children, while asthma is associated with decreased risk. Age-related differences in clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection must be considered when evaluating children for coronavirus disease 2019 and in developing screening strategies for schools and childcare settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Nasopharynx , Prospective Studies , Viral Load
10.
Med (N Y) ; 2(6): 755-772.e5, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphisms in immune responses contribute to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, but the mechanisms governing this disparity remain incompletely understood. METHODS: We carried out sex-balanced sampling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from hospitalized and non-hospitalized individuals with confirmed COVID-19, uninfected close contacts, and healthy control individuals for 36-color flow cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing. FINDINGS: Our results revealed a pronounced reduction of circulating mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in infected females. Integration of published COVID-19 airway tissue datasets suggests that this reduction represented a major wave of MAIT cell extravasation during early infection in females. Moreover, MAIT cells from females possessed an immunologically active gene signature, whereas cells from males were pro-apoptotic. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings uncover a female-specific protective MAIT cell profile, potentially shedding light on reduced COVID-19 susceptibility in females. FUNDING: This work was supported by NIH/NIAID (U01AI066569 and UM1AI104681), the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA; N66001-09-C-2082 and HR0011-17-2-0069), the Veterans Affairs Health System, and Virology Quality Assurance (VQA; 75N93019C00015). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official view of the National Institutes of Health. COVID-19 samples were processed under Biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) with aerosol management enhancement or BSL-3 in the Duke Regional Biocontainment Laboratory, which received partial support for construction from NIH/NIAID (UC6AI058607).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , United States
11.
Cell ; 184(16): 4203-4219.e32, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275187

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) protect against COVID-19. A concern regarding SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is whether they mediate disease enhancement. Here, we isolated NAbs against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike from individuals with acute or convalescent SARS-CoV-2 or a history of SARS-CoV infection. Cryo-electron microscopy of RBD and NTD antibodies demonstrated function-specific modes of binding. Select RBD NAbs also demonstrated Fc receptor-γ (FcγR)-mediated enhancement of virus infection in vitro, while five non-neutralizing NTD antibodies mediated FcγR-independent in vitro infection enhancement. However, both types of infection-enhancing antibodies protected from SARS-CoV-2 replication in monkeys and mice. Three of 46 monkeys infused with enhancing antibodies had higher lung inflammation scores compared to controls. One monkey had alveolar edema and elevated bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory cytokines. Thus, while in vitro antibody-enhanced infection does not necessarily herald enhanced infection in vivo, increased lung inflammation can rarely occur in SARS-CoV-2 antibody-infused macaques.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Haplorhini , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains , RNA, Guide/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Load , Virus Replication
12.
Nature ; 594(7864): 553-559, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221200

ABSTRACT

Betacoronaviruses caused the outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, as well as the current pandemic of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1-4. Vaccines that elicit protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and betacoronaviruses that circulate in animals have the potential to prevent future pandemics. Here we show that the immunization of macaques with nanoparticles conjugated with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, and adjuvanted with 3M-052 and alum, elicits cross-neutralizing antibody responses against bat coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (including the B.1.1.7, P.1 and B.1.351 variants). Vaccination of macaques with these nanoparticles resulted in a 50% inhibitory reciprocal serum dilution (ID50) neutralization titre of 47,216 (geometric mean) for SARS-CoV-2, as well as in protection against SARS-CoV-2 in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Nucleoside-modified mRNAs that encode a stabilized transmembrane spike or monomeric receptor-binding domain also induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV and bat coronaviruses, albeit at lower titres than achieved with the nanoparticles. These results demonstrate that current mRNA-based vaccines may provide some protection from future outbreaks of zoonotic betacoronaviruses, and provide a multimeric protein platform for the further development of vaccines against multiple (or all) betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Common Cold/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , Pandemics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Common Cold/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Macaca/immunology , Male , Models, Molecular , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Trachea , Vaccination
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1079, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087444

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to trigger a wide spectrum of immune responses and clinical manifestations in human hosts. Here, we sought to elucidate novel aspects of the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection through RNA sequencing of peripheral blood samples from 46 subjects with COVID-19 and directly comparing them to subjects with seasonal coronavirus, influenza, bacterial pneumonia, and healthy controls. Early SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers a powerful transcriptomic response in peripheral blood with conserved components that are heavily interferon-driven but also marked by indicators of early B-cell activation and antibody production. Interferon responses during SARS-CoV-2 infection demonstrate unique patterns of dysregulated expression compared to other infectious and healthy states. Heterogeneous activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways are present in early COVID-19, as are IL1 and JAK/STAT signaling pathways, which persist into late disease. Classifiers based on differentially expressed genes accurately distinguished SARS-CoV-2 infection from other acute illnesses (auROC 0.95 [95% CI 0.92-0.98]). The transcriptome in peripheral blood reveals both diverse and conserved components of the immune response in COVID-19 and provides for potential biomarker-based approaches to diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Transcriptome/genetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(46): 1743-1747, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937756

ABSTRACT

On university campuses and in similar congregate environments, surveillance testing of asymptomatic persons is a critical strategy (1,2) for preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). All students at Duke University, a private research university in Durham, North Carolina, signed the Duke Compact (3), agreeing to observe mandatory masking, social distancing, and participation in entry and surveillance testing. The university implemented a five-to-one pooled testing program for SARS-CoV-2 using a quantitative, in-house, laboratory-developed, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test (4,5). Pooling of specimens to enable large-scale testing while minimizing use of reagents was pioneered during the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic (6). A similar methodology was adapted for Duke University's asymptomatic testing program. The baseline SARS-CoV-2 testing plan was to distribute tests geospatially and temporally across on- and off-campus student populations. By September 20, 2020, asymptomatic testing was scaled up to testing targets, which include testing for residential undergraduates twice weekly, off-campus undergraduates one to two times per week, and graduate students approximately once weekly. In addition, in response to newly identified positive test results, testing was focused in locations or within cohorts where data suggested an increased risk for transmission. Scale-up over 4 weeks entailed redeploying staff members to prepare 15 campus testing sites for specimen collection, developing information management tools, and repurposing laboratory automation to establish an asymptomatic surveillance system. During August 2-October 11, 68,913 specimens from 10,265 graduate and undergraduate students were tested. Eighty-four specimens were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 51% were among persons with no symptoms. Testing as a result of contact tracing identified 27.4% of infections. A combination of risk-reduction strategies and frequent surveillance testing likely contributed to a prolonged period of low transmission on campus. These findings highlight the importance of combined testing and contact tracing strategies beyond symptomatic testing, in association with other preventive measures. Pooled testing balances resource availability with supply-chain disruptions, high throughput with high sensitivity, and rapid turnaround with an acceptable workload.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , North Carolina/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Program Development , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Viral Load
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