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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939062

ABSTRACT

Information on the efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in daily clinical practice is very scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of fully vaccinated patients with mild to moderate breakthrough COVID-19 treated with molnupiravir between January 2022 and February 2022. Overall, 145 patients were enrolled. Their median age was 71.0 years, and 60.7% were males. The most common underlying condition was a severe cardiovascular disease (37.2%), followed by primary or acquired immunodeficiency (22.8%), and oncological/onco-hematological disease in the active phase (22.1%). At 30 days after breakthrough COVID-19 diagnosis, only 4 out of 145 patients (2.7%) required hospital admission. No patients developed severe COVID-19, were admitted to the ICU, or died during the follow-up period. Adverse events, mild in intensity, occurred in 2 patients (1.4%). Our results support the current evidence establishing positive clinical and safety outcomes of molnupiravir in fully vaccinated patients with mild or moderate breakthrough COVID-19.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911405

ABSTRACT

We assessed SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in samples from 89 acute COVID-19 patients, utilizing blood samples collected during the first wave of COVID-19 in Italy. The goal of the study was to examine correlations between SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses in the early phase comparing mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 disease outcomes. T cell responses to the spike (S) and non-S proteins were measured in a combined activation-induced marker (AIM) and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay. Early CD4+ T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 S correlated with milder disease by both AIM and IFNγ ICS readouts. The correlation of S-specific CD4+ T cell responses with milder disease severity was most striking within the first two weeks of symptom onset compared to later time points. Furthermore, donors with milder disease were associated with polyantigenic CD4+ T cell responses that recognized more prominently non-S proteins in addition to S, while severe acute COVID-19 was characterized by lower magnitudes of CD4+ T cell responses and a narrower repertoire. In conclusion, this study highlights that both the magnitude and breadth of early SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell responses correlated with milder disease outcomes in acute COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Community Health ; 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899237

ABSTRACT

Diagnosing people living with chronic viral hepatitis is challenging due to the absence of symptoms as long as liver decompensated cirrhosis come out. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and/or HCV infections in a non-selected population, hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 infection in a tertiary care hospital in Northern Italy. During the study period 1,429 patients were admitted to hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection, serologic tests for HBV and/or HCV were available for 382 (27%) patients and 3 were excluded due to their previous known serologic status. Among 379 patients, 235 (62%) were male, median age was 70 years (range 21-103), 360 (95%) were Caucasian. Among them, 372/379 (98%) were screened for HBsAg, 320/379 (84%) for HBcAb. HBsAg was positive in 2/372 (0.5%, 95% CI 0.0006-0.02) patients (only in one HBV-DNA was performed that was negative), while HBcAb was found positive in 55/320 (17%, 95% CI 0.13-0.22). Among 370/379 (98%) patients screened for HCV, 11/370 (3%, 95% CI 0.02-0.05) had positive HCV-Ab. Five out of 11 (45%) were tested for HCV-RNA that resulted positive in two patients (0.5%, 95% CI 0.0006-0.02). Considering this data, even though the screening was performed in only 27% of study population, a tailored screening in people with known risk factors for hepatitis might be preferable to universal screening in low prevalence areas. Also a prompt diagnostic workout should begin in case of clinical or laboratory suspicion of hepatitis and in those starting immunosuppressive treatments.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337875

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection have an overwhelming inflammatory response characterized by remarkable organs monocyte infiltration. We performed an immunophenotypic analysis on circulating monocytes in 19 COVID-19 patients in comparison with 11 naïve HIV-1 patients and 10 healthy subjects. Reduced frequency of classical monocytes and increased frequency of intermediate monocytes characterized COVID-19 patients with respect to both HIV naïve patients and healthy subjects. Intensity of C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) monocyte expression highly correlated with parameters of kidney dysfunction. Our data indicate that highly activated monocytes of COVID-19 patients may be pathogenically associated to the development of renal disease.

5.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(3): 1149-1160, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783017

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Candida auris (C. auris) is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, and a sharp rise in cases of colonization and infection has been registered in intensive care units (ICUs) during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The unfavorable resistance profile of C. auris and the potential high mortality of C. auris infections represent an important challenge for physicians. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study including all patients admitted to ICUs with isolation of C. auris in any non-sterile body site between February 20, 2020, and May 31, 2021. The primary aim of the study was to assess the cumulative incidence of C. auris candidemia in colonized patients. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of C. auris candidemia in the study population. RESULTS: During the study period, 157 patients admitted to ICUs in our hospital became colonized with C. auris; 59% of them were affected by COVID-19. Overall, 27 patients (17%) developed C. auris candidemia. The cumulative risk of developing C. auris candidemia was > 25% at 60 days after first detection of C. auris colonization. Seven patients with C. auris candidemia (26%) also developed a late recurrent episode. All C. auris blood isolates during the first occurring episode were resistant to fluconazole and susceptible to echinocandins, while 15 (56%) were resistant to amphotericin B. During late recurrent episodes, emergent resistance to caspofungin and amphotericin B occurred in one case each. In the final multivariable model, only multisite colonization retained an independent association with the development of C. auris candidemia. CONCLUSION: Candida auris candidemia may occur in up to one fourth of colonized critically ill patients, and multisite colonization is an independent risk factor for the development of candidemia. Implementing adequate infection control measures remains crucial to prevent colonization with C. auris and indirectly the subsequent development of infection.

6.
The New Microbiologica ; 44(4):245, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1696108

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study describes demographics and outcomes of adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to our ward during the first wave (from February 25 to May 30, 2020) and during the second wave (from August 5 to November 30, 2020). The primary study objective was to evaluate overall in-hospital mortality, which was 21.1% (60/285) vs 10.3% (27/261) (p=.0006). This study seems to corroborate and expand the concept that the second wave of COVID-19 was less deadly than the first. Despite some limitations, the clinical and managerial experience gained during the first wave trained us to handle and control the second one.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322195

ABSTRACT

Background: Some patients affected by COVID-19 present a life-threatening hyperinflammatory state known as cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) associated with a high mortality rate. Our hypothesis is that a eucaloric ketogenic diet (EKD) may be a safe and efficacious treatment option to reduce CSS and consequently to reduce the need for CPAP, ICU admission and COVID-19 mortality.Aim of the study: The primary objective is to explore the effect of an EKD on mortality, admission to the ICU and the need for NIV in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in comparison to a eucaloric standard diet (ESD). The secondary objectives are to collect data about the safety and feasibility of an EKD during hospitalization and to evaluate the effect of the diet on biological and inflammatory parameters, particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6).Patients and methods: The study is a retrospective explorative analysis of 34 patients fed with an EKD during hospitalization for COVID-19 in comparison to 68 patients fed an ESD selected and matched using propensity score one-to-two to avoid the confounding effect of interfering variables. Results: A trend of reduced 30-day mortality (HR 0.416, 95% CI 0.122 – 1.413, P = 0.160) and a trend regarding the need for ICU admission (HR 0.357, 95% CI 0.045 – 2.847, P = 0.331) were observed in subjects treated with the EKD compared to patients fed with the standard diet. No significantly different risks in the need for CPAP (HR 0.968, CI 0.289 – 3.242, P = 0.958 for EKD) or the composite endpoint (HR 0.674, CI 0.233 – 1.949, P = 0.446 for EKD) were detectable between the two groups of dietary patterns.Furthermore, IL-6 concentrations between t 0 and t 7 (seven days after the beginning of the diet) in the ketogenic nutrition group showed a median difference of -26.0 ȵg/mL and a mean difference of -164 ȵg/mL (data from 23 of the 34 pairs) compared to controls, with a trend toward significance (P = 0.062). EKD was safe and no adverse events were observed in patients fed an EKD.Discussion and conclusions: These preliminary data on the clinical results for mortality, need for ICU admission and the effect on the IL-6 concentration during EKD feeding, collected in a retrospective way during the most aggressive period of the COVID-19 pandemic, suggest a favorable role of this dietary treatment in COVID-19 clinical management. The EKD was safe and well accepted by patients during hospitalization and seems to be an interesting tool in controlling COVID-19 CSS. The results of the prospective controlled randomized trial, currently underway with a large number of subjects, are necessary to confirm these preliminary data.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309368

ABSTRACT

Background: To describe the cellular characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation;the secondary outcome is to describe BALF findings between survivors vs non-survivors. Materials and Methods Patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT PCR, admitted to ICU between March and April 2020 were enrolled. At ICU admission, BALF were analyzed by flow cytometry. Univariate, multivariate and Spearman correlation analyses were performed. Results Sixty-four patients were enrolled, median age of 64 years (IQR 58–69). The majority cells in the BALF were neutrophils (70%, IQR 37.5–90.5) and macrophages (27%, IQR 7–49) while a minority were lymphocytes, 1%, TCD3 + 92% (IQR 82–95). The ICU mortality was 32.8%. Non-survivors had a significantly older age (p = 0.033) and peripheral lymphocytes (p = 0.012) were lower compared to the survivors. At multivariate analysis the percentage of macrophages in the BALF correlated with poor outcome (OR 1.336, CI95% 1.014–1.759, p = 0.039). Conclusions In critically ill patients, BALF cellularity is mainly composed of neutrophils and macrophages. The macrophages percentage in the BALF at ICU admittance correlated with higher ICU mortality. The lack of lymphocytes in BALF could partly explain a reduced anti-viral response.

9.
Mycoses ; 65(4): 411-418, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is challenging, and the role of Aspergillus-PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated diagnostic accuracy of Aspergillus-PCR in BAL in IPA in three different cohorts: ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19, ICU-admitted patients without COVID-19 and immunocompromised patients. METHODS: All stored available BAL samples collected from three patient groups were tested with Aspergillus-PCR (AsperGenius® ). IPA was diagnosed according to appropriate criteria for each patient group. RESULTS: We included 111 BAL samples from 101 patients: 52 (51%) patients admitted to ICU for COVID-19, 24 (24%) admitted to ICU for other reasons and 25 (25%) immunocompromised. There were 31 cases of IPA (28%). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 64% (95% CI 47-79) and specificity 99% (95% CI 93-100). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 40% (95%CI 19-64) in ICU COVID-19, 67% (95% CI 21-93) in non-COVID-19 ICU patients and 92% (95%CI 67-98) in the immunocompromised. The concordance between positive BAL-GM and BAL-PCR in patients with and without IPA was significantly lower in ICU patients (32%; 43% in COVID-19, 18% in non-COVID-19) than in the immunocompromised (92%), p < .001. CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus-PCR in BAL improves the diagnostic accuracy of BAL-GM in ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus/genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Galactose , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Microorganisms ; 10(2)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674731

ABSTRACT

Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been described in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. In the present two-center retrospective experience, we primarily aimed to assess the cumulative risk of HSV-1 reactivation detected on bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) samples in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients with worsening respiratory function. The secondary objectives were the identification of predictors for HSV-1 reactivation and the assessment of its possible prognostic impact. Overall, 41 patients met the study inclusion criteria, and 12/41 patients developed HSV-1 reactivation (29%). No independent predictors of HSV-1 reactivation were identified in the present study. No association was found between HSV-1 reactivation and mortality. Eleven out of 12 patients with HSV-1 reactivation received antiviral therapy with intravenous acyclovir. In conclusion, HSV-1 reactivation is frequently detected in intubated patients with COVID-19. An antiviral treatment in COVID-19 patients with HSV-1 reactivation and worsening respiratory function might be considered.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296942

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the factors contributing to the development of protective immunity after vaccination with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines is fragmentary. Thus we employed high-temporal-resolution transcriptome profiling and in-depth characterization of antibody production approaches to investigate responses to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. There were marked differences in the timing and amplitude of the responses to the priming and booster doses. Notably, two distinct interferon signatures were identified, that differed based on their temporal patterns of induction. The first signature (S1), which was preferentially induced by type I interferon, peaked at day 2 post-prime and at day 1 post-boost, and in both instances was associated with subsequent development of the antibody response. In contrast, the second interferon signature (S2) peaked at day 1 both post-prime and post-boost but was found to be potently induced only post-boost, where it coincided with a robust inflammation peak. Notably, we also observed post-prime-like (S1++,S20/+) and post-boost-like (S1++,S2++) patterns of interferon response among COVID-19 patients. A post-boost-like signature was observed in most severely ill patients at admission to the intensive care unit and was associated with a shorter hospital stay. Interestingly, severely ill patients who stayed hospitalized the longest showed a peculiar pattern of interferon induction (S1-/0,S2+), that we did not observe following the administration of mRNA vaccines. In summary, high temporal resolution profiling revealed an elaborate array of immune responses elicited by priming and booster doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Furthermore, it contributed to the identification of distinct interferon-response phenotypes underpinning vaccine immunogenicity and the course of COVID-19 disease.

12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(11): ofab217, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised patients show prolonged shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in nasopharyngeal swabs. We report a case of prolonged persistence of viable SARS-CoV-2 associated with clinical relapses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma who underwent treatment with rituximab, bendamustine, cytarabine with consequent lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On 5 positive nasopharyngeal swabs, we performed viral culture and next-generation sequencing. We analyzed the patient's adaptive and innate immunity to characterize T- and NK-cell subsets. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs samples remained positive for 268 days. All 5 performed viral cultures were positive, and genomic analysis confirmed a persistent infection with the same strain. Viremia resulted positive in 3 out of 4 COVID-19 clinical relapses and cleared each time after remdesivir treatment. The T- and NK-cell dynamic was different in aviremic and viremic samples, and no SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were detected throughout the disease course. CONCLUSIONS: In our patient, SARS-CoV-2 persisted with proven infectivity for >8 months. Viremia was associated with COVID-19 relapses, and remdesivir treatment was effective in viremia clearance and symptom remission, although it was unable to clear the virus from the upper respiratory airways. During the viremic phase, we observed a low frequency of terminal effector CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood; these are probably recruited in inflammatory tissue for viral eradication. In addition, we found a high level of NK-cell repertoire perturbation with relevant involvement during SARS-CoV-2 viremia.

13.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470899

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies, such as bamlanivimab and etesevimab combination (BEC), have been proposed for patients with mild or moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few studies have assessed the factors associated with the early administration of BEC or the impact of early BEC treatment on the clinical evolution of the patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adults with COVID-19 who received BEC at three institutions in the Liguria region. The primary endpoint was to investigate the clinical variables associated with early BEC infusion. Secondary endpoints were 30-day overall mortality and the composite endpoint of requirement of hospital admission or need for supplemental oxygen during the 30-day follow-up period. A total of 127 patients (median age 70 years; 56.7% males) received BEC. Of those, 93 (73.2%) received BEC within 5 days from symptoms onset (early BEC). Patients with a higher Charlson comorbidity index were more likely to receive early treatment (odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.45; p = 0.03) in contrast to those reporting fever at presentation (OR 0.26, 0.08-0.82; p = 0.02). Early BEC was associated with lower likelihood of hospital admission or need for supplemental oxygen (OR 0.19, 0.06-0.65; p = 0.008). Five patients who received early BEC died during the follow-up period, but only one of them due to COVID-19-related causes. Early bamlanivimab and etesevimab combination was more frequently administered to patients with a high Charlson comorbidity index. Despite this, early BEC was associated with a lower rate of hospital admission or need for any supplementary oxygen compared to late administration. These results suggest that efforts should focus on encouraging early BEC use in patients with mild-moderate COVID-19 at risk for complications.

14.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1779-1786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An unexpected high prevalence of enterococcal bloodstream infection (BSI) has been observed in critically ill patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary objective was to describe the characteristics of ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI in critically ill patients with COVID-19. A secondary objective was to exploratorily assess the predictors of 30-day mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients with ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI. RESULTS: During the study period, 223 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to COVID-19-dedicated ICUs in our centre. Overall, 51 episodes of enterococcal BSI, occurring in 43 patients, were registered. 29 (56.9%) and 22 (43.1%) BSI were caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. The cumulative incidence of ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI was of 229 episodes per 1000 ICU admissions (95% mid-p confidence interval [CI] 172-298). Most patients received an empirical therapy with at least one agent showing in vitro activity against the blood isolate (38/43, 88%). The crude 30-day mortality was 42% (18/43) and 57% (4/7) in the entire series and in patients with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium BSI, respectively. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score showed an independent association with increased mortality (odds ratio 1.32 per one-point increase, with 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.66, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence of enterococcal BSI is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Our results suggest a crucial role of the severity of the acute clinical conditions, to which both the underlying viral pneumonia and the enterococcal BSI may contribute, in majorly influencing the outcome.KEY MESSAGESThe cumulative incidence of enterococcal BSI is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19.The crude 30-day mortality of enterococcal BSI in critically ill patients with COVID-19 may be higher than 40%.There could be a crucial role of the severity of the acute clinical conditions, to which both the underlying viral pneumonia and the enterococcal BSI may contribute, in majorly influencing the outcome.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Mortality , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci , Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Critical Illness , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur J Intern Med ; 94: 39-44, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis of this study is that tocilizumab should affect common signs of infection due to its immunosuppressive properties. Primary aim of the study was to investigate whether the administration of tocilizumab to critically ill patients with COVID-19, led to a different clinical presentation of infectious complications compared to patients who did not receive tocilizumab. Secondary aim was investigating differences in laboratory parameters between groups. METHODS: Single-centre retrospective study, enrolling COVID-19 patients who developed a microbiologically confirmed infectious complication [ventilator associated pneumonia or bloodstream infection] after intensive care unit [ICU] admission and either treated with tocilizumab or not [controls]. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients were included, 25 treated with tocilizumab and 33 controls. Median time from tocilizumab administration to infection onset was 10 days [range 2-26]. Patients were 78% male, with median age 65 years [range 45-79]. At first clinical presentation of the infectious event, the frequency of hypotension [11/25, 44% vs. 11/33, 33%], fever [8/25, 32% vs. 10/33, 30%] or hypothermia [0/25,0%, vs. 2/33, 6%], and oxygen desaturation [6/25, 28% vs 4/33, 12%], as well as the frequency of SOFA score increase of ≥ 2 points [4/25, 16%,vs. 4/33, 12%] was similar in tocilizumab treated patients and controls [p>0.1 for all comparisons]. Among laboratory parameters, C-Reactive Protein elevation was reduced in tocilizumab treated patients compared to controls [8/25, 32% vs. 22/33, 67%, p=0.009]. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of infectious complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU were not affected by tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5608-5613, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363674

ABSTRACT

In this observational study, 13 patients with severe COVID-19 and 10 healthy controls were enrolled. The data concerning the analysis of circulating T cells show that, in severe COVID-19 patients, the expansion of these cell compartments is prone to induce antibody response, inflammation (CCR4+ and CCR6+ TFH) and regulation (CD8+ Treg). This pathogenic mechanism could lead us to envision a possible new form of biological target therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, CCR4 , Receptors, CCR6
19.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(7)2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288790

ABSTRACT

A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the use of ceftaroline in a large teaching hospital in Northern Italy, during a period also including the first months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The primary objective was to describe the use of ceftaroline in terms of indications and characteristics of patients. A secondary objective was to describe the rate of favorable clinical response in patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-BSI) receiving ceftaroline. Overall, 200 patients were included in the study. Most of them had COVID-19 (83%, 165/200) and were hospitalized in medical wards (78%, 155/200). Included patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were given empirical ceftaroline in the suspicion of bacterial co-infection or superinfection. Among patients with MRSA-BSI, ceftaroline was used as a first-line therapy and salvage therapy in 25% (3/12) and 75% (9/12) of cases, respectively, and as a monotherapy or in combination with daptomycin in 58% (7/12) and 42% (5/12) of patients, respectively. A favorable response was registered in 67% (8/12) of patients. Improving etiological diagnosis of bacterial infections is essential to optimize the use of ceftaroline in COVID-19 patients. The use of ceftaroline for MRSA-BSI, either as a monotherapy or in combination with other anti-MRSA agents, showed promising rates of favorable response.

20.
J Virol Methods ; 295: 114201, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral RNA amplification by real-time RT-PCR still represents the gold standard for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, but the development of rapid, reliable and easy-to-perform diagnostic methods is crucial for public health, because of the need of shortening the time of result-reporting with a cost-efficient approach. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our research was to assess the performance of FREND™ COVID-19 Ag assay (NanoEntek, South Korea) as a ultra-rapid frontline test for SARS-CoV-2 identification, in comparison with RT-PCR and another COVID-19 antigen fluorescence immunoassay (FIA). STUDY DESIGN: The qualitative FIA FREND™ test, designed to detect within 3 min the Nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2, was evaluated using nasopharyngeal swabs in Universal Transport Medium (UTM™, Copan Diagnostics Inc, US) from suspected COVID-19 cases who accessed the Emergency Room of the Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Liguria, Northwest Italy. Diagnostic accuracy was determined in comparison with SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and STANDARD F™ COVID-19 Ag FIA test (SD BIOSENSOR Inc., Republic of Korea). RESULTS: In November 2020, 110 nasopharyngeal samples were collected consecutively; 60 resulted RT-PCR positive. With respect to RT-PCR results, sensitivity and specificity of FREND™ COVID-19 Ag test were 93.3 % (95 % CI: 83.8-98.2) and 100 % (95 % CI: 92.9-100), respectively. FREND™and STANDARD F™ COVID-19 Ag FIA assays showed a concordance of 96.4 % (Cohen's k = 0.93, 95 % CI: 0.86-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: FREND™ FIA test showed high sensitivity and specificity in nasopharyngeal swabs. The assay has the potential to become an important tool for an ultra-rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in situations with limited access to molecular diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fluorescence , Humans , Immunoassay , Italy/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
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