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Alternative therapies in health and medicine ; 26:72-78, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1229798


ContextRNA viruses exhibit an extraordinary ability to evolve in a changing environment and to switch from animal hosts to humans. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, recognized as a respiratory disease, is an example of zoonotic transmission of the RNA virus known as SARS-CoV-2. The development and regulatory approval of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 pose multiple preventive and therapeutic challenges, especially during an ongoing pandemic.ObjectiveThe review intended to examine the challenges and recent achievements in the development of vaccine candidates against COVID-19.DesignThe research team performed a literature review, searching relevant and up to date information from the literature. The sources of data included Google Scholar, PubMed, NCBI, and Yahoo. The search terms used were COVID-19 challenges, SARS-CoV-2 prospective challenges, RNA viruses adoptability, host switching by RNA viruses, COVID-19 vaccines.SettingThe study took place at the digital libraries of contributing institutions. The data was combined, selected for further analysis and manuscript preparation at King Abdulaziz University.ResultsRNA viruses with high rate of genome alterations and evolution have better chances to survive in the adverse environmental conditions by adopting the alternate host species. The recent epidemics such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 are examples of zoonotic transmission of RNA viruses from animal species to the humans. However, the mechanisms involved in the switching-on to new host species need further investigations to control the zoonotic transmissions in near future. As of April 2020, 115 candidate vaccines were being evaluated;78 of them had been found to be active, and a few of them are in Phase I trials. In the development of different types of vaccine candidates against COVID-19, multiple international pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are involved.ConclusionsEmerging and re-emerging pathogenic RNA viruses pose a serious threat to human health. Little is known about the human-host adoptive mechanism for zoonotic transmission. Deep insights into the molecular mechanism responsible for the switching of animal or bird viruses to humans could provide target molecules or events to prevent such transmissions in the near future. Fast development and approval of efficacious and safe vaccines is key to the effort to provide preventive measures against COVID-19 and future viruses. However, the development and availability of a vaccine candidate is a time-consuming process and often can't be completed during an epidemic. Currently, several types of vaccines are under development, and most of them won't realistically be available in time for the present COVID-19 pandemic.

Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106879, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919641


OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the potential efficacy of a novel approach to treat COVID-19 patients, using an oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) mixture, via a process called Oxygen-Ozone- Immunoceutical Therapy. The methodology met the criteria of a novel, promising approach to treat successfully elderly COVID-19 patients, particularly when hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) Experimental design: We investigated the therapeutic effect of 4 cycles of O2-O3 in 50 hospitalized COVID-19 subjects suffering from acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), aged more than 60 years, all males and undergoing non invasive mechanical ventilation in ICUs. RESULTS: Following O2-O3 treatment a significant improvement in inflammation and oxygenation indexes occurred rapidly and within the first 9 days after the treatment, despite the expected 14-20 days. A significant reduction of inflammatory and thromboembolic markers (CRP, IL-6, D-dimer) was observed. Furthermore, amelioration in the major respiratory indexes, such as respiratory and gas exchange markers (SatO2%, PaO2/FiO2 ratio), was reported. CONCLUSION: Our results show that O2-O3 treatment would be a promising therapy for COVID-19 patients. It leads patients to a fast recovery from ARDS via the improvement of major respiratory indexes and blood gas parameters, following a relatively short time of dispensed forced ventilation (about one to two weeks). This study may encourage the scientific community to further investigate and evaluate the proposed method for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.

Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/instrumentation , Infusions, Intravenous , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Ozone/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(5): 801-812, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378214


Of huge importance now is to provide a fast, cost-effective, safe, and immediately available pharmaceutical solution to curb the rapid global spread of SARS-CoV-2. Recent publications on SARS-CoV-2 have brought attention to the possible benefit of chloroquine in the treatment of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Whether chloroquine can treat SARS-CoV-2 alone and also work as a prophylactic is doubtful. An effective prophylactic medication to prevent viral entry has to contain, at least, either a protease inhibitor or a competitive virus ACE2-binding inhibitor. Using bromhexine at a dosage that selectively inhibits TMPRSS2 and, in so doing, inhibits TMPRSS2-specific viral entry is likely to be effective against SARS-CoV-2. We propose the use of bromhexine as a prophylactic and treatment. We encourage the scientific community to assess bromhexine clinically as a prophylactic and curative treatment. If proven to be effective, this would allow a rapid, accessible, and cost-effective application worldwide.

Bromhexine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Expectorants/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization/drug effects