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4.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729179

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Since the beginning of the COVID pandemic, studies reported an increase in children's mental health issues and questioned the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: We compared COVID seroconversion in children hospitalized with acute, severe psychiatric symptoms (n = 52) with the sex- and age-matched control group (n = 52) living in the same low-income geographic area and sampled during the same time period. RESULTS: Contrary to our hypothesis, we observed less seroconverted children with psychiatric conditions 9.61% (95% CI, 3.59-21.80) vs 34.61% (95% CI, 22.33-49.16; χ2  = 14.7, P = 1.24E-4; OR = 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05-0.64). CONCLUSION: This suggests a lower direct impact of SARS-CoV-2 compared with the impact of mitigation strategies on psychiatric symptom deterioration in children reported since early stages of the pandemic.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316533

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of the variant of concern (VOC) Alpha on the severity of COVID-19 is debated and has to be analyzed in different epidemiological situations. We report our analysis in France.Methods: We conducted an exposed/unexposed cohort study with retrospective data collection, comparing patients infected by VOC Alpha to patients infected by historical lineages. Participants were matched on age (+/- 2.5 years), sex and region of hospitalization. The primary endpoint was the proportion of hospitalized participants with severe COVID-19, defined as a WHO-scale >5 or by the need of a non-rebreather mask, occurring up to day 29 after admission. We used a logistic regression model stratified on each matched pair and accounting for factors known to be associated with the severity of the disease (age, BMI and comorbidities) to compare the 2 groups. Findings: We included 650 pairs of patients hospitalized between Jan 1, 2021, and Feb 28, 2021, in 47 hospitals. Median age was 70 years and 61.3% of participants were male. The proportion of participants with comorbidities was high in both groups (85.0% vs 90%, p=0.004). Infection by VOC Alpha was associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 (41.7% vs 38.5% - aOR=1.33 95% CI [1.03-1.72]). The rate of mortality was 24.0% vs 19.0% (aHR 1.21 95% CI [0.93-1.58]).Interpretation: Infection by the VOC Alpha was associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 during the third COVID-19 epidemic wave in France.Clinical Trial Registration Details: Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04863547). Funding Information: The study was funded by the ANRS Maladies Infectieuses Emergentes.Declaration of Interests: DC reports HIV grants from Janssen (2017-2018, 2019-2020), personal fees from Janssen (2018) and Gilead (2018, 2020) for lectures on HIV outside the submitted work. CC reports personal fees from Janssen (2018), MSD (2019), Gilead (2018-2020), Theratechnologies (2020) and ViiV Healthcare (2018-2020). HC reports personal fees from MSD (2020) and ViiV Healthcare (2020) for lectures on HIV. GMB reports support for attending meetings and personal fees from BMS, MSD, Janssen, Sanofi, Pfizer and Gilead for lectures outside the submitted work. JP reports support for attending meetings and personal fees from Gilead, Pfizer and Eumedica Gilead for lectures. DD reports personal fees from Gilead, ViiV Healthcare and Janssen for participation on an advisory Board. Other authors declare that they have no competing interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the SPILF Ethics Committee.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310346

ABSTRACT

Background: The virus responsible of severe acute respiratory syndrome named SARS-CoV-2 and causing the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has gone global within three months. The current gold standard technique used to detect SARS-CoV-2 is real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from naso-pharyngeal swabs but it may be negative in up to 30% of COVID-19 patients. Detection of specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 may therefore enhance sensitivity of the current biological diagnosis, as well as monitor the extent of the epidemics in global or specific population, such as health-care worker. Many serological assays are currently available, but their clinical performances are still to be evaluated.Material and Method: A total of 2,594 serum samples collected from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection documented by a positive rRT-PCR were enrolled in this study. They were tested for IgM/IgG/IgA against SARS-CoV-2 using 31 commercial assays. Antibody response was assessed depending on the onset of symptoms. In addition, 1,996 pre-epidemic serum samples expected to be negative were tested to assess specificity.Results: Rapid tests for qualitative detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (RDTs) achieved 77.4-100%, and ELISA/CLIA (ELISA) assays 58.8-100% for SARS-CoV-2-specific total antibodies (TAb) specificity. From 15 days after onset of symptoms, 13/18 RDT and 8/13 ELISA reached sensitivity > 90%. However, only 4 RDT and 3 ELISA assays fitted both sensitivity (> 90%) and specificity (> 98%) criteria according to French recommendations.Conclusions: Serology may offer valuable information during the course of COVID-19 pandemic, at the condition that commercial assays give reliable results. Contrasted performances were observed among the 31 commercial assays we evaluated, which underlines the importance of independent evaluation before clinical implementation.Funding Statement: This study was funded by the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS, AC43)".Declaration of Interests: JM Pawlotsky has served as an advisor and/or a speaker for Abbvie, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Regulus and Siemens Healthcare. C Vauloup-Fellous served as un expert (rubella and CMV serology) for Abbott Diagnostics, Roche Diagnostics, Siemens Healthcare and DiaSorin. No other authors have any competing interests to declare.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. This work was a retrospective non-interventional study with no addition to standard care procedures. Reclassification of biological remnants into research material after completion of the ordered virological tests was approved by the local interventional review board of hospital. According to the French Public Health Code (CSP Article L.1121-1.1) such protocols are exempted from individual informed consent.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307242

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objectives: Our work assessed the prevalence of co-infections in patients with SARS-CoV-2. Methods: All patients hospitalized in a Parisian hospital during the first wave of COVID-19 were tested by mPCR if they presented ILI symptoms. Results: A total of 806 patients (21%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 755 (20%) were positive for other respiratory viruses. Among the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, 49 (6%) had viral co-infections. They presented similar age, symptoms, except for fever (p=0.013) and headaches (p=0.048), than single SARS-CoV-2 infections. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients presenting viral co-infections had similar clinical characteristics and prognosis than patients solely infected with SARS-CoV-2.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-304836

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the earliest COVID19-related signal to anticipate requirements of intensive care unit (ICU) beds. Although the number of ICU beds is crucial during the COVID-19 epidemic, there is no recognized early indicator to anticipate it. Methods: In the Ile-de-France region, from February 20 to May 5, 2020, emergency medical service (EMS) calls and the response provided (ambulances) together the percentage of positive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests, general practitioner (GP) and emergency department (ED) visits, and hospital admissions of COVID-19 patients were recorded daily and compared to the number of ICU patients. Correlation curve analysis was performed to determine the best correlation coefficient, depending on the number of days the indicator has been shifted. Primary endpoint was the number of ICU patients. Results: EMS calls, percentage of positive RT-PCR tests, ambulances used, ED and GP visits of COVID-19 patients were strongly associated with COVID-19 ICU patients with an anticipation delay of 23, 15, 14, 13, and 12 days respectively. Hospitalization did not anticipate ICU bed requirement. Conclusion: The daily number of COVID19-related telephone calls received by the EMS and corresponding dispatch ambulances, and the proportion of positive RT-PCR tests were the earliest indicators of the number of COVID19 patients requiring ICU care during the epidemic crisis, rapidly followed by ED and GP visits. This information may help health authorities to anticipate a future epidemic, including a second wave of COVID19 or decide additional social measures.

9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1094, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634513

ABSTRACT

France went through three deadly epidemic waves due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing major public health and socioeconomic issues. We proposed to study the course of the pandemic along 2020 from the outlook of two major Parisian hospitals earliest involved in the fight against COVID-19. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed on samples from patients and health care workers (HCWs) from Bichat (BCB) and Pitié-Salpêtrière (PSL) hospitals. A tree-based phylogenetic clustering method and epidemiological data were used to investigate suspected nosocomial transmission clusters. Clades 20A, 20B and 20C were prevalent during the spring wave and, following summer, clades 20A.EU2 and 20E.EU1 emerged and took over. Phylogenetic clustering identified 57 potential transmission clusters. Epidemiological connections between participants were found for 17 of these, with a higher proportion of HCWs. The joint presence of HCWs and patients suggest viral contaminations between these two groups. We provide an enhanced overview of SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetic changes over 2020 in the Paris area, one of the regions with highest incidence in France. Despite the low genetic diversity displayed by the SARS-CoV-2, we showed that phylogenetic analysis, along with comprehensive epidemiological data, helps to identify and investigate healthcare associated clusters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paris/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
10.
Eur J Cancer ; 162: 182-193, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616474

ABSTRACT

Taking into account higher risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 or death among patients with cancer, as well as impaired immunogenicity after anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, in addition to waning immunity, booster dosing appears mandatory in this patient population. This review sought to provide reasonable evidence so as to assist oncologists in their daily practice, helping them decide when an anti-SARS-Cov2 antibody (Ab) dosage should be scheduled after a full two-dose vaccination and, if necessary, propose an early third dose (D3). Such D3 could apply to non-responder patients with anti-Spike (S) Abs titres <40 binding Ab unit (BAU)/mL. For lowresponder patients with anti-S Ab titres between 40 BAU/mL and 100/260 BAU/mL (suggested area of uncertainty), an early D3 may similarly be proposed. Nevertheless, this D3 could be administered in a less urgent manner, taking into account associated comorbidities and regional epidemic incidence rates. This latter strategy may comprise a monthly dosage of anti-S titres so as to better assess the kinetics of waning immunity. For responder patients with anti-S titres above 260 BAU/mL, we suggest to follow the recommendations outlined for the general population. Given this context, patients with anti-S titres above 1000 BAU/mL should be given the possibility to undergo anti-S titre control after three months, designed to assess rapid humoral waning immunity. We strongly recommend that patients with cancer be included into observational serological monitoring studies or clinical trials that are dedicated to severe immunocompromised patients without any humoral seroconversion after D3.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Monitoring, Immunologic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 792202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595214

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in China at the end of 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread across the world to become a global public health emergency. Since then, the pandemic has evolved with the large worldwide emergence of new variants, such as the Alpha (B.1.1.7 variant), Beta (B.1.351 variant), and Gamma (P.1 variant), and some other under investigation such as the A.27 in France. Many studies are focusing on antibody neutralisation changes according to the spike mutations, but to date, little is known regarding their respective replication capacities. In this work, we demonstrate that the Alpha variant provides an earlier replication in vitro, on Vero E6 and A549 cells, than Beta, Gamma, A.27, and historical lineages. This earlier replication was associated with higher infectious titres in cell-culture supernatants, in line with the higher viral loads observed among Alpha-infected patients. Interestingly, Beta and Gamma variants presented similar kinetic and viral load than the other non-Alpha-tested variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Kinetics , Pandemics
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260187, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571986

ABSTRACT

To date, there is limited information about the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in semen especially in the acute phase of the infection. While available data from cohort studies including a total of 342 patients in the acute or recovery phase of the infection are reassuring, one study mentioned detecting virus in the semen of 6/38 COVID-19 patients. Here we assessed SARS-CoV-2 presence in the semen of COVID-19 positive patients in the acute stage of infection, within 24 hours of the positive nasopharyngeal swabs. Semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa pellet were screened for SARS-CoV-2 and manual or airborne contamination during semen sampling. Among the 32 COVID-19 volunteers, the median interval from the onset of symptoms to semen collection was 4 days [IQR: 0-8]. Only one presented positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR in semen and seminal plasma fractions, although the spermatozoa pellet was negative. Viral cultures were all negative. We observed slightly higher concentrations of bacterial DNA in the SARS-CoV-2 positive specimen than in all negative samples. The bacteria identified neither confirm nor rule out contamination by oropharyngeal secretions during collection. SARS-CoV-2 was rarely present in semen during the acute phase of the disease. This very rare situation could be connected to oral or manual contamination during semen collection. The possible presence of SARS-CoV-2 in semen calls for nasopharyngeal viral testing and strict hygiene protocols during semen collection before assisted reproductive attempts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Semen/chemistry , Spermatozoa/chemistry , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Semen/virology , Specimen Handling , Spermatozoa/virology
14.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 41(1): 100998, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561582

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
15.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 417, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data in the literature about HSV reactivation in COVID-19 patients are scarce, and the association between HSV-1 reactivation and mortality remains to be determined. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infections primarily on mortality, and secondarily on hospital-acquired pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP) and intensive care unit-bloodstream infection (ICU-BSI). METHODS: We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected data and HSV-1 blood and respiratory samples from all critically ill COVID-19 patients in a large reference center who underwent HSV tests. Using multivariable Cox and cause-specific (cs) models, we investigated the association between HSV reactivation and mortality or healthcare-associated infections. RESULTS: Of the 153 COVID-19 patients admitted for ≥ 48 h from Feb-2020 to Feb-2021, 40/153 (26.1%) patients had confirmed HSV-1 reactivation (19/61 (31.1%) with HSV-positive respiratory samples, and 36/146 (24.7%) with HSV-positive blood samples. Day-60 mortality was higher in patients with HSV-1 reactivation (57.5%) versus without (33.6%, p = 0.001). After adjustment for mortality risk factors, HSV-1 reactivation was associated with an increased mortality risk (hazard risk [HR] 2.05; 95% CI 1.16-3.62; p = 0.01). HAP/VAP occurred in 67/153 (43.8%) and ICU-BSI in 42/153 (27.5%) patients. In patients with HSV-1 reactivation, multivariable cause-specific models showed an increased risk of HAP/VAP (csHR 2.38, 95% CI 1.06-5.39, p = 0.037), but not of ICU-BSI. CONCLUSIONS: HSV-1 reactivation in critically ill COVID-19 patients was associated with an increased risk of day-60 mortality and HAP/VAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Pneumonia , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Herpesvirus 1, Human/physiology , Humans , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Risk Assessment
16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 17(2): 239-251, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527779

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 resulted in a 30% mortality rate in patients with thoracic cancer. Given that patients with cancer were excluded from serum antisevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine registration trials, it is still unknown whether they would develop a protective antispike antibody response after vaccination. This prospective vaccine monitoring study primarily aimed to assess humoral responses to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients with thoracic cancer. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-spike antibodies were measured using the Abbot Architect SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G immunoassay before the first injection of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, at week 4, and 2 to 16 weeks after the second vaccine dose administration. The factors associated with antibody response were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 306 patients, with a median age of 67.0 years (interquartile range: 58-74), were vaccinated. Of these, 283 patients received two vaccine doses at 28-day intervals. After a 6.7-month median follow-up, eight patients (2.6%) contracted proven symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, with rapid favorable evolution. Of the 269 serologic results available beyond day 14 after the second vaccine dose administration, 17 patients (6.3%) were still negative (<50 arbitrary units/mL, whereas 34 (11%) were less than 300 arbitrary units/mL (12.5th percentile). In multivariate analysis, only age (p < 0.01) and long-term corticosteroid treatment (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with a lack of immunization. A total of 30 patients received a third vaccine dose, with only three patients showing persistently negative serology thereafter, whereas the others exhibited clear seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV2 vaccines were found to be efficient in patients with thoracic cancer, most of them being immunized after two doses. A third shot given to 1% of patients with persistent low antibody titers resulted in an 88% immunization rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
19.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(Supplement_3): iii20-iii27, 2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virus-associated respiratory infections are in the spotlight with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the expanding use of multiplex PCR (mPCR). The impact of molecular testing as a point-of-care test (POCT) in the emergency department (ED) is still unclear. OBJECTIVES: To compare the impact of a syndromic test performed in the ED as a POCT and in the central laboratory on length of stay (LOS), antibiotic use and single-room assignment. METHODS: From 19 November 2019 to 9 March 2020, adults with acute respiratory illness seeking care in the ED of a large hospital were enrolled, with mPCR performed with a weekly alternation in the ED as a POCT (week A) or in the central laboratory (week B). RESULTS: 474 patients were analysed: 275 during A weeks and 199 during B weeks. Patient characteristics were similar. The hospital LOS (median 7 days during week A versus 7 days during week B, P = 0.29), the proportion of patients with ED-LOS <1 day (63% versus 60%, P = 0.57) and ED antibiotic prescription (59% versus 58%, P = 0.92) were not significantly different. Patients in the POCT arm were more frequently assigned a single room when having a positive PCR for influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus [52/70 (74%) versus 19/38 (50%) in the central testing arm, P = 0.012]. CONCLUSIONS: Syndromic testing performed in the ED compared with the central laboratory failed to reduce the LOS or antibiotic consumption in patients with acute respiratory illness, but was associated with an increased single-room assignment among patients in whom a significant respiratory pathogen was detected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Point-of-Care Systems , Adult , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Length of Stay , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2
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