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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(5)2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917255

ABSTRACT

Given the increase in bacterial resistance and the decrease in the development of new antibiotics, the appropriate use of old antimicrobials has become even more compulsory. Clindamycin is a lincosamide antibiotic approved for adults and children as a drug of choice for systemic treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and gram-positive anaerobic bacterial infections. Because of its profile and high bioavailability, it is commonly used as part of an oral multimodal alternative for prolonged parenteral antibiotic regimens, e.g., to treat bone and joint or prosthesis-related infections. Clindamycin is also frequently used for (surgical) prophylaxis in the event of beta-lactam allergy. Special populations (pediatrics, pregnant women) have altered cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 activity. As clindamycin is metabolized by the CYP3A4/5 enzymes to bioactive N-demethyl and sulfoxide metabolites, knowledge of the potential relevance of the drug's metabolites and disposition in special populations is of interest. Furthermore, drug-drug interactions derived from CYP3A4 inducers and inhibitors, and the data on the impact of the disease state on the CYP system, are still limited. This narrative review provides a detailed survey of the currently available literature on pharmacology and pharmacokinetics and identifies knowledge gaps (special patient population, drug-drug, and drug-disease interactions) to describe a research strategy for precision medicine.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(8): 1729-1731, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902890

ABSTRACT

Illustrated by a clinical case supplemented by epidemiologic data, early reinfections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 after infection with Delta variant, and reinfection with Omicron BA.2 after Omicron BA.1 infection, can occur within 60 days, especially in young, unvaccinated persons. The case definition of reinfection, which influences retesting policies, should be reconsidered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Euro Surveill ; 27(21)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875328

ABSTRACT

Presence of SARS-CoV-2 was monitored in nasopharyngeal samples from young children aged 6-30 months attending day-care centres (DCCs) in Belgium from May 2020-February 2022. SARS-CoV-2 carriage among DCC children was only detected from November 2021, after emergence of Delta and Omicron variants, in 9 of the 42 DCCs screened. In only one DCC, two children tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the same sampling time point, suggesting limited transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Belgian DCCs among young children during the studied period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Belgium/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333002

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, characterized by a significant antigenic diversity compared to the previous Delta variant, had led to a decrease in antibody efficacy in both convalescent and vaccinees’ sera resulting in high number of reinfections and breakthrough cases worldwide. However, to date, reinfections are defined by the ECDC as two positive tests ≥60 days apart, influencing retesting policies after an initial positive test in several European countries. We illustrate by a clinical case supplemental by epidemiological data that early reinfections do occur within 60 days especially in young, unvaccinated individuals. In older patient groups, unvaccinated and patients with a basic vaccination scheme are more vulnerable to reinfections compared to patients who received a first booster vaccine. For this reason, we consider that the duration of protection offered by a previous infection should be reconsidered, in particular when a shift between consecutive SARS-CoV-2 variants occurs.

6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 825427, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690458

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important and frequently carried respiratory pathogen that has the potential to cause serious invasive diseases, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. Young children and older adults are among the most vulnerable to developing serious disease. With the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic and the concomitant restrictive measures, invasive disease cases caused by respiratory bacterial species, including pneumococci, decreased substantially. Notably, the stringency of the containment measures as well as the visible reduction in the movement of people appeared to coincide with the drop in invasive disease cases. One could argue that wearing protective masks and adhering to social distancing guidelines to halt the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, also led to a reduction in the person-to-person transmission of respiratory bacterial species. Although plausible, this conjecture is challenged by novel data obtained from our nasopharyngeal carriage study which is performed yearly in healthy daycare center attending children. A sustained and high pneumococcal carriage rate was observed amid periods of stringent restrictive measures. This finding prompts us to revisit the connection between nasopharyngeal colonization and invasion and invites us to look closer at the nasopharyngeal microbiome as a whole.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Belgium , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Nasopharynx , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus pneumoniae
7.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(6): e360-e370, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Numbers of weekly cases in 2020 were compared with corresponding data for 2018 and 2019. Data for invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae, a non-respiratory pathogen, were collected from nine laboratories for comparison. The stringency of COVID-19 containment measures was quantified using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed using Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time-series modelling quantified changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. FINDINGS: 27 laboratories from 26 countries and territories submitted data to the IRIS Initiative for S pneumoniae (62 837 total cases), 24 laboratories from 24 countries submitted data for H influenzae (7796 total cases), and 21 laboratories from 21 countries submitted data for N meningitidis (5877 total cases). All countries and territories had experienced a significant and sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in early 2020 (Jan 1 to May 31, 2020), coinciding with the introduction of COVID-19 containment measures in each country. By contrast, no significant changes in the incidence of invasive S agalactiae infections were observed. Similar trends were observed across most countries and territories despite differing stringency in COVID-19 control policies. The incidence of reported S pneumoniae infections decreased by 68% at 4 weeks (incidence rate ratio 0·32 [95% CI 0·27-0·37]) and 82% at 8 weeks (0·18 [0·14-0·23]) following the week in which significant changes in population movements were recorded. INTERPRETATION: The introduction of COVID-19 containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust (UK), Robert Koch Institute (Germany), Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), Pfizer, Merck, Health Protection Surveillance Centre (Ireland), SpID-Net project (Ireland), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European Union), Horizon 2020 (European Commission), Ministry of Health (Poland), National Programme of Antibiotic Protection (Poland), Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), Agencia de Salut Pública de Catalunya (Spain), Sant Joan de Deu Foundation (Spain), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), Swedish Research Council (Sweden), Region Stockholm (Sweden), Federal Office of Public Health of Switzerland (Switzerland), and French Public Health Agency (France).


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , COVID-19/prevention & control , Haemophilus influenzae , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Neisseria meningitidis , Population Surveillance , Prospective Studies , Public Health Practice , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus pneumoniae
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1828-1831, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196520

ABSTRACT

To gain knowledge about the role of young children attending daycare in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic, a random sample of children (n = 84) aged between 6 and 30 months attending daycare in Belgium was studied shortly after the start of the epidemic (February 29th) and before the lockdown (March 18th) by performing in-house SARS-CoV-2 real-time polymerase chain reaction. No asymptomatic carriage of SARS-CoV-2 was detected, whereas common cold symptoms were common (51.2%). Our study shows that in Belgium, there was no sign of early introduction into daycare centers at the moment children being not yet isolated at home, although the virus was clearly circulating. It is clear that more evidence is needed to understand the actual role of young children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and their infection risk when attending daycare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/virology , Child Day Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Belgium/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(11): 1557.e1-1557.e7, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleoprotein using four automated immunoassays and three ELISAs for the detection of total Ig antibodies (Roche) or IgG (Abbott, Diasorin, Snibe, Euroimmun, Mikrogen) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Sensitivity and dynamic trend to seropositivity were evaluated in 233 samples from 114 patients with moderate, severe or critical COVID-19 confirmed with PCR on nasopharyngeal swab. Specificity was evaluated in 113 samples collected before January 2020, including 24 samples from patients with non-SARS coronavirus infection. RESULTS: Sensitivity for all assays was 100% (95% confidence interval 83.7-100) 3 weeks after onset of symptoms. Specificity varied between 94.7% (88.7-97.8) and 100% (96.1-100). Calculated at the cut-offs that corresponded to a specificity of 95% and 97.5%, Roche had the highest sensitivity (85.0% (79.8-89.0) and 81.1% (76.6-85.7), p < 0.05 except vs. Abbott). Seroconversion occurred on average 2 days earlier for Roche total Ig anti-N and the three IgG anti-N assays (Abbott, Mikrogen, Euroimmun) than for the two IgG anti-S assays (Diasorin, Euroimmun) (≥50% seroconversion day 9-10 vs. day 11-12 and p < 0.05 for percent seropositive patients day 9-10 to 17-18). There was no significant difference in the IgG antibody time to seroconversion between critical and non-critical patients. DISCUSSION: Seroconversion occurred within 3 weeks after onset of symptoms with all assays and on average 2 days earlier for assays detecting IgG or total Ig anti-N than for IgG anti-S. The specificity of assays detecting anti-N was comparable to anti-S and excellent in a challenging control population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion , Young Adult
12.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(8): 1293-1299, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141775

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study sought to describe the development, implementation, and requirements of laboratory information system (LIS) functionality to manage test ordering, registration, sample flow, and result reporting during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our large (>12 000 000 tests/y) academic hospital laboratory is the Belgian National Reference Center for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing. We have performed a moving total of >25 000 SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction tests in parallel to standard routine testing since the start of the outbreak. A LIS implementation team dedicated to develop tools to remove the bottlenecks, primarily situated in the pre- and postanalytical phases, was established early in the crisis. RESULTS: We outline the design, implementation, and requirements of LIS functionality related to managing increased test demand during the COVID-19 crisis, including tools for test ordering, standardized order sets integrated into a computerized provider order entry module, notifications on shipping requirements, automated triaging based on digital metadata forms, and the establishment of databases with contact details of other laboratories and primary care physicians to enable automated reporting. We also describe our approach to data mining and reporting of actionable daily summary statistics to governing bodies and other policymakers. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly developed, agile extendable LIS functionality and its meaningful use alleviates the administrative burden on laboratory personnel and improves turnaround time of SARS-CoV-2 testing. It will be important to maintain an environment that is conducive for the rapid adoption of meaningful LIS tools after the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Information Systems , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Laboratories, Hospital/organization & administration , Medical Order Entry Systems , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Academic Medical Centers , Belgium , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Change Management , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Meaningful Use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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