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1.
Dev Cell ; 57(1): 112-145.e2, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587971

ABSTRACT

The human lung plays vital roles in respiration, host defense, and basic physiology. Recent technological advancements such as single-cell RNA sequencing and genetic lineage tracing have revealed novel cell types and enriched functional properties of existing cell types in lung. The time has come to take a new census. Initiated by members of the NHLBI-funded LungMAP Consortium and aided by experts in the lung biology community, we synthesized current data into a comprehensive and practical cellular census of the lung. Identities of cell types in the normal lung are captured in individual cell cards with delineation of function, markers, developmental lineages, heterogeneity, regenerative potential, disease links, and key experimental tools. This publication will serve as the starting point of a live, up-to-date guide for lung research at https://www.lungmap.net/cell-cards/. We hope that Lung CellCards will promote the community-wide effort to establish, maintain, and restore respiratory health.


Subject(s)
Lung/cytology , Lung/physiology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Databases as Topic , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Regeneration/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
2.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(2): e0338, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091206

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Effective treatment options for surfactant therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome and coronavirus disease 2019 have not been established. To conduct preclinical studies in vitro and in vivo to evaluate efficiency, particle size, dosing, safety, and efficacy of inhaled surfactant using a breath-synchronized, nebulized delivery system in an established acute respiratory distress syndrome model. DESIGN: Preclinical study. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Anesthetized pigs. INTERVENTION: In vitro analysis included particle size distribution and inhaled dose during simulated ventilation using a novel breath-synchronized nebulizer. Physiologic effects of inhaled aerosolized surfactant (treatment) were compared with aerosolized normal saline (control) in an adult porcine model (weight of 34.3 ± 0.6 kg) of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (Pao2/Fio2 <100) with lung lavages and ventilator-induced lung injury during invasive ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mass median aerosol diameter was 2.8 µm. In vitro dose delivered distal to the endotracheal tube during mechanical ventilation was 85% ± 5%. Nebulizers were functional up to 20 doses of 108 mg of surfactant. Surfactant-treated animals (n = 4) exhibited rapid improvement in oxygenation with nearly full recovery of Pao2/Fio2 (~300) and end-expiratory lung volumes with nominal dose less than 30 mg/kg of surfactant, whereas control subjects (n = 3) maintained Pao2/Fio2 less than 100 over 4.5 hours with reduced end-expiratory lung volume. There was notably greater surfactant phospholipid content and lower indicators of lung inflammation and pathologic lung injury in surfactant-treated pigs than controls. There were no peridosing complications associated with nebulized surfactant, but surfactant-treated animals had progressively higher airway resistance post treatment than controls with no differences in ventilation effects between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Breath-synchronized, nebulized bovine surfactant appears to be a safe and feasible treatment option for use in coronavirus disease 2019 and other severe forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

3.
Lancet ; 396(10247): 320-332, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of an ongoing pandemic, with increasing deaths worldwide. To date, documentation of the histopathological features in fatal cases of the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has been scarce due to sparse autopsy performance and incomplete organ sampling. We aimed to provide a clinicopathological report of severe COVID-19 cases by documenting histopathological changes and evidence of SARS-CoV-2 tissue tropism. METHODS: In this case series, patients with a positive antemortem or post-mortem SARS-CoV-2 result were considered eligible for enrolment. Post-mortem examinations were done on 14 people who died with COVID-19 at the King County Medical Examiner's Office (Seattle, WA, USA) and Snohomish County Medical Examiner's Office (Everett, WA, USA) in negative-pressure isolation suites during February and March, 2020. Clinical and laboratory data were reviewed. Tissue examination was done by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and quantitative RT-PCR. FINDINGS: The median age of our cohort was 73·5 years (range 42-84; IQR 67·5-77·25). All patients had clinically significant comorbidities, the most common being hypertension, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnoea, and metabolic disease including diabetes and obesity. The major pulmonary finding was diffuse alveolar damage in the acute or organising phases, with five patients showing focal pulmonary microthrombi. Coronavirus-like particles were detected in the respiratory system, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. Lymphocytic myocarditis was observed in one patient with viral RNA detected in the tissue. INTERPRETATION: The primary pathology observed in our cohort was diffuse alveolar damage, with virus located in the pneumocytes and tracheal epithelium. Microthrombi, where observed, were scarce and endotheliitis was not identified. Although other non-pulmonary organs showed susceptibility to infection, their contribution to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection requires further examination. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/ultrastructure , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/ultrastructure , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Heart/virology , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Kidney/virology , Liver/pathology , Liver/ultrastructure , Liver/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Myocardium/ultrastructure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/ultrastructure , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/ultrastructure , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen/pathology , Spleen/ultrastructure , Spleen/virology , Thrombosis/pathology , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/ultrastructure , Trachea/virology , Washington/epidemiology
4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(6): 911.e1-911.e14, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-655482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on pregnant women is incompletely understood, but early data from case series suggest a variable course of illness from asymptomatic or mild disease to maternal death. It is unclear whether pregnant women manifest enhanced disease similar to influenza viral infection or whether specific risk factors might predispose to severe disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal disease and obstetrical outcomes associated with coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy to rapidly inform clinical care. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study of pregnant patients with a laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection from 6 hospital systems in Washington State between Jan. 21, 2020, and April 17, 2020. Demographics, medical and obstetrical history, and coronavirus disease 2019 encounter data were abstracted from medical records. RESULTS: A total of 46 pregnant patients with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were identified from hospital systems capturing 40% of births in Washington State. Nearly all pregnant individuals with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were symptomatic (93.5%, n=43) and the majority were in their second or third trimester (43.5% [n=20] and 50.0% [n=23], respectively). Symptoms resolved in a median of 24 days (interquartile range, 13-37). Notably, 7 women were hospitalized (16%) including 1 admitted to the intensive care unit. A total of 6 cases (15%) were categorized as severe coronavirus disease 2019 with nearly all patients being either overweight or obese before pregnancy or with asthma or other comorbidities. Of the 8 deliveries that occurred during the study period, there was 1 preterm birth at 33 weeks' gestation to improve pulmonary status in a woman with class III obesity, and 1 stillbirth of unknown etiology. CONCLUSION: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 developed in approximately 15% of pregnant patients and occurred primarily in overweight or obese women with underlying conditions. Obesity and coronavirus disease 2019 may synergistically increase risk for a medically indicated preterm birth to improve maternal pulmonary status in late pregnancy. These findings support categorizing pregnant patients as a higher-risk group, particularly those with chronic comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Female , Gestational Age , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Washington/epidemiology
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