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Chest ; 162(4):A623-A624, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060649


SESSION TITLE: Unusual Pneumonias SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) commonly occurs in the setting of immunosuppression. Underlying lung disease is a well-known risk factor for IPA;however, interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been recognized as a risk factor for IPA[1]. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old male with a history of a failed kidney transplant now on hemodialysis (HD), Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, Aspergilloma led to right lower lobectomy a year ago, COVID-19 infection three months ago, chronic lung disease (CLD) thought to be due to Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) presented with dyspnea. He had several hospitalizations for respiratory failure needing intubation or NIPPV, broad-spectrum antibiotics, steroids, and HD with improved respiratory status, eventually discharged. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid culture grew aspergillus terreus but was negative for Pneumocystis (PCP), bacteria, acid-fast bacilli, and Nocardia. The transbronchial biopsies showed mixed inflammatory type and fungal forms in one specimen. Additionally, the initially negative galactomannan converted into a serial rise in galactomannan (>3.75 Index) along with a rise in beta d-glucan (>500 pg/ml). Unfortunately, he had gaps in antifungals and was readmitted similarly. Micafungin was added for dual fungal coverage and was planned for surgical lung biopsy to characterize ILD further once his respiratory status allows. DISCUSSION: He has multiple risk factors for developing IPA, such as high-dose steroids for ILD and recent COVID infection. Initially, respiratory failure was thought to be due to exacerbation of ILD, and suspicion for IPA was low because of lack of neutropenia, negative fungal biomarkers, lack of classic findings on lung imaging, and in-hospital clinical improvement with steroids. However, the eventual course of recurrent respiratory failure while on high-dose steroids, along with gaps in antifungal therapy and continued growth of Aspergillus, made IPA the most likely diagnosis. For IPA, the mainstay of treatment is both adequate antifungal therapy and reduction in immunosuppression to the extent possible[2];however, it is unclear if his underlying ILD can tolerate steroid taper. He will need a lung transplant after adequately treating IPA. CONCLUSIONS: There are no current guidelines on simultaneously treating IPA and NSIP. It is challenging to balance reduction in immunosuppression as tolerated for ILD and concurrently maintain antifungal therapy. During this patient's hospitalization, there have been considerations of using a steroid-sparing agent for his suspected NSIP, however, in the setting of active infection, its benefit is debatable.[3] Reference #1: Matsuyama H, Miyoshi S, Sugino K, et al. Fatal Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Associated with Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia: An Autopsy Case Report. Intern Med. 2018;57(24):3619-3624. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.1144-18 Reference #2: Thomas F. Patterson, George R. Thompson, III, David W. Denning, Jay A. Fishman, Susan Hadley, Raoul Herbrecht, Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, Kieren A. Marr, Vicki A. Morrison, M. Hong Nguyen, Brahm H. Segal, William J. Steinbach, David A. Stevens, Thomas J. Walsh, John R. Wingard, Jo-Anne H. Young, John E. Bennett, Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Aspergillosis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 63, Issue 4, 15 August 2016, Pages e1–e60, Reference #3: Mezger, M., Wozniok, I., Blockhaus, C., Kurzai, O., Hebart, H., Einsele, H., & Loeffler, J. (2008). Impact of mycophenolic acid on the functionality of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and dendritic cells during interaction with Aspergillus fumigatus. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 52(7), 2644–2646. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Nasir Alhamdan No relevant relati nships by Parth Jamindar No relevant relationships by Harshitha Mergey Devender No relevant relationships by Abira Usman No relevant relationships by Vishruth Vyata