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TESOL Quarterly: A Journal for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and of Standard English as a Second Dialect ; 57(2):618-642, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20241906


This paper explores differences in 437 learners' "foreign language classroom anxiety" (FLCA) in in-person and online English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes before the outbreak of the pandemic and during the first lockdown in spring 2020. Statistical analyses of data gathered with a web survey revealed a slight, yet significant drop in learners' overall FLCA in "emergency remote teaching." In order to obtain a more granular view, item-level analyses revealed that learners in online classes were significantly less worried about being outperformed by peers, suffered less from physical symptoms of anxiety when called on in class, and were less anxious when they were in fact well-prepared. Feeling embarrassed to volunteer answers was significantly higher in online classes. Interviews with 21 participants revealed that the interviewees mentioned anxiety-provoking aspects of the class considerably more frequently online than in in-person classes. However, the sources of anxiety in online classes differed from the ones in classes taught on-site. Thus, it seems that the newness of the setting foregrounded anxiety-provoking aspects specific to emergency remote teaching, making others fade into the background at the beginning of the pandemic.

Applied Linguistics Review ; 14(3):473-501, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2318561


Due to the spread of Covid-19, universities had to move their courses online abruptly. This paper explores its impact on 510 European tertiary-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' classroom emotions and analyses possible links to their trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and learner autonomy. Statistical analyses of data gathered with a web survey revealed that students rated their ‘in-person' classes as significantly more enjoyable and also more anxiety-provoking. Overall, levels of foreign language enjoyment (FLE) and foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) were positively correlated between both contexts. The moderate negative correlation between FLE and FLCA in ‘in-person' classes disappeared in emergency remotely taught classes. TEI and learner autonomy were positively correlated, and both were positively linked to FLE and negatively to FLCA in both contexts. This means that more autonomous, emotionally intelligent students tend to be able to enjoy the FL class more – even more so under particularly challenging circumstances. Overall, it seems that learners not being physically present in classrooms weakens all emotions, and breaks the relationship between them. One possible explanation is that disembodied classes have less emotional resonance.