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1.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542427

ABSTRACT

Hyperactivation of immune responses resulting in excessive release of pro-inflammatory mediators in alveoli/lung structures is the principal pathological feature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The cytokine hyperactivation in COVID-19 appears to be similar to those seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease. Emerging evidence conferred the severity and risk of COVID-19 to RA patients. Amid the evidence of musculoskeletal manifestations involving immune-inflammation-dependent mechanisms and cases of arthralgia and/or myalgia in COVID-19, crosstalk between COVID-19 and RA is often debated. The present article sheds light on the pathological crosstalk between COVID-19 and RA, the risk of RA patients in acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in RA development. We also conferred whether RA can exacerbate COVID-19 outcomes based on available clinical readouts. The mechanistic overlapping in immune-inflammatory features in both COVID-19 and RA was discussed. We showed the emerging links of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-dependent and macrophage-mediated pathways in both diseases. Moreover, a detailed review of immediate challenges and key recommendations for anti-rheumatic drugs in the COVID-19 setting was presented for better clinical monitoring and management of RA patients. Taken together, the present article summarizes available knowledge on the emerging COVID-19 and RA crosstalk and their mechanistic overlaps, challenges, and therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
2.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533782

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel coronavirus viz., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in late 2019 and its subsequent substantial spread produced the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide. Given its unprecedented infectivity and pathogenicity, the COVID-19 pandemic had a devastating impact on human health, and its clinical management has been a great challenge, which has led to the development and speedy trials of several vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 at an exceptional pace. As a result, several COVID-19 vaccines were made commercially available in the first half of 2021. Although several COVID-19 vaccines showed promising results, crucial insights into their epidemiology, protective mechanisms, and the propensities of reinfection are not largely reviewed. In the present report, we provided insights into the prospects of vaccination against COVID-19 and assessed diverse vaccination strategies including DNA, mRNA, protein subunits, vector-based, live attenuated, and inactivated whole/viral particle-based vaccines. Next, we reviewed major aspects of various available vaccines approved by the World Health Organization and by the local administrations to use against COVID-19. Moreover, we comprehensively assessed the success of these approved vaccines and also their untoward effects, including the possibility of reinfection. We also provided an update on the vaccines that are under development and could be promising candidates in the future. Conclusively, we provided insights into the COVID-19 vaccine epidemiology, their potency, and propensity for SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, while a careful review of their current status, strategies, success, and future challenges was also presented.

3.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(9): 4694-4715, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281328

ABSTRACT

The unremitting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) marked a year-long phase of public health adversaries and has severely compromised healthcare globally. Early evidence of COVID-19 noted its impact on the pulmonary and cardiovascular functions, while multiple studies in recent time shed light on its substantial neurological complications, though a comprehensive understanding of the cause(s), the mechanism(s), and their neuropathological outcomes is scarce. In the present review, we conferred evidence of neurological complications in COVID-19 patients and shed light on the SARS-CoV-2 infection routes including the hematogenous, direct/neuronal, lymphatic tissue or cerebrospinal fluid, or infiltration through infected immune cells, while the underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 invasion to the central nervous system (CNS) was also discussed. In an up-to-date manner, we further reviewed the impact of COVID-19 in developing diverse neurologic manifestations associated with CNS, peripheral nervous system (PNS), skeletal muscle, and also pre-existing neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and myasthenia gravis. Furthermore, we discussed the involvement of key factors including age, sex, comorbidity, and disease severity in exacerbating the neurologic manifestations in COVID-19 patients. An outlook of present therapeutic strategies and state of existing challenges in COVID-19 management was also accessed. Conclusively, the present report provides a comprehensive review of COVID-19-related neurological complications and emphasizes the need for their early clinical management in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immune System/virology , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Neurons/virology , Organ Specificity , Sex Factors , Viremia/chemically induced , Viremia/immunology , Virus Internalization
4.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 662786, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278422

ABSTRACT

The spectrum of health complications instigated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been diverse and complex. Besides the evident pulmonary and cardiovascular threats, accumulating clinical data points to several neurological complications, which are more common in elderly COVID-19 patients. Recent pieces of evidence have marked events of neuro infection and neuroinvasion, producing several neurological complications in COVID-19 patients; however, a systematic understanding of neuro-pathophysiology and manifested neurological complications, more specifically in elderly COVID-19 patients is largely elusive. Since the elderly population gradually develops neurological disorders with aging, COVID-19 inevitably poses a higher risk of neurological manifestations to the aged patients. In this report, we reviewed SARS-CoV-2 infection and its role in neurological manifestations with an emphasis on the elderly population. We reviewed neuropathological events including neuroinfection, neuroinvasion, and their underlying mechanisms affecting neuromuscular, central- and peripheral- nervous systems. We further assessed the imminent neurological challenges in the COVID-19 exposed population, post-SARS-CoV-2-infection. Given the present state of clinical preparedness, the emerging role of AI and machine learning was also discussed concerning COVID-19 diagnostics and its management. Taken together, the present review summarizes neurological outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated complications, specifically in elderly patients, and underlines the need for their clinical management in advance.

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