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1.
3rd International Conference on Robotics, Electrical and Signal Processing Techniques, ICREST 2023 ; 2023-January:352-357, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2296821

ABSTRACT

Face masks are considered protective equipment that has the ability to safeguard humans from vulnerable situations. Although there exists a wide range of masks specifically designed for diverse purposes, there is a terrible lack of concern regarding proper usage. Consequently, the generalization of their usage can cause many life-threatening problems. As a result, a system that can detect the type of face mask can play a life-saving role to ensure the proper usage of these safety gear. With this aim, a custom dataset was built by manually labeling face mask images which include 8 classes. Scratch CNN and four transfer learning models have been implemented and their performance was thoroughly evaluated and assessed on multiple criteria to select the best one. Based on the investigation, it is found that SSD MobNet V2 achieved the highest accuracy of 83%. The developed system takes real-time video stream input from the camera and can detect the type of mask in different conditions. © 2023 IEEE.

2.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 11(1):150-157, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2276954

ABSTRACT

Most, if not all, the vaccine candidates designed to counteract COVID-19 due to SARS-CoV-2 infection require parenteral administration. Mucosal immunity established by vaccination could significantly contribute to containing the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which is spread by infected respiratory secretions. The world has been impacted on many fronts by the COVID-19 pandemic since early 2020 and has yet to recover entirely from the impact of the crisis. In late 2022 and early 2023, China experienced a new surge of COVID-19 outbreaks, mainly in the country's northeastern region. With the threat of new variants like XBB 1.5 and BF.7, India might experience a similar COVID-19 surge as China and needs to be prepared to avoid destruction again. An intranasal vaccine can elicit multiple immunological responses, including IgG neutralization, mucosal IgA production, and T-cell responses. In order to prevent further infection and the spread of COVID-19, local immune responses in the nasal mucosa are required. iNCOVACC is a recombinant vaccine vectored by an adenovirus that contains a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that has been pre-fusion stabilized. This vaccine candidate has shown promise in both early and late-stage clinical trials. iNCOVACC has been designed for intranasal administration via nasal drops. The nasal delivery system was created to reduce expenses for those living in poor and moderate-income. © 2023, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

3.
Coronaviruses ; 2(9) (no pagination), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2257031

ABSTRACT

From December 2019 till now, the coronavirus disease pandemic has exposed the whole world to a new challenge where the survival of human beings faces an alarming phase. The humankind, with utmost intelligence, is trying to find out the key to unlock the lock made by SARSCoV-2, the causative virus of COVID-19. We here, briefly summarize the possible remedies so far introduced worldwide to combat the deadly pathogenic virus. The article includes the information of varieties of drugs applied globally: allopathic, homeopathic, Ayurveda, nanoparticle implicated protections and vaccination trials along with other biotechnical applications in different countries. Our review work may be useful to scientists involved in research in this field to know the global remedial aspects so far developed and also to create awareness among people regarding the present pandemic and preventive mechanisms.Copyright © 2021 Bentham Science Publishers.

4.
OpenNano ; 11 (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2252122

ABSTRACT

Various health agencies, such as the European Medical Agency (EMA), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO), timely cited the upsurge of antibiotic resistance as a severe threat to the public health and global economy. Importantly, there is a rise in nosocomial infections among covid-19 patients and in-hospitalized patients with the delineating disorder. Most of nosocomial infections are related to the bacteria residing in biofilm, which are commonly formed on material surfaces. In biofilms, microcolonies of various bacteria live in syntropy;therefore, their infections require a higher antibiotic dosage or cocktail of broad-spectrum antibiotics, aggravating the severity of antibiotic resistance. Notably, the lack of intrinsic antibacterial properties in commercial-grade materials desires to develop newer functionalized materials to prevent biofilm formation on their surfaces. To devise newer strategies, materials prepared at the nanoscale demonstrated reasonable antibacterial properties or enhanced the activity of antimicrobial agents (that are encapsulated/chemically functionalized onto the material surface). In this manuscript, we compiled such nanosized materials, specifying their role in targeting specific strains of bacteria. We also enlisted the examples of nanomaterials, nanodevice, nanomachines, nano-camouflaging, and nano-antibiotics for bactericidal activity and their possible clinical implications.Copyright © 2023 The Author(s)

5.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 17(1):385-394, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2251155

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is continually evolving with the emergence of new variants with increased viral pathogenicity. The emergence of heavily mutated Omicron (B.1.1.529) with spike protein mutations are known to mediate its higher transmissibility and immune escape that has brought newer challenges for global public health to contain SARS-CoV-2 infection. One has to come up with a therapeutic strategy against the virus so as to effectively contain the infection and spread. Natural phytochemicals are being considered a significant source of bioactive compounds possessing an antiviral therapeutic potential. Being a promising anticancer and chemo-preventive agent, Silybin holds a significant potential to be used as a therapeutic. In the present study, molecular docking of Silybin with Omicron spike protein (7QNW) was carried out. Molecular docking results showed greater stability of Silybin in the active site of the Omicron spike protein with suitable binding mode of interactions. The study reveals that Silybin has the potential to block the host ACE2 receptor-viral spike protein binding;thereby inhibiting the viral entry to human cells. Therefore, Silybin may be further developed as a medication with the ability to effectively combat SARS-CoV-2 Omicron.Copyright © The Author(s) 2023.

6.
Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems ; 473:377-384, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2243546

ABSTRACT

A convolutional neural network (CNN) has one or more layers and is mainly used for image processing, classification, segmentation. CNN is commonly used for satellite image capturing or classifying hand written letters and digits. In this particular project, a convolutional neural network is trained to predict whether a person is wearing a mask or not. The training is done by using a set of masked and unmasked images which constitutes the training data. The performance of the trained model is evaluated on the test dataset, and the accuracy of the prediction is observed. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 292, 2023 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID) pandemic caused disruption globally and was particularly distressing in low- and middle-income countries such as India. This study aimed to provide population representative estimates of COVID-related outcomes in India over time and characterize how COVID-related changes and impacts differ by key socioeconomic groups across the life course. METHODS: The sample was leveraged from an existing nationally representative study on cognition and dementia in India: Harmonized Diagnostic Assessment of Dementia for the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI-DAD). The wave-1 of LASI-DAD enrolled 4096 older adults aged 60 years and older in 3316 households from 18 states and union territories of India. Out of the 3316 LASI-DAD households, 2704 with valid phone numbers were contacted and invited to participate in the Real-Time Insights COVID-19 in India (RTI COVID-India) study. RTI COVID-India was a bi-monthly phone survey that provided insight into the individual's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour towards COVID-19 and changes in the household's economic and health conditions throughout the pandemic. The survey was started in May 2020 and 9 rounds of data have been collected. FINDINGS TILL DATE: Out of the 2704 LASI-DAD households with valid phone numbers, 1766 households participated in the RTI COVID-India survey at least once. Participants were in the age range of 18-102 years, 49% were female, 66% resided in rural area. Across all rounds, there was a higher report of infection among respondents aged 60-69 years. There was a greater prevalence of COVID-19 diagnosis reported in urban (23.0%) compared to rural areas (9.8%). Respondents with higher education had a greater prevalence of COVID-19 diagnosis compared to those with lower or no formal education. Highest prevalence of COVID-19 diagnosis was reported from high economic status compared to middle and low economic status households. Comparing education gradients in experiencing COVID-19 symptoms and being diagnosed, we observe an opposite pattern: respondents with no formal schooling reported the highest level of experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, whereas the greatest proportion of the respondents with secondary school or higher education reported being diagnosed with COVID-19. FUTURE PLANS: The study group will analyse the data collected showing the real-time changes throughout the pandemic and will make the data widely available for researchers to conduct further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Aging , Socioeconomic Factors , India/epidemiology
8.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 10(6):1215-1221, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2217792

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron versions have been the sole one circulating for quite some time. Subvariants BA.1, BA.2, BA.3, BA.4, and BA.5 of the Omicron emerged over time and through mutation, with BA.1 responsible for the most severe global pandemic between December 2021 and January 2022. Other Omicron subvariants such as BQ.1, BQ.1.1, BA.4.6, BF.7, BA.2.75.2, XBB.1 appeared recently and could cause a new wave of increased cases amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. There is evidence that certain Omicron subvariants have increased transmissibility, extra spike mutations, and ability to overcome protective effects of COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies through immunological evasion. In recent months, the Omicron BF.7 subvariant has been in the news due to its spread in China and a small number of other countries, raising concerns about a possible rebound in COVID-19 cases. More recently, the Omicron XBB.1.5 subvariant has captured international attention due to an increase in cases in the United States. As a highly transmissible sublineage of Omicron BA.5, as well as having a shorter incubation time and the potential to reinfect or infect immune population, BF.7 has stronger infection ability. It appears that the regional immunological landscape is affected by the amount and timing of previous Omicron waves, as well as the COVID-19 vaccination coverage, which in turn determines whether the increased immune escape of BF.7 and XBB.1.5 subvariants is sufficient to drive new infection waves. Expanding our understanding of the transmission and efficacy of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and antiviral drugs against newly emerging Omicron subvariants and lineages, as well as bolstering genomic facilities for tracking their spread and maintaining a constant vigilance, and shedding more light on their evolution and mutational events, would help in the development of effective mitigation strategies. Importantly, reducing the occurrence of mutations and recombination in the virus can be aided by bolstering One health approach and emphasizing its significance in combating zoonosis and reversal zoonosis linked with COVID-19. This article provides a brief overview on Omicron variant, its recently emerging lineages and subvairants with a special focus on BF.7 and XBB.1.5 as much more infectious and highly transmissible variations that may once again threaten a sharp increase in COVID-19 cases globally amid the currently ongoing pandemic, along with presenting salient mitigation measures. © 2022, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

9.
Pharma Times ; 52(9):14-16, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207608

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken the world into a dark time. The number of infected people has crossed 12 crores and the death counts to more than 5 lakhs until July, 2020 worldwide[1]. Moreover, this lockdown is breaking the pillar of the economy of the countries and the condition is getting worse day by day. So, keeping these things in mind, a vaccine or medicine or some other method of cure is urgently needed. To make this possible, the study of the structure of the virus needs to be done very carefully. That is why we focused upon the structural proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We all know that in this short period of time it is nearly impossible to do XRD and to know the exact structures of all the proteins present in the discussed virus. So in this article, we have tried to predict the most accurate 3D structure of a yet-unmodelled protein of the SARS-CoV-2, so that in the future, our finding may appear helpful for researchers in case of performing XRD of this protein and further research. Copyright © 2020, Indian Pharmaceutical Association. All rights reserved.

10.
Acm Transactions on Accessible Computing ; 15(4), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2162007

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic upended college education and the experiences of students due to the rapid and uneven shift to online learning. This study examined the experiences of students with disabilities with online learning, with a consideration of surrounding stressors such as financial pressures. In a mixed method approach, we compared 28 undergraduate students with disabilities (including mental health concerns) to their peers during 2020, to assess differences and similarities in their educational concerns, stress levels, and COVID-19-related adversities. We found that students with disabilities entered the Spring quarter of 2020 with significantly higher concerns about classes going online, and reported more recent negative life events than other students. These differences between the two groups diminished 3 months later with the exception of recent negative life events. For a fuller understanding of students' experiences, we conducted qualitative analysis of open-ended interviews. We examined both positive and negative experiences with online learning among students with disabilities and mental health concerns. We describe how online learning enabled greater access-e.g., reducing the need for travel to campus-alongsideways inwhich online learning impeded academic engagement-e.g., reducing interpersonal interaction. We highlight a need for learning systems to meet the diverse and dynamic needs of students with disabilities.

11.
2nd International Conference on Interdisciplinary Cyber Physical Systems, ICPS 2022 ; : 130-135, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2152472

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has transmuted the globe and spread throughout the world. The COVID has streamlined and expedited regional procedures. Because the disease spreads via people, the CO VID test and data are pretty prevalent in humans. It is therefore vital to identify those who are affected. It's time to get on with your life. Chest X-ray and CT-SCAN are the most commonly used CO VID testing procedures. A chest X-ray is the quickest and least expensive treatment. There are no cyclopean amplitude test packets for COVID employing chest X-ray and model. FCNN is a standard image processing algorithm. The model should be able to recognize CO VID from a photo quickly. We proposed an S-CNN model as the foundation for the whole CNN in the study. The model we developed is very adaptable to any gear system and has low temporal complexity. The method can detect COVID in an unknown image with 92 percent accuracy. The model provides a reasonable and adequate response for estimating COVID from private data. © 2022 IEEE.

12.
Open Public Health Journal ; 15(1) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2109508

ABSTRACT

The number of COVID-19-associated nephropathies (COVAN) rapidly increased before the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Similarities and common lesions with the HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) remarkably affect mostly African Americans positive for the APOL1 risk variants;therefore, these cases must be prioritized in new targeted clinical trials. Copyright © 2022, Bentham Science Publishers. All rights reserved.

13.
Open Public Health Journal ; 15(1) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2109507

ABSTRACT

Following the 1918 influenza virus attack, which resulted in a worldwide pandemic, the world is again facing a similar situation as of March 2020, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The discovery of a novel infectious agent from the Coronaviridae family was made possible by advancements in Medical Science and achievements in pharmaceutical research. SARS-CoV-2 is a member of the coronavirus family, a large and diverse group of viruses with a wide range of characteristics. This single-stranded RNA virus that infects humans and other animals has a single linear RNA segment and infects them in a positive-sense manner. The common cold is not the only sickness that coronaviruses may cause. They can also cause more dangerous infections like the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), with a 34 percent mortality rate. Rapid sequencing by several organizations aided in identifying the virus's structure and function, determining the virus's immunogenicity in various populations, and developing effective prophylactic medicines for the virus. As of December 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that more than 150 vaccine candidates for COVID-19 were developing. Because of this, a total of 52 potential vaccination candidates are now being investigated in different phases. According to the WHO, nine vaccines have been approved and have extensive use from at least one regulatory authority, and five more are under evaluation. Copyright © 2022 Maitra et al.

14.
International Conference on Innovative Computing and Communications, Icicc 2022, Vol 1 ; 473:377-384, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2094513

ABSTRACT

A convolutional neural network (CNN) has one or more layers and is mainly used for image processing, classification, segmentation. CNN is commonly used for satellite image capturing or classifying hand written letters and digits. In this particular project, a convolutional neural network is trained to predict whether a person is wearing a mask or not. The training is done by using a set of masked and unmasked images which constitutes the training data. The performance of the trained model is evaluated on the test dataset, and the accuracy of the prediction is observed.

15.
COVID-19 in the Environment: Impact, Concerns, and Management of Coronavirus ; : 217-230, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075811

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus or the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was an unforeseen catastrophe that shook the world to its core. As the dangers of COVID-19 transmission rises, so does the risks associated with its transmission. The novel coronavirus outbreak has affected the human population in much unpredicted ways. Restrictions in business operations and industrial activities have crashed the economies on an unprecedented scale. Risk assessment has become an important aspect which will be further utilized to restrict the transmission of COVID-19. Since vaccination protocols are still in developmental phase, it is crucial to enumerate the risks associated with COVID-19 transmission. Some particular set of populations face a greater risk of COVID-19 infection, occupational and environmental risks of COVID-19 constitutes important aspects that need to be addressed. After assessing the associated risks, proper management strategies must be devised. An international standpoint on how risks associated with COVID-19 can be managed is the need of the hour. While the COVID-19 vaccine development is still in progress, the public on an individual level must practice safety measures which would eventually to a certain extent limit the risks of the novel coronavirus transmission. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

16.
Service Learning at a Glance ; : 127-154, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046252

ABSTRACT

How do we transition service-learning from high touch to high-tech? While Waldner et al. (2012) were trying to answer this question in the Web 2.0 era, humankind is facing the unprecedented crisis caused by COVID-19. As it is evident that we cannot return to the world as it was before, hence our common humanity necessitates solidarity. (UNESCO 2020). The crisis has hinted at the need for reconnection between ‘humanity and planet’ hence human-centric learning teaching is the need of the hour. Conventional higher education (HE) institutions undergo forced transition to technology engaging Remote Teaching-Learning (RTL) through a virtual platform on an emergency basis. Most of the teachers are facing challenges on how to make remote learning relatable to the everyday life of the learners and how to inculcate the sense of humanity in RTL. Hence the service-learning is facing two-fold challenges—first, how to design engagement of the student with the community to ensure experiential learning at a time when people are mostly remaining separated from conventional social interaction, and second, how teachers can effectively explore constructionist pedagogy through the virtual communication mode in such RTL. Along with technology, pedagogy has emerged as the most instrumental factor in self-direction, collaboration, resilience, and learning with confidence (Panda 2020). A new pedagogical discourse is evolving, highlighting the symbiotic journey between teachers and learners (Young 2020) which is pertinent in service-learning too. In this exploratory research, semiformal telephonic interviews, online written responses through Google form, and online Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) were adopted to collect relevant information, and subsequently data analysis and interpretation were done by triangulation. The work explored and documented the experience of the faculties of higher education regarding emerging trends of techno-pedagogical innovations which could be instrumental for service learning in RTL format. © 2022 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

17.
6th IFIP TC 5 International Conference on Computer, Communication, and Signal Processing, ICCSP 2022 ; 651 IFIP:174-189, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971578

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly infective viral disease and it is observed that the newest strains of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has greater infectivity rate. Due to the present pandemic, the economy of the country, the mental and physical state of the people and their regular lives are being affected. Medical studies have shown that the lungs of the patients who are infected by the corona virus are mostly being affected. Chest x-ray or radiography is observed to be one of the most effective imaging techniques for diagnosing problems which are related to the lungs. The study proposes a novel COV-XDCNN model with external filter for diagnosing diseases such as COVID-19, Viral Pneumonia, automatically which can assist the healthcare workers, mainly during the time of outbreak. The motivation of this research lies in designing an automated system which can aid the healthcare workers. The proposed model with external filter gives 97.86% test accuracy in classifying the chest radiography images. The model performance is examined with various other models such as NASNetMobile, ResNet50, MobileNet, VGG-16 etc. and analyzed. The model proposed in this study shows better performance than most of the existing traditional methods. © 2022, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

18.
2022 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops, INFOCOM WKSHPS 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948802

ABSTRACT

In today's world of medical science, remote patient monitoring devices are becoming more important and a future need particularly in the present COVID-19 situation as individuals are preferred to be kept isolated. Patients would be benefited from a suitable monitoring system that measures their important medical parameters such as pulse rate, oxygen saturation or SpO2, body temperature, blood pressure, and Galvanized Skin Response (GSR). This system can increase the medical staff efficiency by drastically decreasing their duties in hospitals and the need to attend to them individually. Patients in their home isolation may utilize the device as well, and their vital indicators may be checked by doctors remotely. In this work, we are prototyping a powerefficient, wearable medical kit and a resource-aware fog network set up to handle the Internet of Things (IoT) data traffic. The idea behind the design is to process the critical medical sensors' data in the fog nodes which are deployed at the edge of the network. The data thus received, is used for a machine learning-based solution for personal health anomalies and COVID-19 infection risk analysis. © 2022 IEEE.

19.
Environmental Engineering and Management Journal ; 21(4):559-568, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1893979

ABSTRACT

Due to the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2) commonly known as COVID-19, a nationwide lockdown came into effect in India from 24th March midnight, 2020, which slowed down the movement of vehicles, operation of industries etc. Due to this reason a drastic change in the environment occurred and it caused the reduction of pollution level in the environment. The study mainly focuses on the positive impacts of lockdown in India. Studies have shown that after the implementation of lockdown, the level of the various major air pollution constituents of such as particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, etc.), NO2, CO and ozone etc. in the air has reduced substantially. The air quality index data have clearly shown the difference in the level of air pollution between the year 2019 and 2020. The study was mainly focused on the comparison of air quality parameters such as particulate matter, NO2, CO and ozone etc. as well as the water pollution parameters such as Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) for the River Yamuna and it was observed that there was substantial amount of positive change in pollutants after lockdown compared to what was before lockdown. The observations are carried out in atime frame manner such as before lockdown and after lockdown and results have been found with a huge difference in reduction of air pollution as well as water pollution.

20.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(4):7512-7522, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1863883

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic across the world makes our life standstill. Life has become very tough. People stated working remotely from their home. Government have prevented workers for working and consumers from spending, other than on essentials. This slow-down in economy is unavoidable and brought about by a public health emergency. Production of most goods and delivery are plummeting since workers are staying away from work. Many service tasks can be done remotely but most production of goods requires social proximity. In the short-run, companies may have inventories to meet the demand for their goods. But in long-run, prices could rise when stock and inventories run low. Due to lockdown there was drastic decline in GST collections as most of business establishment were shut down. The Union Finance Minister Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman immediately stepped in and announced some major stimulus to ease the compliance burden of the tax payers. Interestingly, the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India also suo moto decided to remain everything standstill until further notice. Any notice, any appeal or any compliance to be done will remain standstill. As per Article 141, the decision of the Supreme Court is supreme in the country. So, due to the outbreak of Covid-19 various issues related to GST has emerged. To address these issues the government undertook some preventive measures like the extension of time limits of various compliances, waiver of late fees levied on delay in filing return, relaxation on availing ITC on invoices not uploaded by vendors etc. The present study is an attempt to identify and analyze the emerging GST issues due to Covid-19 pandemic.

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