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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(3): e0011236, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recombinant Schistosoma mansoni Tetraspanin-2 formulated on Alhydrogel (Sm-TSP-2/Alhydrogel) is being developed to prevent intestinal and hepatic disease caused by S. mansoni. The tegumentary Sm-TSP-2 antigen was selected based on its unique recognition by cytophilic antibodies in putatively immune individuals living in areas of ongoing S. mansoni transmission in Brazil, and preclinical studies in which vaccination with Sm-TSP-2 protected mice following infection challenge. METHODS: A randomized, observer-blind, controlled, Phase 1b clinical trial was conducted in 60 healthy adults living in a region of Brazil with ongoing S. mansoni transmission. In each cohort of 20 participants, 16 were randomized to receive one of two formulations of Sm-TSP-2 vaccine (adjuvanted with Alhydrogel only, or with Alhydrogel plus the Toll-like receptor-4 agonist, AP 10-701), and 4 to receive Euvax B hepatitis B vaccine. Successively higher doses of antigen (10 µg, 30 µg, and 100 µg) were administered in a dose-escalation fashion, with progression to the next dose cohort being dependent upon evaluation of 7-day safety data after all participants in the preceding cohort had received their first dose of vaccine. Each participant received 3 intramuscular injections of study product at intervals of 2 months and was followed for 12 months after the third vaccination. IgG and IgG subclass antibody responses to Sm-TSP-2 were measured by qualified indirect ELISAs at pre- and post-vaccination time points through the final study visit. RESULTS: Sm-TSP-2/Alhydrogel administered with or without AP 10-701 was well-tolerated in this population. The most common solicited adverse events were mild injection site tenderness and pain, and mild headache. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or adverse events of special interest were observed. Groups administered Sm-TSP-2/Alhydrogel with AP 10-701 had higher post-vaccination levels of antigen-specific IgG antibody. A significant dose-response relationship was seen in those administered Sm-TSP-2/Alhydrogel with AP 10-701. Peak anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgG levels were observed approximately 2 weeks following the third dose, regardless of Sm-TSP-2 formulation. IgG levels fell to low levels by Day 478 in all groups except the 100 µg with AP 10-701 group, in which 57% of subjects (4 of 7) still had IgG levels that were ≥4-fold higher than baseline. IgG subclass levels mirrored those of total IgG, with IgG1 being the predominant subclass response. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination of adults with Sm-TSP-2/Alhydrogel in an area of ongoing S. mansoni transmission was safe, minimally reactogenic, and elicited significant IgG and IgG subclass responses against the vaccine antigen. These promising results have led to initiation of a Phase 2 clinical trial of this vaccine in an endemic region of Uganda. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03110757.


Subject(s)
Schistosomiasis mansoni , Animals , Humans , Mice , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Aluminum Hydroxide , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G , Schistosoma mansoni , Protozoan Vaccines
2.
Ann Intern Med ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 standard of care (SOC) evolved rapidly during 2020 and 2021, but its cumulative effect over time is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether recovery and mortality improved as SOC evolved, using data from ACTT (Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial). DESIGN: ACTT is a series of phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that evaluated COVID-19 therapeutics from February 2020 through May 2021. ACTT-1 compared remdesivir plus SOC to placebo plus SOC, and in ACTT-2 and ACTT-3, remdesivir plus SOC was the control group. This post hoc analysis compared recovery and mortality between these comparable sequential cohorts of patients who received remdesivir plus SOC, adjusting for baseline characteristics with propensity score weighting. The analysis was repeated for participants in ACTT-3 and ACTT-4 who received remdesivir plus dexamethasone plus SOC. Trends in SOC that could explain outcome improvements were analyzed. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04280705 [ACTT-1], NCT04401579 [ACTT-2], NCT04492475 [ACTT-3], and NCT04640168 [ACTT-4]). SETTING: 94 hospitals in 10 countries (86% U.S. participants). PARTICIPANTS: Adults hospitalized with COVID-19. INTERVENTION: SOC. MEASUREMENTS: 28-day mortality and recovery. RESULTS: Although outcomes were better in ACTT-2 than in ACTT-1, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were close to 1 (HR for recovery, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.92 to 1.17]; HR for mortality, 0.90 [CI, 0.56 to 1.40]). Comparable patients were less likely to be intubated in ACTT-2 than in ACTT-1 (odds ratio, 0.75 [CI, 0.53 to 0.97]), and hydroxychloroquine use decreased. Outcomes improved from ACTT-2 to ACTT-3 (HR for recovery, 1.43 [CI, 1.24 to 1.64]; HR for mortality, 0.45 [CI, 0.21 to 0.97]). Potential explanatory factors (SOC trends, case surges, and variant trends) were similar between ACTT-2 and ACTT-3, except for increased dexamethasone use (11% to 77%). Outcomes were similar in ACTT-3 and ACTT-4. Antibiotic use decreased gradually across all stages. LIMITATION: Unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSION: Changes in patient composition explained improved outcomes from ACTT-1 to ACTT-2 but not from ACTT-2 to ACTT-3, suggesting improved SOC. These results support excluding nonconcurrent controls from analysis of platform trials in rapidly changing therapeutic areas. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

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