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1.
Cell Rep ; 39(13): 111009, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944463

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron BA.2 sub-lineage has gained in proportion relative to BA.1. Because spike (S) protein variations may underlie differences in their pathobiology, here we determine cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the BA.2 S ectodomain and compare these with previously determined BA.1 S structures. BA.2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) mutations induce remodeling of the RBD structure, resulting in tighter packing and improved thermostability. Interprotomer RBD interactions are enhanced in the closed (or 3-RBD-down) BA.2 S, while the fusion peptide is less accessible to antibodies than in BA.1. Binding and pseudovirus neutralization assays reveal extensive immune evasion while defining epitopes of two outer RBD face-binding antibodies, DH1044 and DH1193, that neutralize both BA.1 and BA.2. Taken together, our results indicate that stabilization of the closed state through interprotomer RBD-RBD packing is a hallmark of the Omicron variant and show differences in key functional regions in the BA.1 and BA.2 S proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Mol Cell ; 82(11): 2050-2068.e6, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937002

ABSTRACT

Aided by extensive spike protein mutation, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant overtook the previously dominant Delta variant. Spike conformation plays an essential role in SARS-CoV-2 evolution via changes in receptor-binding domain (RBD) and neutralizing antibody epitope presentation, affecting virus transmissibility and immune evasion. Here, we determine cryo-EM structures of the Omicron and Delta spikes to understand the conformational impacts of mutations in each. The Omicron spike structure revealed an unusually tightly packed RBD organization with long range impacts that were not observed in the Delta spike. Binding and crystallography revealed increased flexibility at the functionally critical fusion peptide site in the Omicron spike. These results reveal a highly evolved Omicron spike architecture with possible impacts on its high levels of immune evasion and transmissibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333084

ABSTRACT

Summary The BA.2 lineage of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has gained in proportion relative to BA.1. As differences in their spike (S) proteins may underlie differences in their pathobiology, here we determined cryo-EM structures of a BA.2 S protein ectodomain and compared these to previously determined BA.1 S structures. BA.2 Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) mutations induced remodeling of the internal RBD structure resulting in its improved thermostability and tighter packing within the 3-RBD-down spike. In the S2 subunit, the fusion peptide in the BA.2 was less accessible to antibodies than in BA.1. Pseudovirus neutralization and spike binding assays revealed extensive immune evasion while defining epitopes of two RBD-directed antibodies, DH1044 and DH1193, that bound the outer RBD face to neutralize both BA.1 and BA.2. Taken together, our results indicate that stabilization of the 3-RBD-down state through interprotomer RBD-RBD packing is a hallmark of the Omicron lineages, and reveal differences in key functional regions in the BA.1 and BA.2 S proteins.

4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327134

ABSTRACT

Aided by extensive spike protein mutation, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant overtook the previously dominant Delta variant. Spike conformation plays an essential role in SARS-CoV-2 evolution via changes in receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralizing antibody epitope presentation affecting virus transmissibility and immune evasion. Here, we determine cryo-EM structures of the Omicron and Delta spikes to understand the conformational impacts of mutations in each. The Omicron spike structure revealed an unusually tightly packed RBD organization with long range impacts that were not observed in the Delta spike. Binding and crystallography revealed increased flexibility at the functionally critical fusion peptide site in the Omicron spike. These results reveal a highly evolved Omicron spike architecture with possible impacts on its high levels of immune evasion and transmissibility.

5.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750472

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has escalated into a global crisis. The spike (S) protein that mediates cell entry and membrane fusion is the current focus of vaccine and therapeutic antibody development efforts. The S protein, like many other viral fusion proteins such as HIV-1 envelope (Env) and influenza hemagglutinin, is glycosylated with both complex and high mannose glycans. Here we demonstrate binding to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein by a category of Fab-dimerized glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1-induced broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). A 3.1 A resolution cryo-EM structure of the S protein ectodomain bound to glycan-dependent HIV-1 bnAb 2G12 revealed a quaternary glycan epitope on the spike S2 domain involving multiple protomers. These data reveal a new epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 spike that can be targeted for vaccine design. Highlights: Fab-dimerized, glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1 bnAbs cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 spike.3.1 A resolution cryo-EM structure reveals quaternary S2 epitope for HIV-1 bnAb 2G12.2G12 targets glycans, at positions 709, 717 and 801, in the SARS-CoV-2 spike.Our studies suggest a common epitope for FDG antibodies centered around glycan 709.

6.
Cell ; 184(16): 4203-4219.e32, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275187

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) protect against COVID-19. A concern regarding SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is whether they mediate disease enhancement. Here, we isolated NAbs against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike from individuals with acute or convalescent SARS-CoV-2 or a history of SARS-CoV infection. Cryo-electron microscopy of RBD and NTD antibodies demonstrated function-specific modes of binding. Select RBD NAbs also demonstrated Fc receptor-γ (FcγR)-mediated enhancement of virus infection in vitro, while five non-neutralizing NTD antibodies mediated FcγR-independent in vitro infection enhancement. However, both types of infection-enhancing antibodies protected from SARS-CoV-2 replication in monkeys and mice. Three of 46 monkeys infused with enhancing antibodies had higher lung inflammation scores compared to controls. One monkey had alveolar edema and elevated bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory cytokines. Thus, while in vitro antibody-enhanced infection does not necessarily herald enhanced infection in vivo, increased lung inflammation can rarely occur in SARS-CoV-2 antibody-infused macaques.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Haplorhini , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains , RNA, Guide/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Load , Virus Replication
7.
Cell ; 184(11): 2955-2972.e25, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237636

ABSTRACT

Natural antibodies (Abs) can target host glycans on the surface of pathogens. We studied the evolution of glycan-reactive B cells of rhesus macaques and humans using glycosylated HIV-1 envelope (Env) as a model antigen. 2G12 is a broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) that targets a conserved glycan patch on Env of geographically diverse HIV-1 strains using a unique heavy-chain (VH) domain-swapped architecture that results in fragment antigen-binding (Fab) dimerization. Here, we describe HIV-1 Env Fab-dimerized glycan (FDG)-reactive bnAbs without VH-swapped domains from simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques. FDG Abs also recognized cell-surface glycans on diverse pathogens, including yeast and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike. FDG precursors were expanded by glycan-bearing immunogens in macaques and were abundant in HIV-1-naive humans. Moreover, FDG precursors were predominately mutated IgM+IgD+CD27+, thus suggesting that they originated from a pool of antigen-experienced IgM+ or marginal zone B cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Polysaccharides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Dimerization , Epitopes/immunology , Glycosylation , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Macaca mulatta , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/chemistry , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Vaccines/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
8.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(2): 128-131, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010060

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, a primary target for COVID-19 vaccine development, presents its receptor binding domain in two conformations, the receptor-accessible 'up' or receptor-inaccessible 'down' states. Here we report that the commonly used stabilized S ectodomain construct '2P' is sensitive to cold temperatures, and this cold sensitivity is abrogated in a 'down' state-stabilized ectodomain. Our findings will impact structural, functional and vaccine studies that use the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain.


Subject(s)
Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Cold Temperature , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Protein Denaturation , Protein Domains , Protein Stability , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Surface Plasmon Resonance
9.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636939

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has escalated into a global crisis. The spike (S) protein that mediates cell entry and membrane fusion is the current focus of vaccine and therapeutic antibody development efforts. The S protein, like many other viral fusion proteins such as HIV-1 envelope (Env) and influenza hemagglutinin, is glycosylated with both complex and high mannose glycans. Here we demonstrate binding to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein by a category of Fab-dimerized glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1-induced broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). A 3.1 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of the S protein ectodomain bound to glycan-dependent HIV-1 bnAb 2G12 revealed a quaternary glycan epitope on the spike S2 domain involving multiple protomers. These data reveal a new epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 spike that can be targeted for vaccine design. HIGHLIGHTS: Fab-dimerized, glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1 bnAbs cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 spike.3.1 Å resolution cryo-EM structure reveals quaternary S2 epitope for HIV-1 bnAb 2G12.2G12 targets glycans, at positions 709, 717 and 801, in the SARS-CoV-2 spike.Our studies suggest a common epitope for FDG antibodies centered around glycan 709.

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