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1.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125115

ABSTRACT

Introduction COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) still causes a high rate of death globally with no definite curative treatment described. The traditional plant Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a good source of gamma-linolenic (GLA). We hypothesized that Borage plus syrup (BPS) would be beneficial in severe COVID-19 patients within an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Materials and methods A pilot single center, randomized trial with no placebo was undertaken. A total of 60 PCR-positive severe COVID-19 participants admitted to ICU from June 2020–December 2020 at Masih Daneshvari Hospital Tehran-Iran gave informed consent. The participants were randomly assigned to either Borage Plus Syrup (BPS, 5 ml for 5 days) (n = 30) or standard care (IFN-β and favipiravir) as a control group (n = 30). Pao2/Fio2, serum ferritin, CRP, bilirubin, IL-6, TNF-α, ALT, AST, PCT and serum IL-8 was measured upon admission and on release. Results All the measured parameters decreased significantly with BPS treatment. In the control group, most parameters significantly improved apart from AST and PCT. In addition, the suppression of serum TNF levels in the BPS group was greater than that seen in the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the length of ICU stay was significantly lower in the BPS group compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion Our study shows that addition of BPS to the standard treatment regime of COVID-19 patients in ICU improved outcomes and reduced the length of ICU treatment. Natural products could be considered as new approaches for reducting the harmful consequences of COVID-19.

2.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 21(4): 467-477, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025954

ABSTRACT

The cytokine storm and lymphopenia are reported in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) exist in two different forms, granulocyte (G-MDSCs) and monocytic (M-MDSCs), that both suppress T-cell function. In COVID-19, the role of chemokines such as interleukin (IL)-8 in recruiting MDSCs is unclear. A recent report has correlated IL-8 and MDSCs with poor clinical outcomes in melanoma patients. In the current study, we evaluated the frequency of MDSCs and their correlation with serum IL-8 levels in severe COVID-19 patients from Iran. Thirty-seven severe patients (8 on ventilation, 29 without ventilation), thirteen moderate COVID-19 patients, and eight healthy subjects participated in this study between 10th April 2020 and 9th March 2021. Clinical and biochemical features, serum, and whole blood were obtained. CD14, CD15, CD11b, and HLA-DR expression on MDSCs was measured by flow cytometry. COVID-19 patients compared to healthy subjects had a greater frequency of M-MDSCs (12.7±13.3% vs 0.19±0.20%,), G-MDSCs (15.8±12.6% vs 0.35±0.40%,) and total-MDSCs (27.5±17.3% vs 0.55±0.41%,). M-MDSC (16.8±15.8% vs 5.4±4.8%,) and total-MDSC (33.3±18.5% vs 17.3±13.3%) frequency was higher in non- ventilated compared to moderate COVID-19 subjects. Serum IL-8 levels were higher in patients with COVID-19 than in normal healthy subjects (6.4±7.8 vs. 0.10±00 pg/mL). Ventilated patients (15.7±6.7 pg/mL), non-ventilated patients (5.7±2.7 pg/mL) and moderate patients (2.8±3.0 pg/mL) had significantly different levels of IL-8.  A negative correlation was found between the frequency of G-MDSCs and the international normalized ratio (INR) test (r=-0.39), and between the frequency of total-MDSCs and oxygen saturation (%) (r=-0.39). COVID-19 patients with severe non-ventilated disease had the highest levels of M-MDSCs. In addition to systemic MDSCs, lung, serum IL-8, and other inflammatory biomarkers should be measured.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-8 , Iran/epidemiology
3.
Heliyon ; 8(2): e08957, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Circulating soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE2)2, the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2, together with components of the renin-angiotensin system promote infection and disease severity. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study followed the time-course of sACE2 levels in relation to systemic cytokines in severe and moderate COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir/dexamethasone in combination. METHODS: Peripheral blood was obtained upon admission from 30 patients (12 with moderate disease and 18 with severe disease) and 14 patients with PCR-confirmed mild COVID-19. Severe and moderate patients were treated with remdesivir (200mg/first day and 100mg/day for the remaining days) and dexamethasone (100mg/day). 6 healthy control subjects (HC) were also enrolled. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 and sACE2 levels were measured by ELISA at baseline and during treatment in severe and moderate patients and at baseline in mild and HCs. RESULTS: Baseline sACE2 levels were lower in severe (p = 0.0005) and moderate (p = 0.0022) patients than in patients with mild COVID-19 and in HC (p = 0.0023 and p = 0.0012 respectively). Treatment significantly increased sACE2 levels in patients with moderate disease (p = 0.0156) but only 50% of patients with severe disease showed enhanced levels compared to baseline. Systemic IL-6 and IL-8 levels were higher in all patient groups compared with HC and were not significantly affected over time or by remdesivir/dexamethasone treatment for 5 days. CONCLUSION: Serum sACE2 levels increase in severe COVID-19 patients as they recover over time whilst circulating cytokines are unaffected. Future studies should link these results to clinical outcomes.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 592727, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225860

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 112M patients and resulted in almost 2.5M deaths worldwide. The major clinical feature of severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilation is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) possibly associated with a cytokine storm. Objectives: To elucidate serum levels of TNF-α and soluble TNF-Receptor 1 (sTNFR1) in patients with severe and mild COVID-19 disease as determinants of disease severity. Methods: We determined serum TNF-α and sTNFR1 concentrations in 46 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (17 patients with severe disease within the intensive care unit [ICU] and 29 non-severe, non-ICU patients) and 15 healthy controls upon admission using ELISA. Subjects were recruited between March-May 2020 at the Masih Daneshvari Hospital Tehran, Iran. Results: Serum levels of sTNFRI were significantly higher in ICU patients (P<0.0001) and non-ICU patients (P=0.0342) compared with healthy subjects. Serum sTNFR1 were significantly higher in ICU patients than in non-ICU patients (P<0.0001). Serum TNF-α levels were greater in ICU and non-ICU patients than in the healthy subjects group (p<0.0001). The sTNFRI concentration in ICU (r=0.79, p=0.0002) and non-ICU (r=0.42, p=0.02) patients positively correlated with age although serum sTNFRI levels in ICU patients were significantly higher than in older healthy subjects. The sTNFRI concentration in ICU patients negatively correlated with ESR. Conclusions: The study demonstrates higher sTNFRI in ICU patients with severe COVID-19 disease and this be a biomarker of disease severity and mortality. Future studies should examine whether lower levels of systemic sTNFR1 at admission may indicate a better disease outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 93: 107407, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected 86,4 M patients and resulted in 1,86 M deaths worldwide. Severe COVID-19 patients have elevated blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-8 and interferon (IFN)γ. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of antiviral treatment serum cytokines in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Blood was obtained from 29 patients (aged 32-79 yr) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 upon admission and 7 days after antiviral (Favipiravir or Lopinavir/Ritonavir) treatment. Patients also received standard supportive treatment in this retrospective observational study. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated to investigate lung manifestations of COVID-19. Serum was also obtained and cytokines levels were evaluated. 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. RESULTS: Anti-viral therapy significantly reduced CT scan scores and the elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In contrast, serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IFNγ were elevated at baseline in COVID-19 subjects compared to healthy subjects with IL-6 (p = 0.006) and IL-8 (p = 0.011) levels being further elevated after antiviral therapy. IL-1ß (p = 0.01) and TNFα (p = 0.069) levels were also enhanced after treatment but baseline levels were similar to those of healthy controls. These changes occurred irrespective of whether patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSION: Antiviral treatments did not suppress the inflammatory phase of COVID-19 after 7 days treatment although CT, CRP and LDH suggest a decline in lung inflammation. There was limited evidence for a viral-mediated cytokine storm in these COVID-19 subjects.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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