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World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(12): 230, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048467


Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in drug-resistant bacterial infections. The spread of bacterial infections has become a severe concern for the treatment system because of the simultaneous drug resistance bacteria and SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. One of the most common bacteria in the development of drug resistance is Klebsiella strains, which is a severe threat due to the possibility of biofilm production. In this regard, recent nanotechnology studies have proposed using nanocarriers as a practical proposal to improve the performance of antibiotics and combat drug resistance. Among drug nanocarriers, niosomes are considered for their absorption mechanism, drug coverage, and biocompatibility. In this study, niosomal formulations were synthesized by the thin-layer method. After optimizing the synthesized niosomes, their properties were evaluated in terms of stability and drug release rate. The toxicity of the optimal formulation was then analyzed. The effect of free amikacin and amikacin encapsulated in niosome on biofilm inhibition were compared in multi-drug resistant isolated Klebsiella strains, and the mrkD gene expression was calculated. The MIC and MBC were measured for the free drug and amikacin loaded in the noisome. The particle size of synthesized amikacin-loaded niosomes ranged from 175.2 to 248.3 nm. The results showed that the amount of lipid and the molar ratio of tween 60 to span 60 has a positive effect on particle size, while the molar ratio of surfactant to cholesterol has a negative effect. The highest release rate in amikacin-loaded niosomes is visible in the first 8 h, and then a slower release occurs up to 72 h. The cytotoxicity induced by amikacin-loaded niosome is significantly less than the cytotoxicity of free amikacin in HFF cells (***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01). The mrkD mRNA expression level in the studied strains was significantly reduced after treatment with niosome-containing amikacin compared to free amikacin (***p < 0.001). It was confirmed that in the presence of the niosome, the amikacin antibacterial activity increased while the concentration of the drug used decreased, the formation of biofilm inhibited, and reduced antibiotics resistance in MDR Klebsiella strains.

Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Amikacin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cholesterol , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Lipids , Liposomes/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polysorbates/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology