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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5991-6003, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The recent monkeypox disease outbreak is another significant threat during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This viral disease is zoonotic and contagious. The viral disease outbreak is considered the substantial infection possessed by the Orthopoxvirus family species after the smallpox virus' obliteration, a representative of the same family. It has potentially threatened the Republic of Congo's regions and certain African subcontinent zones. Although repeated outbreaks have been reported in several parts of the world, as conferred from the epidemiological data, very little is explored about the disease landscape. Thus, here we have reviewed the current status of the monkeypox virus along with therapeutic options available to humanity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have accessed and reviewed the available literature on the monkeypox virus to highlight its epidemiology, pathogenicity, virulence, and therapeutic options available. For the review, we have searched different literature and database such as PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, etc., using different keywords such as "monkeypox", "Orthopox", "smallpox", "recent monkeypox outbreak", "therapeutic strategies", "monkeypox vaccines", etc. This review has included most of the significant references from 1983 to 2022. RESULTS: It has been reported that the monkeypox virus shows a remarkable similarity with smallpox during the ongoing outbreak. Sometimes, it creates considerable confusion due to misdiagnosis and similarity with smallpox. The misdiagnosis of the disease should be immediately corrected by rendering some cutting-edge techniques especially intended to isolate the monkeypox virus. The pathophysiology and the histopathological data imply the immediate need to design effective therapeutics to confer resistance against the monkeypox virus. Most importantly, the potential implications of the disease are not given importance due to the lack of awareness programs. Moreover, specific evolutionary evidence is crucial for designing effective therapeutic strategies that confer high resistance, particularly against this species. CONCLUSIONS: The review focuses on a brief overview of the recent monkeypox virus outbreak, infection biology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic aspects. Such an attempt will support researchers, policymakers, and healthcare professionals for better treatment and containment of the infection caused by the monkeypox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Pandemics
2.
BioMed Research International ; 2022:3113119, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973955

ABSTRACT

Objective: Internet of Things (IoT) integrates several technologies where devices learn from the experience of each other thereby reducing human-intervened likely errors. Modern technologies like IoT and machine learning enable the conventional to patient-specific approach transition in healthcare. In conventional approach, the biggest challenge faced by healthcare professionals is to predict a disease by observing the symptoms, monitoring the remote area patient, and also attending to the patient all the time after being hospitalised. IoT provides real-time data, makes decision-making smarter, and provides far superior analytics, and all these to help improve the quality of healthcare. The main objective of the work was to create an IoT-based automated system using machine learning models for symptom-based COVID-19 prognosis. Methods: Comparative analysis of predictive microbiology of COVID-19 from case symptoms using various machine learning classifiers like logistics regression, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, random forest, decision trees, Naive Bayes, and gradient booster is reported here. For the sake of the validation and verification of the models, performance of each model based on the retrieved cloud-stored data was measured for accuracy. Results: From the accuracy plot, it was concluded that k-NN was more accurate (97.97%) followed by decision tree (97.79), support vector machine (97.42), logistics regression (96.50), random forest (90.66), gradient boosting classifier (87.77), and Naive Bayes (73.50) in COVID-19 prognosis. Conclusion: The paper presents a health monitoring IoT framework having high clinical significance in real-time and remote healthcare monitoring. The findings reported here and the lessons learnt shall enable the healthcare system worldwide to counter not only this ongoing COVID but many other such global pandemics the humanity may suffer from time to come.

3.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 10(2):396-404, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863450

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (S ARS-CoV-2) emerging variants particularly those of concern contain numerous mutations that influence the behavior and transmissibility of the virus and could adversely affect the efficacies of existing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and immunotherapies. The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants have resulted in different waves of the pandemic within the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. On 26 November 2021 World Health Organization designated omicron (B.1.1.529) as the fifth variant of concern which was first reported from South Africa on November 24, 2021, and thereafter rapidly spread across the globe owing to its very high transmission rates along with impeding efficacies of existing vaccines and immunotherapies. Omicron contains more than 50 mutations with many mutations (26-32) in spike protein that might be associated with high transmissibility. Natural compounds particularly phytochemicals have been used since ancient times for the treatment of different diseases, and owing to their potent anti-viral properties have also been explored recently against COVID-19. In the present study, molecular docking of nine phytochemicals (Oleocanthal, Tangeritin, Coumarin, Malvidin, Glycitein, Piceatannol, Pinosylnin, Daidzein, and Naringenin) with omicron spike protein (7QNW (electron microscopy, resolution 2.40 Å) was done. The docking study revealed that selected ligands interact with the receptor with binding energy in the range of-6.2 to-7.0 kcal/mol. Pinosylnin showed the highest binding energy of-7.0 kcal/mol which may be used as potential ligands against omicron spike protein. Based on the docking studies, it was suggested that these phytochemicals are potential molecules to be tested against omicron SARS-CoV-2 and can be used to develop effective antiviral drugs. © 2022, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

4.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-331157

ABSTRACT

Background: The unpredictability of the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be attributed to the low precision of the tools used to predict the prognosis of this disease. Objective: To identify the predictors associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Methods: Relevant articles from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, andWeb of Science were searched as of April 5, 2020. The quality of the included papers was appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Data of interest were collected and evaluated for their compatibility for the meta-analysis. Cumulative calculations to determine the correlation and effect estimates were performed using the Z test. Results: In total, 19 papers recording 1,934 mild and 1,644 severe cases of COVID-19 were included. Based on the initial evaluation, 62 potential risk factors were identified for the meta-analysis. Several comorbidities, including chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were observed more frequent among patients with severe COVID-19 than with the mild ones. Compared to the mild form, severe COVID-19 was associated with symptoms such as dyspnea, anorexia, fatigue, increased respiratory rate, and high systolic blood pressure. Lower levels of lymphocytes and hemoglobin;elevated levels of leukocytes, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, high-sensitivity troponin, creatine kinase, highsensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, D-dimer, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and procalcitonin;and a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate were also associated with severe COVID-19. Conclusion: More than 30 risk factors are associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19. These may serve as useful baseline parameters in the development of prediction tools for COVID-19 prognosis.

5.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(5): 1165-1174, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744449

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related pandemic has been in existence for almost 2 years now after its possible emergence from a wet market in the city of Wuhan of the Chinese mainland. Evidence of the emergence and transmission of this virus was attributed to bats and pangolins. The causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread globally, affecting humans considerably with its current death toll to be over 4.7 million out of more than 233 confirmed cases as of September 2021. The virus is constantly mutating and continuously trying to establish itself in humans by increasing its transmissibility and virulence through its numerous emerging variants. Several countries have been facing multiple waves of COVID-19 outbreaks one after the other, putting the medical and healthcare establishments under tremendous stress. Although very few drugs and vaccines have been approved for emergency use, their production capabilities need to meet the needs of a huge global population. Currently, not even a quarter of the world population is vaccinated. The situation in India has worsened during the ongoing second wave with the involvement of virus variants with a rapid and huge surge in COVID-19 cases, where the scarcity of hospital infrastructure, antiviral agents, and oxygen has led to increased deaths. Recently, increased surveillance and monitoring, strengthening of medical facilities, campaigns of awareness programs, progressive vaccination drive, and high collaborative efforts have led to limiting the surge of COVID-19 cases in India to a low level. This review outlines the global status of the pandemic with special reference to the Indian scenario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 90(3):158-173, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1717235

ABSTRACT

After the appearance of first cases of pneumonia of unknown origin in the Wuhan city, China, during late 2019, the disease progressed fast. Its cause was identified as a novel coronavirus, named provisionally 2019-nCoV. Subsequently, an official name was given as SARS-CoV-2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV study group. The World Health Organization WHO named the Coronavirus disease-2019 as COVID-19. The epidemics of COVID-2019 have been recorded over 113 countries/territories/areas apart from China and filched more than 4,292 humans, affecting severely around 1,18,326 cases in a short span. The status of COVID-2019 emergency revised by the WHO within 42 days from Public Health International Emergency January 30, 2020 to a pandemic March 11, 2020. Nonetheless, the case fatality rate CFR of the current epidemic is on the rise between 2-4%, relatively is lower than the previous SARS-CoV 2002/2003 and MERS-CoV 2012 outbreaks. Even though investigations are on its way, the researchers across the globe have assumptions of animal-origin of current SARS-CoV-2. A recent case report provides evidence of mild COVID-2019 infection in a pet dog that acquired COVID-2019 infection from his owner in Hong Kong. The news on travellers associated spread across the globe have also put many countries on alert with the cancellation of tourist visa to all affected countries and postponement of events where international visits were required. A few diagnostic approaches, including quantitative and differential real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, have been recommended for the screening of the individuals at risk. In the absence of any selective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, re-purposed drugs are advocated in many studies. This article discourse the current worldwide situation of COVID-2019 with information on virus, epidemiology, host, the role of animals, effective diagnosis, therapeutics, preventive and control approaches making people aware on the disease outcomes.

7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7162-7184, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552083

ABSTRACT

The last two decades have witnessed the emergence of three deadly coronaviruses (CoVs) in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are still no reliable and efficient therapeutics to manage the devastating consequences of these CoVs. Of these, SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the currently ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has posed great global health concerns. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented crisis with devastating socio-economic and health impacts worldwide. This highlights the fact that CoVs continue to evolve and have the genetic flexibility to become highly pathogenic in humans and other mammals. SARS-CoV-2 carries a high genetic homology to the previously identified CoV (SARS-CoV), and the immunological and pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS contain key similarities and differences that can guide therapy and management. This review presents salient and updated information on comparative pathology, molecular pathogenicity, immunological features, and genetic characterization of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2; this can help in the design of more effective vaccines and therapeutics for countering these pathogenic CoVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pathology, Molecular/methods , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Global Health/economics , Humans , Male , Mammals , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence
8.
Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ; 8(1):364-384, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550441

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic driven by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus–2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become the most critical universal health disaster of this century. Millions of people are staying at home obeying lockdown to halt the spread of this novel virus. The spread of the virus has forced people to use the mask, gloves, hand sanitizer, etc. daily, and healthcare workers to use personal protection equipment following the WHO guidelines, resulting in huge amounts of medical waste. This pandemic has led to a slowdown of economic activities significantly, and consequently, stock markets have nosedived beyond speculation. Although the deadly coronavirus has taken away millions of precious lives and the livelihood of many sections of people worldwide, it has brought several positive changes in the world. Furthermore, it has led to a massive restoration of the environment and improved air and water quality. Pandemic showed the resilient nature of the environment, including air and water, when human activities are paused. In addition, we also discussed how this pandemic affects human lifestyle behavior. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

9.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science ; 11(11):026-033, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1538775

ABSTRACT

The severity of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with hyperinflammation induced by excessive release of a range of cytokines and chemokines. Among a plethora of cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a pivotal role in the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection as IL-6 has been proposed to initiate hypersecretion of cytokines by activating the Janus kinases-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Hence, targeting IL-6 and its receptor can be an appropriate therapeutic strategy to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, tocilizumab (TCZ) is a well-known monoclonal antibody for its anti-inflammatory activities. TCZ has been designed to bind two different IL-6 receptors, viz., membrane-bound and soluble receptors. As an antagonist of IL-6 receptors, TCZ inhibits the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which is essential for the transcriptional activation of cytokines-producing genes.Hence, the inhibition of IL-6 receptors can substantially reduce hyperinflammation, a key characteristic of severely infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. TCZ has much promise in terms of treating SARS-CoV-2-related hyperinflammation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ damage. Hence, TCZ has been proposed as a potential therapeutic drug for treating COVID-19 disease. However, several discrepancies still exist, such as a well-defined molecular mechanism, efficacy, and safety parameters. In this context, various databases, including Medline, ResearchGate, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were explored employing keywords such as “Cytokine storm”, “COVID-19”, “hyper inflammation”, “IL-6”, “TCZ”, and “SARS-COV-2” up to May 2021. The authors independently collected and evaluated research papers for inclusion in the current review, relying on their relatedness to the main theme of the literature review. So, this narrative review aims to provide updated information about the molecular mechanism, efficacy, and safety of TCZ in the treatment of COVID-19. However,several contradictions and challenges associated with TCZ use in the treatment of severely infected patients with COVID-19 have also been discussed. © 2021 Manish Dhawan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

10.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 91(10):791-802, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1490189

ABSTRACT

Of the 1,415 human pathogens identified, 175 are responsible for causing emerging diseases, 132 are zoonotic and majority of the diseases are categorized as emerging or re-emerging. Emerging novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) is one of them, and it is responsible for causing social and economically critical disease in both humans and animals. This review presents the understanding of epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 pandemic related to host, agent, and the environment with transmission and spread of the disease for better prevention of the COVID-19. The inclination of the viruses to spillover between different species and determining the number of the reservoir of coronaviruses in an entirely new host to create infection is of emerging importance. The understanding of disease patterns will potentiate our expertise to alert how, when, and where the potential epidemic will occur. One health approach involves co-operation from all the sectors, including healthcare (medical and veterinary), environmental, pharmaceutical, educational, research, police, and administration, to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and reduce the public health threat.

11.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-291778

ABSTRACT

Background: The unpredictability of the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be attributed to the low precision of the tools used to predict the prognosis of this disease. Objective: To identify the predictors associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Methods: Relevant articles from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, andWeb of Science were searched as of April 5, 2020. The quality of the included papers was appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Data of interest were collected and evaluated for their compatibility for the meta-analysis. Cumulative calculations to determine the correlation and effect estimates were performed using the Z test. Results: In total, 19 papers recording 1,934 mild and 1,644 severe cases of COVID-19 were included. Based on the initial evaluation, 62 potential risk factors were identified for the meta-analysis. Several comorbidities, including chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were observed more frequent among patients with severe COVID-19 than with the mild ones. Compared to the mild form, severe COVID-19 was associated with symptoms such as dyspnea, anorexia, fatigue, increased respiratory rate, and high systolic blood pressure. Lower levels of lymphocytes and hemoglobin;elevated levels of leukocytes, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, high-sensitivity troponin, creatine kinase, highsensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, D-dimer, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and procalcitonin;and a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate were also associated with severe COVID-19. Conclusion: More than 30 risk factors are associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19. These may serve as useful baseline parameters in the development of prediction tools for COVID-19 prognosis.

12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5947-5964, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478937

ABSTRACT

The recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has resulted in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, affecting millions of lives. Although vaccines are presently made available, and vaccination drive is in progress to immunize a larger population; still the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mortality is persistent amid threats of the third wave of the ongoing pandemic. In the scenario of unavailability of robust and efficient treatment modalities, it becomes essential to understand the mechanism of action of the virus and deeply study the molecular mechanisms (both at the virus level and the host level) underlying the infection processes. Recent studies have shown that coronaviruses (CoVs) cause-specific epigenetic changes in the host cells to create a conducive microenvironment for replicating, assembling, and spreading. Epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 multiplication cycle, like expressing cytokine genes, viral receptor ACE2, and implicating different histone modifications. For SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral proteins are physically associated with various host proteins resulting in numerous interactions between epigenetic enzymes (i.e., histone deacetylases, bromodomain-containing proteins). The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the virus life cycle and the host immune responses to control infection result in epigenetic factors recognized as emerging prognostic COVID-19 biomarkers and epigenetic modulators as robust therapeutic targets to curb COVID-19. Therefore, this narrative review aimed to summarize and discuss the various epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression and how these mechanisms are altered in the host cells during coronavirus infection. We also discuss the opportunities to exploit these epigenetic changes as therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Epigenetic alterations and regulation play a pivotal role at various levels of coronavirus infection: entry, replication/transcription, and the process of maturation of viral proteins. Coronaviruses modulate the host epigenome to escape the host immune mechanisms. Therefore, host epigenetic alterations induced by CoVs can be considered to develop targeted therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Epigenome , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5857-5864, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451044

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study reviewed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants for their effects on infection, transmission and neutralization by vaccine-induced antibodies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research articles for the current study were searched over PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and Web of Science online databases. The keywords used were: (("SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19") AND ("mutation" OR "variant") AND ("death" OR "hospitalization" OR "infection" OR "transmission") AND ("antibody" OR "neutralize" OR "vaccine")). A total of 333 research articles were retrieved through online-database search. These articles were further scrutinized for their relevancy. Additionally, searches were performed to find the latest relevant information over Google search engine and relevant news browsers. Finally, around 35 germane articles were considered for scripting the current report. RESULTS: The mutations have changed amino acids at key positions in spike protein viz. S477N, E484K, Q677H, E484Q, L452R, K417T, K417N and N501Y. These mutations are relevant for different characteristics and are present in newly evolved strains of SARS-CoV-2 like E484K in B.1.526, B.1.525, P.2, B.1.1.7, P.1 and B.1.351. Mutations have increased the immune escape potential leading to 3.5-6.5-folds decrease in neutralization of antibodies (Pfizer and Moderna vaccines). The variant, B.1.617 circulating in India and many other countries (double variant) having E484Q and L452R mutations, has raised the infection rate and decreased the neutralization capacity of the vaccine-induced antibodies. Deadly K417N+E484K+N501Y triplet mutations found in B.1.351 and P.1 have increased the transmission ability of these strains by 50% leading to greater COVID-19 hospitalization, ICU admissions and deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The new SARS-CoV-2 variants have compromised the neutralization potential of the currently used vaccines, but still, they have considerable efficacy to reduce infection and mortality. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: https://www.europeanreview.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/Graphical_Abstract.jpg.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 9(2):172-182, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1404145

ABSTRACT

The people of India have a wide variety of eating habits that vary according to ethnicity, geography, and culture. The consumption of meat primarily covers the protein requirement of the Indians, and three out of four are non-vegetarians. There is a need to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated countrywide lockdown on the meat consumption pattern of the Indian non-vegetarians. A countrywide survey was conducted among the consumers to study the impact of COVID-19 on the meat consumption pattern using a self-administered electronic questionnaire distributed through emails and online social networking platforms. A total of 416 responses were collected from the consumers belonging to different states and union territories. The data were analyzed as per the standard procedure. The meat consumption pattern of the non-vegetarians was found to be altered during the COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown period. The majority of the consumers could not obtain a sufficient quantity of meat and meat products during the lockdown period due to various reasons such as the increased cost and decreased availability of livestock. The myths and rumors associated with meat consumption and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 further weakened the meat trade in certain areas. Based on the findings of this survey, it is safe to confirm that the meat consumption pattern among Indian consumers was affected badly during the countrywide lockdown. © 2021, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

15.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 9(2):131-137, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1404144

ABSTRACT

Skin manifestations have been reported in up to 20% of cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including morbilliform rash (22%), pernio-like acral lesions (18%), urticaria (16%), and macular erythema (13%). It is believed that in the case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the mechanism involved is an inflammatory response that generates immune dysregulation, vascular congestion, vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or neoangiogenesis. This case study, present the case of a patient with no previous history of urticarial reactions, autoimmune diseases, or exposure to medications who develops generalized urticaria lasting more than 24 hours and who was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR with a nasopharyngeal swab. We suggest in this patient vasculitic urticaria as a manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. © 2021, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

16.
Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ; 8(1):261-268, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1402192

ABSTRACT

The course of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly affected the healthcare systems in multiple ways, the programs of control and the management of patients with other infectious diseases as well as with chronic and acute non-communicable diseases, including those conditions requiring blood transfusions. Blood donations have been decreasing over time in multiple countries with their expected consequences. Although the spread of SARS-CoV-2 has not been detected via blood transfusion, the increasing fear and anxiety among communities have led to a substantial decrease in blood donations. Several research groups have raised concerns about the consequences associated with the scarcity of blood. However, it is critical to understand the underlying causes of the sharp decline in blood donations, as well as the consequences. Hence, we discuss the impact of blood scarcity at the blood banks during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as strategies to promote blood donations, given the experience in some countries with this situation. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

17.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 9(3):239-253, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1328329

ABSTRACT

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is primarily associated with a respiratory infection, it has also been linked to multisystem involvement that includes the digestive tract. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are common in patients with COVID-19 due to the high viral load lodged in the small intestine's mucosa. As a result, it causes an increase in the permeability of the intestinal barrier that favours the passage and translocation of bacteria, from the lumen of the intestine, towards the internal environment, with the appearance of sepsis, with evidence that SARS-CoV-2 has been found in faeces. This article highlights epidemiology, clinical symptoms, and mechanisms related to manifestations of disease in the GI tract and its pathogenesis in patients with COVID-19. It highlights bacterial translocation and COVID-19, mechanisms that control bacterial translocation, intestinal infection and feco-oral transmission, defense mechanisms against microbial invasion, role of microbiota/microbiome and implications of their dysbiosis and alterations during SARS-CoV-2 infection, and lastly protective health benefits by improving dietary habits with nutritional foods approaches amid the ongoing pandemic. Increasing evidence indicates that bacterial translocation appears due to the high viral load of COVID-19 in the mucosa of the GI tract, and the intestinal microbiota contributes to the COVID-19 course owing to their bidirectional relationship with the immune system and lungs. Dysbiosis in gut microbiota leads to increased gut permeability thus predisposing to secondary infection and multiple organ dysfunction. Disruption of intestinal barrier integrity due to dysbiosis may cause translocation of SARS-CoV-2 from lungs into the intestinal lumen via the circulatory and lymphatic system, initiating severe clinical presentation of the infection. A thorough understanding of the key role of gut microbiota, gastrointestinal symptoms, and pathology along with immunomodulatory approaches would help in alleviating morbidity and mortality during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. © 2021, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences.

18.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Suppl. 1):S66-S78, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1328327

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel coronavirus referred to as SARS-CoV-2 has become a global health apprehension due to rapid transmission tendency, severity, and wide geographical spread. This emergence was started from Wuhan, China in 2019 from the zoonotic source and spread worldwide, infecting almost half of the community on this earth. Many of the receptors are involved in proceeding with this infection in the organism's body. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play essential and protective functions from a wide range of microbial pathogens. Small setup of TLR adaptor proteins leads to activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and interferon-regulatory factor (IRF). Consequently, various advanced inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and interferon reaction properties can be up-regulated. Similarly, TLR flagging works on autophagy in macrophages. Autophagy is a cell response to starvation that helps to eliminate damaged cytosol organelles and persistent proteins. It is also able to prevent the replication of intracellular pathogens. Several microbes subvert the autophagy pathways to sustain their viability. This review investigates how TLRs can modulate a macrophagic system and analyze the role of natural resistance autophagy.

19.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-9001

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to determine the cumulative prevalence of prolonged gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, abdominal pain, and dysgeusia, in survivors of both mild and severe COVID-19 worldwide and to discuss the potential pathogenesis. Methods: Three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched for relevant articles up to January 30, 2021. Data on study characteristics, clinical characteristics during follow-up, the number of patients with prolonged GI symptoms, and total number of COVID-19 survivors were retrieved according to PRISMA guidelines. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The pooled prevalence of specific prolonged GI symptoms was calculated and the association between COVID-19 severity and the occurrence of prolonged GI symptoms was assessed if appropriate. Results: The global prevalence of prolonged nausea was 3.23% (95% CI: 0.54%-16.53%) among 527 COVID-19 survivors. Vomiting persisted in 93 of 2,238 COVID-19 survivors (3.19%, 95% CI: 1.62%-6.17%) and prolonged diarrhea was found in 34 of 1,073 survivors (4.12%, 95% CI: 1.07%-14.64%). A total of 156 patients among 2,238 COVID-19 survivors (4.41%, 95% CI: 1.91%-9.94%) complained of persistent decreased or loss of appetite. The cumulative prevalence of prolonged abdominal pain was 1.68% (95% CI: 0.84%-3.32%), whereas persistent dysgeusia was identified in 130 cases among 1,887 COVID-19 survivors (7.04%, 95% CI: 5.96%-8.30%). Data was insufficient to assess the relationship between COVID-19 severity and the occurrence of all prolonged GI symptoms. Conclusion: Persistent GI symptoms among COVID-19 survivors after discharge or recovery raises a concern regarding the long-term impact of the COVID-19 infection on the quality of life of the survivors. Despite several potential explanations proposed, studies that aim to follow patients after recovery from COVID-19 and determine the pathogenesis of the prolonged symptoms of COVID-19 survivors are warranted. PROSPERO registration: CRD42021239187.

20.
Infez Med ; 29(2):167-180, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1248656

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in a very short span of thirteen months has taken a considerable toll on humanity, resulting in over 3 million deaths with more than 150 million confirmed cases as on May 1, 2021. In the scarcity of a potential antiviral and protective vaccine, COVID-19 has posed high public health concerns, panic, and challenges to limit the spread of this pandemic virus. Only recently have a few vaccine candidates been developed, and vaccination programs have started in some countries. Multiple clinical presentations of COVID-19, animal spillover, cross-species jumping, zoonotic concerns, and emergence of virus variants have altogether created havoc during this ongoing pandemic. Several bodies of research are continuously working to elucidate the exact molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis. To develop a prospective antiviral therapy/vaccine for SARSCoV-2, it is quite essential to gain insight into the immunobiology and molecular virology of SARS-CoV-2. A thorough literature search was conducted up to 28th February 2021 in the PubMed and other databases for the articles describing the immunopathology and immune response of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which were critically evaluated and used to compile this article to present an overall update. Some of the information was drawn from studies on previous MERS and SARS viruses. Innate as well as adaptive immunity responses are elicited by exposure to SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 establishes a successful infection by escaping the host immunity as well as over activating the innate immune mechanisms that result in severe disease outcomes, including cytokine storm. This review summarizes the immunopathology and molecular immune mechanisms elicited during SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their similarities with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.

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