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1.
Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences ; 8(5):323-326, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2308991

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this paper was to investigate the impact of different variables on the production of antibodies in patients who were infected with Covid-19.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The study was conducted between January 2021 and March 2022. Demographic data were collected via face-to-face interview. Antibody levels were determined using Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2.Results: The levels of antibody were studied in 138 patients. A significant association was found between antibody levels and the age of the participants (r = 0.175;P = 0.04). Besides, a significant correlation was found between antibody levels and the duration of symptoms (r = 0.206;P = 0.015). The antibody levels were not associated with gender;history of chronic diseases;marital status or time interval before testing.Conclusion: Different variables that may impact the levels of antibody were studied. Significant associations were found between antibody levels and both age and duration of symptoms. Our results can be used by healthcare providers to focus on patients who are at risk of low antibody production.

2.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 17(1):567-575, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2276955

ABSTRACT

Individuals with comorbidities (i.e., Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension, heart diseases) are more likely to develop a more severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), thus, they should take necessary precautions to avoid infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its emerging variants and subvariants by getting COVID-19 vaccination and booster doses. In this regard, we used text analytics techniques, specifically Natural Language Processing (NLP), to understand the perception of Twitter users having comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases) towards the COVID-19 vaccine booster doses. Understanding and identifying Twitter users' perceptions and perspectives will help the members of medical fraternities, governments, and policymakers to frame and implement a suitable public health policy for promoting the uptake of booster shots by such vulnerable people. A total of 176,540 tweets were identified through the scrapping process to understand the perception of individuals with the mentioned comorbidities regarding the COVID-19 booster dose. From sentiment analysis, it was revealed that 57.6% out of 176,540 tweets expressed negative sentiments about the COVID-19 vaccine booster doses. The reasons for negative expressions have been found using the topic modeling approach (i.e., risk factors, fear of myocardial fibrosis, stroke, or death, and using vaccines as bio-weapons). Of note, enhancing the COVID-19 vaccination drive by administering its booster doses to more and more people is of paramount importance for rendering higher protective immunity under the current threats of recently emerging newer Omicron subvariants which are presently causing a rise in cases in a few countries, such as China and others, and might lead to a feasible new wave of the pandemic with the surge in cases at the global level. Copyright © The Author(s) 2023.

3.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 11(1):150-157, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2276954

ABSTRACT

Most, if not all, the vaccine candidates designed to counteract COVID-19 due to SARS-CoV-2 infection require parenteral administration. Mucosal immunity established by vaccination could significantly contribute to containing the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which is spread by infected respiratory secretions. The world has been impacted on many fronts by the COVID-19 pandemic since early 2020 and has yet to recover entirely from the impact of the crisis. In late 2022 and early 2023, China experienced a new surge of COVID-19 outbreaks, mainly in the country's northeastern region. With the threat of new variants like XBB 1.5 and BF.7, India might experience a similar COVID-19 surge as China and needs to be prepared to avoid destruction again. An intranasal vaccine can elicit multiple immunological responses, including IgG neutralization, mucosal IgA production, and T-cell responses. In order to prevent further infection and the spread of COVID-19, local immune responses in the nasal mucosa are required. iNCOVACC is a recombinant vaccine vectored by an adenovirus that contains a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that has been pre-fusion stabilized. This vaccine candidate has shown promise in both early and late-stage clinical trials. iNCOVACC has been designed for intranasal administration via nasal drops. The nasal delivery system was created to reduce expenses for those living in poor and moderate-income. © 2023, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

4.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 17(1):515-523, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2276953

ABSTRACT

Concerns about an increase in cases during the COVID-19 pandemic have been heightened by the emergence of a new Omicron subvariant XBB.1.5 that joined the previously reported BF.7 as a source of public health concern. COVID-19 cases have been on the rise intermittently throughout the ongoing pandemic, likely because of the continuous introduction of SARS-CoV-2 subtypes. The present study analyzed the Indian citizen's perceptions of the latest covid variants XBB.1.5 and BF.7 using the natural language processing technique, especially topic modeling and sentiment analysis. The tweets posted by Indian citizens regarding this issue were analyzed and used for this study. Government authorities, policymakers, and healthcare officials will be better able to implement the necessary policy effectively to tackle the XBB 1.5 and BF.7 crises if they are aware of the people's sentiments and concerns about the crisis. A total of 8,54,312 tweets have been used for this study. Our sentiment analysis study has revealed that out of those 8,54,312 tweets, the highest number of tweets (n = 3,19,512 tweets (37.3%)) about COVID variants XBB.1.5 and BF.7 had neutral sentiments, 3,16,951 tweets (37.1%) showed positive sentiments and 2,17,849 tweets (25.4%) had negative sentiments. Fear of the future and concerns about the immunity of the vaccines are of prime concerns to tackle the ongoing pandemic. Copyright © The Author(s) 2023.

5.
ChemistrySelect ; 8(9), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2272565

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529), fifth variant of concern (VOC) of SARS-CoV-2, initially identified following a steep increase in COVID-19 cases in Southern Africa in November 2021. It is a highly-mutated variant and is more contagious as compared with the Delta variant, however less deadly. Due to its high transmission rate, it spreads dramatically, and causing huge surges worldwide. It causes "mild infection”, with hospitalisations less likely to occur. However, this variant is known to show resistance to neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) generated through vaccination and/or prior infection as well as to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) used to treat COVID-19 patients. In many countries, booster doses of vaccines have been recommended to increase the protective levels of antibodies in vaccinated individuals. Along with the implementation of appropriate prevention and control strategy measures, current efforts are also focussed on the development of better vaccines and mAbs to counter this variant. This review highlights the global health concerns and challenges posed by the Omicron variant and present an update on its sub-lineages. © 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

6.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 11(1):54-61, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2284182

ABSTRACT

In the majority of the affected nations, suicidal behavior against COVID-19 leads to various concerns. This study aimed to analyze determinants affecting suicidal behaviour among university students in Uttarakhand. An online cross-sectional survey of 18-year-old university students in Uttarakhand was conducted between April 2 and May 13, 2022. The questionnaire comprised socio-demographic information, the Suicidal Behaviors' Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) scale, and elements related to the physical and psychological health of COVID-19 (CRPPF). The statistical study included demographic information, basic statistics in terms of frequency and percentage, and logistic regression. In comparison to students with fewer than seven family members, students with more than seven family members were less likely to participate in suicide behaviour (AOR = 2.21;95% CI: 1.79 to 2.67) and vice versa (AOR = 0.81;95% CI: 0.56 to 0.97). According to the study, a substantial majority of students (76.35%) claimed that the lockdown implemented to stop the spread of COVID-19 was extremely upsetting for them and that the pandemic had caused them to miss their graduation (73.90%). Adjusted multivariate logistic regression shows that feelings of a burden on family, (AOR= 1.98, 95% CI: 1.09 to 2.82), distancing from family or friends, (AOR =1.66;95% CI: 1.26 to 2.01), having relationship dilemmas, (AOR= 2.31;95% CI: 1.84 to 2.97), and being anxious during the lockdown, (AOR= 1.84;95% CI: 1.08 to 2.27), are significant factors among participants that are linked to higher risk of engaging in suicidal behaviour. The possibility of university students engaging in suicide behaviour was significantly affected by numerous factors. In addition to defending the students' mental health, the concerned authorities should devise and implement strategies to safeguard the students' physical health. © 2023, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

7.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 17(1):385-394, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2251155

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is continually evolving with the emergence of new variants with increased viral pathogenicity. The emergence of heavily mutated Omicron (B.1.1.529) with spike protein mutations are known to mediate its higher transmissibility and immune escape that has brought newer challenges for global public health to contain SARS-CoV-2 infection. One has to come up with a therapeutic strategy against the virus so as to effectively contain the infection and spread. Natural phytochemicals are being considered a significant source of bioactive compounds possessing an antiviral therapeutic potential. Being a promising anticancer and chemo-preventive agent, Silybin holds a significant potential to be used as a therapeutic. In the present study, molecular docking of Silybin with Omicron spike protein (7QNW) was carried out. Molecular docking results showed greater stability of Silybin in the active site of the Omicron spike protein with suitable binding mode of interactions. The study reveals that Silybin has the potential to block the host ACE2 receptor-viral spike protein binding;thereby inhibiting the viral entry to human cells. Therefore, Silybin may be further developed as a medication with the ability to effectively combat SARS-CoV-2 Omicron.Copyright © The Author(s) 2023.

8.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 17(1) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2248282

ABSTRACT

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) is a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vectored vaccine developed by Oxford and AstraZeneca for a disease we all know as Coronavirus, or COVID-19. Ongoing clinical studies reveal that the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine has a tolerable safety profile and is effective against symptomatic COVID-19. This vaccine may prove crucial in boosting herd immunity, averting life threatening illness, and relieving the current pandemic. In this mini review, we performed a thorough literature search through PubMed and Google Scholar and reported various case reports associated with complications of the adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine. Various adverse effects of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine were reported around the globe, which were often serious but rare and developed into life-threatening pathologies such as GBS, thrombocytopenia, demyelinating neuropathies, progressive dementia, cerebral infarction, IgA vasculitis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, herpes zoster, cutaneous reactions, and vein thrombosis. These worldwide reported complications, which are usually rare and severe, will aid clinicians in understanding and managing unforeseen situations. There is a need for more research to find out more about these complications and their etiopathogenesis. However, the benefits of these vaccinations for stopping the spread of the outbreak and lowering the fatality rate outweigh the potential risk of the uncommon complications.Copyright © The Author(s) 2023.

9.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 10(6):1215-1221, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2217792

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron versions have been the sole one circulating for quite some time. Subvariants BA.1, BA.2, BA.3, BA.4, and BA.5 of the Omicron emerged over time and through mutation, with BA.1 responsible for the most severe global pandemic between December 2021 and January 2022. Other Omicron subvariants such as BQ.1, BQ.1.1, BA.4.6, BF.7, BA.2.75.2, XBB.1 appeared recently and could cause a new wave of increased cases amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. There is evidence that certain Omicron subvariants have increased transmissibility, extra spike mutations, and ability to overcome protective effects of COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies through immunological evasion. In recent months, the Omicron BF.7 subvariant has been in the news due to its spread in China and a small number of other countries, raising concerns about a possible rebound in COVID-19 cases. More recently, the Omicron XBB.1.5 subvariant has captured international attention due to an increase in cases in the United States. As a highly transmissible sublineage of Omicron BA.5, as well as having a shorter incubation time and the potential to reinfect or infect immune population, BF.7 has stronger infection ability. It appears that the regional immunological landscape is affected by the amount and timing of previous Omicron waves, as well as the COVID-19 vaccination coverage, which in turn determines whether the increased immune escape of BF.7 and XBB.1.5 subvariants is sufficient to drive new infection waves. Expanding our understanding of the transmission and efficacy of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and antiviral drugs against newly emerging Omicron subvariants and lineages, as well as bolstering genomic facilities for tracking their spread and maintaining a constant vigilance, and shedding more light on their evolution and mutational events, would help in the development of effective mitigation strategies. Importantly, reducing the occurrence of mutations and recombination in the virus can be aided by bolstering One health approach and emphasizing its significance in combating zoonosis and reversal zoonosis linked with COVID-19. This article provides a brief overview on Omicron variant, its recently emerging lineages and subvairants with a special focus on BF.7 and XBB.1.5 as much more infectious and highly transmissible variations that may once again threaten a sharp increase in COVID-19 cases globally amid the currently ongoing pandemic, along with presenting salient mitigation measures. © 2022, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

10.
Journal of Molecular Structure ; 1275, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2181708

ABSTRACT

A novel Schiff base (SB) ligand, abbreviated as HDMPM, resulted from the condensation of 2-amino-4 -phenyl-5-methyl thiazole and 4-(diethylamino)salicyaldehyde, and its metal complexes with [Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)] ions in high yield were formed. The physico-chemical techniques such as elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR, mass spectroscopy, and electronic absorption studies were utilized to characterize the synthesized compounds. The studied compounds were examined for their possible anticancer activity against a number of human cancerous cell lines, including A549 lung carcinoma, HepG2 liver cancer, HCT116 colorectal cancer, and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines, with dox-orubicin serving as the standard. The study revealed that Zn(II) complex showed significant activity to inhibit growth of HepG2, MCF7, A549, and HCT116 cell lines by a factor of 88, 70, 75, and 70, respec-tively, when compared to untreated. In addition, the reported compounds were optimized by employing Gaussian16 program package with B3LYP functional incorporating dispersion with two different basis sets (LanL2DZ and 6-31G(d,p)). Moreover, Autodock Vina software was used to assess the biological effective-ness of the studied compounds against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (PDB ID: 7T9K).(c) 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

11.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 10(5):960-977, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2120628

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus 2 (SARS-nCoV-2). It has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Since then, several researchers have worked/ are working on this virus by a multifactorial approach to finding out the mechanism of entry, transmission route, post-infection replication process, survival, and post-recovery utilities. As we know, SARS, MERS, and Zika viruses have affected human reproductive potentials, consequently, COVID 19 also can affect both men's and women's reproductive potential through ACE2 macromolecule. This study aimed to summarize the role of ACE2-macromolecule in COVID 19 entry and further processes in the reproductive path of both men and women. Research articles were searched in NCBI-NLM, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. We searched based on the phrase ―COVID 19”, ―ACE2”, ―ACE2 in testes”, ―ACE2 in the female reproductive tract”, ―ACE2 during pregnancy”, ―ACE2 during early embryo”, ―COVID 19 and impact in human reproduction” and selected the articles for summarizing this article. Most recent articles and the mechanism of COVID 19 were selected for our understanding. The results of the study revealed that COVID 19 impacts the reproductive potential of both men and women. Testes are the most vulnerable organ prone to infection in men, and vaginal fluid and the uterus could be the choice of infection in the female. Till now, COVID 19 has not been directly detected in semen samples and vaginal fluid. Results of the study can be concluded that ACE2 plays a major role in COVID 19 infection, ACE2 expression could Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) - A macromolecule and its impact on human reproduction. © 2022, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5991-6003, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The recent monkeypox disease outbreak is another significant threat during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This viral disease is zoonotic and contagious. The viral disease outbreak is considered the substantial infection possessed by the Orthopoxvirus family species after the smallpox virus' obliteration, a representative of the same family. It has potentially threatened the Republic of Congo's regions and certain African subcontinent zones. Although repeated outbreaks have been reported in several parts of the world, as conferred from the epidemiological data, very little is explored about the disease landscape. Thus, here we have reviewed the current status of the monkeypox virus along with therapeutic options available to humanity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have accessed and reviewed the available literature on the monkeypox virus to highlight its epidemiology, pathogenicity, virulence, and therapeutic options available. For the review, we have searched different literature and database such as PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, etc., using different keywords such as "monkeypox", "Orthopox", "smallpox", "recent monkeypox outbreak", "therapeutic strategies", "monkeypox vaccines", etc. This review has included most of the significant references from 1983 to 2022. RESULTS: It has been reported that the monkeypox virus shows a remarkable similarity with smallpox during the ongoing outbreak. Sometimes, it creates considerable confusion due to misdiagnosis and similarity with smallpox. The misdiagnosis of the disease should be immediately corrected by rendering some cutting-edge techniques especially intended to isolate the monkeypox virus. The pathophysiology and the histopathological data imply the immediate need to design effective therapeutics to confer resistance against the monkeypox virus. Most importantly, the potential implications of the disease are not given importance due to the lack of awareness programs. Moreover, specific evolutionary evidence is crucial for designing effective therapeutic strategies that confer high resistance, particularly against this species. CONCLUSIONS: The review focuses on a brief overview of the recent monkeypox virus outbreak, infection biology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic aspects. Such an attempt will support researchers, policymakers, and healthcare professionals for better treatment and containment of the infection caused by the monkeypox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Pandemics
13.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 10(2):396-404, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863450

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (S ARS-CoV-2) emerging variants particularly those of concern contain numerous mutations that influence the behavior and transmissibility of the virus and could adversely affect the efficacies of existing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and immunotherapies. The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants have resulted in different waves of the pandemic within the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. On 26 November 2021 World Health Organization designated omicron (B.1.1.529) as the fifth variant of concern which was first reported from South Africa on November 24, 2021, and thereafter rapidly spread across the globe owing to its very high transmission rates along with impeding efficacies of existing vaccines and immunotherapies. Omicron contains more than 50 mutations with many mutations (26-32) in spike protein that might be associated with high transmissibility. Natural compounds particularly phytochemicals have been used since ancient times for the treatment of different diseases, and owing to their potent anti-viral properties have also been explored recently against COVID-19. In the present study, molecular docking of nine phytochemicals (Oleocanthal, Tangeritin, Coumarin, Malvidin, Glycitein, Piceatannol, Pinosylnin, Daidzein, and Naringenin) with omicron spike protein (7QNW (electron microscopy, resolution 2.40 Å) was done. The docking study revealed that selected ligands interact with the receptor with binding energy in the range of-6.2 to-7.0 kcal/mol. Pinosylnin showed the highest binding energy of-7.0 kcal/mol which may be used as potential ligands against omicron spike protein. Based on the docking studies, it was suggested that these phytochemicals are potential molecules to be tested against omicron SARS-CoV-2 and can be used to develop effective antiviral drugs. © 2022, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

14.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(5): 1165-1174, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744449

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related pandemic has been in existence for almost 2 years now after its possible emergence from a wet market in the city of Wuhan of the Chinese mainland. Evidence of the emergence and transmission of this virus was attributed to bats and pangolins. The causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread globally, affecting humans considerably with its current death toll to be over 4.7 million out of more than 233 confirmed cases as of September 2021. The virus is constantly mutating and continuously trying to establish itself in humans by increasing its transmissibility and virulence through its numerous emerging variants. Several countries have been facing multiple waves of COVID-19 outbreaks one after the other, putting the medical and healthcare establishments under tremendous stress. Although very few drugs and vaccines have been approved for emergency use, their production capabilities need to meet the needs of a huge global population. Currently, not even a quarter of the world population is vaccinated. The situation in India has worsened during the ongoing second wave with the involvement of virus variants with a rapid and huge surge in COVID-19 cases, where the scarcity of hospital infrastructure, antiviral agents, and oxygen has led to increased deaths. Recently, increased surveillance and monitoring, strengthening of medical facilities, campaigns of awareness programs, progressive vaccination drive, and high collaborative efforts have led to limiting the surge of COVID-19 cases in India to a low level. This review outlines the global status of the pandemic with special reference to the Indian scenario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 90(3):158-173, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1717235

ABSTRACT

After the appearance of first cases of pneumonia of unknown origin in the Wuhan city, China, during late 2019, the disease progressed fast. Its cause was identified as a novel coronavirus, named provisionally 2019-nCoV. Subsequently, an official name was given as SARS-CoV-2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV study group. The World Health Organization WHO named the Coronavirus disease-2019 as COVID-19. The epidemics of COVID-2019 have been recorded over 113 countries/territories/areas apart from China and filched more than 4,292 humans, affecting severely around 1,18,326 cases in a short span. The status of COVID-2019 emergency revised by the WHO within 42 days from Public Health International Emergency January 30, 2020 to a pandemic March 11, 2020. Nonetheless, the case fatality rate CFR of the current epidemic is on the rise between 2-4%, relatively is lower than the previous SARS-CoV 2002/2003 and MERS-CoV 2012 outbreaks. Even though investigations are on its way, the researchers across the globe have assumptions of animal-origin of current SARS-CoV-2. A recent case report provides evidence of mild COVID-2019 infection in a pet dog that acquired COVID-2019 infection from his owner in Hong Kong. The news on travellers associated spread across the globe have also put many countries on alert with the cancellation of tourist visa to all affected countries and postponement of events where international visits were required. A few diagnostic approaches, including quantitative and differential real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, have been recommended for the screening of the individuals at risk. In the absence of any selective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, re-purposed drugs are advocated in many studies. This article discourse the current worldwide situation of COVID-2019 with information on virus, epidemiology, host, the role of animals, effective diagnosis, therapeutics, preventive and control approaches making people aware on the disease outcomes.

16.
Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ; 8(1):364-384, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550441

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic driven by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus–2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become the most critical universal health disaster of this century. Millions of people are staying at home obeying lockdown to halt the spread of this novel virus. The spread of the virus has forced people to use the mask, gloves, hand sanitizer, etc. daily, and healthcare workers to use personal protection equipment following the WHO guidelines, resulting in huge amounts of medical waste. This pandemic has led to a slowdown of economic activities significantly, and consequently, stock markets have nosedived beyond speculation. Although the deadly coronavirus has taken away millions of precious lives and the livelihood of many sections of people worldwide, it has brought several positive changes in the world. Furthermore, it has led to a massive restoration of the environment and improved air and water quality. Pandemic showed the resilient nature of the environment, including air and water, when human activities are paused. In addition, we also discussed how this pandemic affects human lifestyle behavior. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7162-7184, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552083

ABSTRACT

The last two decades have witnessed the emergence of three deadly coronaviruses (CoVs) in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are still no reliable and efficient therapeutics to manage the devastating consequences of these CoVs. Of these, SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the currently ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has posed great global health concerns. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented crisis with devastating socio-economic and health impacts worldwide. This highlights the fact that CoVs continue to evolve and have the genetic flexibility to become highly pathogenic in humans and other mammals. SARS-CoV-2 carries a high genetic homology to the previously identified CoV (SARS-CoV), and the immunological and pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS contain key similarities and differences that can guide therapy and management. This review presents salient and updated information on comparative pathology, molecular pathogenicity, immunological features, and genetic characterization of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2; this can help in the design of more effective vaccines and therapeutics for countering these pathogenic CoVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pathology, Molecular/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Global Health/economics , Humans , Male , Mammals , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence
18.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science ; 11(11):026-033, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1538775

ABSTRACT

The severity of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with hyperinflammation induced by excessive release of a range of cytokines and chemokines. Among a plethora of cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a pivotal role in the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection as IL-6 has been proposed to initiate hypersecretion of cytokines by activating the Janus kinases-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Hence, targeting IL-6 and its receptor can be an appropriate therapeutic strategy to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, tocilizumab (TCZ) is a well-known monoclonal antibody for its anti-inflammatory activities. TCZ has been designed to bind two different IL-6 receptors, viz., membrane-bound and soluble receptors. As an antagonist of IL-6 receptors, TCZ inhibits the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which is essential for the transcriptional activation of cytokines-producing genes.Hence, the inhibition of IL-6 receptors can substantially reduce hyperinflammation, a key characteristic of severely infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. TCZ has much promise in terms of treating SARS-CoV-2-related hyperinflammation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ damage. Hence, TCZ has been proposed as a potential therapeutic drug for treating COVID-19 disease. However, several discrepancies still exist, such as a well-defined molecular mechanism, efficacy, and safety parameters. In this context, various databases, including Medline, ResearchGate, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were explored employing keywords such as “Cytokine storm”, “COVID-19”, “hyper inflammation”, “IL-6”, “TCZ”, and “SARS-COV-2” up to May 2021. The authors independently collected and evaluated research papers for inclusion in the current review, relying on their relatedness to the main theme of the literature review. So, this narrative review aims to provide updated information about the molecular mechanism, efficacy, and safety of TCZ in the treatment of COVID-19. However,several contradictions and challenges associated with TCZ use in the treatment of severely infected patients with COVID-19 have also been discussed. © 2021 Manish Dhawan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

19.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 91(10):791-802, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1490189

ABSTRACT

Of the 1,415 human pathogens identified, 175 are responsible for causing emerging diseases, 132 are zoonotic and majority of the diseases are categorized as emerging or re-emerging. Emerging novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) is one of them, and it is responsible for causing social and economically critical disease in both humans and animals. This review presents the understanding of epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 pandemic related to host, agent, and the environment with transmission and spread of the disease for better prevention of the COVID-19. The inclination of the viruses to spillover between different species and determining the number of the reservoir of coronaviruses in an entirely new host to create infection is of emerging importance. The understanding of disease patterns will potentiate our expertise to alert how, when, and where the potential epidemic will occur. One health approach involves co-operation from all the sectors, including healthcare (medical and veterinary), environmental, pharmaceutical, educational, research, police, and administration, to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and reduce the public health threat.

20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5947-5964, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478937

ABSTRACT

The recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has resulted in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, affecting millions of lives. Although vaccines are presently made available, and vaccination drive is in progress to immunize a larger population; still the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mortality is persistent amid threats of the third wave of the ongoing pandemic. In the scenario of unavailability of robust and efficient treatment modalities, it becomes essential to understand the mechanism of action of the virus and deeply study the molecular mechanisms (both at the virus level and the host level) underlying the infection processes. Recent studies have shown that coronaviruses (CoVs) cause-specific epigenetic changes in the host cells to create a conducive microenvironment for replicating, assembling, and spreading. Epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 multiplication cycle, like expressing cytokine genes, viral receptor ACE2, and implicating different histone modifications. For SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral proteins are physically associated with various host proteins resulting in numerous interactions between epigenetic enzymes (i.e., histone deacetylases, bromodomain-containing proteins). The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the virus life cycle and the host immune responses to control infection result in epigenetic factors recognized as emerging prognostic COVID-19 biomarkers and epigenetic modulators as robust therapeutic targets to curb COVID-19. Therefore, this narrative review aimed to summarize and discuss the various epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression and how these mechanisms are altered in the host cells during coronavirus infection. We also discuss the opportunities to exploit these epigenetic changes as therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Epigenetic alterations and regulation play a pivotal role at various levels of coronavirus infection: entry, replication/transcription, and the process of maturation of viral proteins. Coronaviruses modulate the host epigenome to escape the host immune mechanisms. Therefore, host epigenetic alterations induced by CoVs can be considered to develop targeted therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Epigenome , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
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