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1.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; : 100586, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821328

ABSTRACT

Background: The global outbreak of COVID-19 has created a challenging situation, especially for the frontline Health Care Professionals (HCPs), who are routinely exposed and thus are at a higher risk of infection. Pranayama, a component of Yoga, is known to improve immune function and reduce infection. However, no clinical trial on the efficacy of Pranayama in preventing COVID-19 has yet been conducted. Aim & Objective: This quasi-randomized clinical trial assessed the efficacy of Pranayama in preventing COVID-19 infection in HCPs routinely exposed to COVID-19. Methodology: The study was conducted at 5 different COVID-19 hospitals, India in year 2020. The inclusion criteria were being an HCP exposed to COVID-19 patients and being negative on antibody tests. 280 HCPs were recruited sequential and assigned to intervention and control groups. Of these, 250 HCPs completed the study. The intervention was twice daily practice, for 28 days, of specially designed Pranayama modules under the online supervision of Yoga instructors. The HCPs in the control group were advised to continue their normal daily routine, but no pranayama sessions. Participants who developed symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 were subjected to Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) or Point of Care Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) for confirmation of the diagnosis. All the participants were tested for antibodies to COVID-19 on 28th day of the intervention to detect any asymptomatic infection. Results: The intervention (123) and control (127) groups had comparable demographics and baseline characteristics. At end of 28 days of intervention, nine participants in the control group and one in the intervention group developed COVID-19 (P-value: 0.01, Odds Ratio: 0.107, 95% CI: 0.86; Risk Ratio: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.89). Conclusion: The intervention of twice daily practice of the Pranayama module for 28 days in HCPs might have made a noteworthy contribution and may have helped in preventing COVID-19 infection. CTRI Number: CTRI/2020/07/026667.

2.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 60-67, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726286

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study impact of COVID-19 pandemic on frequency, clinical/electrophysiological profile and treatment outcomes in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Background: GBS is the most frequent cause of pediatric acute flaccid paralysis. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric GBS is unclear in the literature. Methods: We conducted an ambispective, multicentric, cohort study involving 12 of 27 centres in GBS Consortium, during two periods: pre-COVID-19 (March-August 2019) and during COVID-19 (March-August 2020). Children ≤12 years who satisfied National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke criteria for GBS/variants were enrolled. Details pertaining to clinical/laboratory parameters, treatment and outcomes (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge, GBS Disability score at discharge and 3 months) were analysed. Results: We enrolled 33 children in 2019 and 10 in 2020. Children in 2020 were older (median 10.4 [interquartile range 6.75-11.25] years versus 5 (2.5-8.4) years; P = 0.022) and had more sensory symptoms (50% versus 18.2%; P = 0.043). The 2020 group had relatively favourable mRS at discharge (median 1 (1-3.5) versus 3 (2-4); P = 0.042) and GBS disability score at 3 months (median 0 (0-0.75) versus 2 (0-3); P = 0.009) compared to 2019. Multivariate analysis revealed bowel involvement (P = 0.000) and ventilatory support (P = 0.001) as independent predictors of disability. No child in 2020 had preceding/concurrent SARS-CoV2 infection. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a marked decline in pediatric GBS presenting to hospitals. Antecedent illnesses, clinical and electrophysiological profile of GBS remained largely unchanged from the pre-pandemic era.

3.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(4): 536-541, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441250

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the feasibility of teleneurorehabilitation (TNR) among persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), considering difficulties imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic in access to healthcare, particularly in low-resource settings. The feasibility of TNR in India has not been formally assessed so far. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, prospective cohort study at a tertiary center in India. Persons with PD with Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) stages 1-2.5, who were not enrolled into any formal exercise program, were offered TNR as per a predesigned program for 12 weeks. Baseline and post-intervention assessment included Movement Disorders Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), part II and III, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ)-8 and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS). We assessed adherence to TNR and problems expressed by patients/caregivers by means of open-ended surveys addressing barriers to rehabilitation. RESULTS: We recruited 22 for TNR. Median age (interquartile range [IQR]) was 66.0 (44.0-71.0) years; 66.7% were H&Y stage 2.0. One patient died of COVID-19-related complications. Of the remaining 21, 14 (66.7%) had adherence of ≥75%; 16/21 (76.2%) patients had problems with attending TNR sessions as the family shared a single phone. Slow Internet speed was an issue among 13/21 (61.9%) of the patients. Other issues included lack of rapport, migration to distant hometowns and motor-hand impairment. CONCLUSION: Multiple challenges were faced in implementing a telerehabilitation program among persons with PD, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. These barriers were present at various levels: recruitment, adherence issues and maintenance. Future TNR programs must address these concerns.

4.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(1): 1-2, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325854
5.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(2): 217-226, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The challenges being faced during the lockdown period may worsen motor or non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of lockdown on the disease activity, caregiver perceptions and the quality of life of patients with PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June till September 2020. Sixty-four patients with PD and caregivers were interviewed telephonically after obtaining consent. The responses were recorded by means of a structured questionnaire. Non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) and the Parkinson Disease Questinnaire-8 (PDQ-8) were applied. PDQ-8 severity index (PDQ-8 SI) scores were expressed as percentage of the raw PDQ-8 score of the total score. Data were analsyed by using SPSS version 20.0. RESULTS: Of 64 patients, 39 (60.9%) were men and 25 (39.1%) were women. The overall median age of the patients was 65 (55.25-69.75) years. The median duration was 48 (30-84) months. Twenty-six (40.6%) patients reported symptomatic worsening during the lockdown period. Slowness in activities of daily living and walking worsened in 15 (57.7%) and 14 (53.8%) patients, respectively, while tremors increased in 12 (46.2%) patients. Mood and sleep disturbances were the most common non-motor symptoms to worsen. Increase in non-motor symptoms and the NMSS total score were independent predictors of PDQ-8 scores. Increase in non-motor symptoms during the lockdown was an independent predictor of the highest quartile of PDQ-8 SI scores. CONCLUSIONS: Motor and non-motor symptoms have worsened in patients with PD during the lockdown. The increase in non-motor symptoms was independently associated with poorer quality of life among patients with PD during the lockdown.

6.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(2): 138-141, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227109

ABSTRACT

The COVID19 pandemic in India is causing significant morbidity and disruptions of healthcare delivery. The rapidly escalating contagion is straining our public health system, which is already under pressure due to a shortage of infrastructure and inadequate workforce. Neuro rehabilitation services that are still in its infancy in our country have been significantly interrupted in the last six months. An expert group from Indian Federation of Neurorehabilitation (IFNR) have formulated the guidelines and consensus recommendations for Neurologists, Physiatrists, and Therapists managing neurological disabilities during COVID 19. The aim of this consensus paper is to sensitize the clinicians and therapists about maintaining the continuum of care and rehabilitation needs of Covid patients as well as non Covid patients with neurological disorders during the ongoing COVID 19 pandemic.

7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 343-350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Greater COVID-19 related mortality has been reported among persons with various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We performed an ecological study to determine the association of state-level cases and deaths with NCD risk factors and healthcare and social indices. METHODS: We obtained cumulative national and state-level data on COVID-19 cases and deaths from publicly available database www.covid19india.org from February to end November 2020. To identify association with major NCD risk factors, NCDs, healthcare related and social variables we obtained data from public sources. Association was determined using univariate and multivariate statistics. RESULTS: More than 9.5 million COVID-19 cases and 135,000 deaths have been reported in India towards end of November 2020. There is significant positive correlation (Pearson r) of state-level COVID-19 cases and deaths per million, respectively, with NCD risk factors- obesity (0.64, 0.52), hypertension (0.28, 0.16), diabetes (0.66, 0.46), NCD epidemiological transition index (0.58, 0.54) and ischemic heart disease mortality (0.22, 0.33). Correlation is also observed with indices of healthcare access and quality (0.71, 0.61), urbanization (0.75, 0.73) and human (0.61, 0.56) and sociodemographic (0.70, 0.69) development. Multivariate adjusted analyses shows strong correlation of COVID-19 burden and deaths with NCD risk factors (r2 = 0.51, 0.43), NCDs (r2 = 0.32, 0.16) and healthcare (r2 = 0.52, 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 disease burden and mortality in India is ecologically associated with greater state-level burden of NCDs and risk factors, especially obesity and diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , India/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Risk Factors
8.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 23(5): 592-597, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993817

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine is witnessing a rebirth due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the continuing need for limited-contact or contactless care in medicine. Telerehabilitation, an offshoot of telemedicine, is a valuable yet underexplored tool in the therapeutic armamentarium of patients with neurological conditions, particularly Parkinson's disease (PD). Although there is evidence in literature reporting the use of telerehabilitation and virtual reality-based services in providing rehabilitation to improve speech, swallowing, gait, and postural instability among persons with PD, the evidence is limited due to small patient numbers. Teleneurorehabilitation (TNR) is an underutilized strategy that may be as effective and perhaps more feasible and affordable among Indian PD patients and also allows sustained rehabilitation. In this article, we encapsulate the evidence on the utility and efficacy of TNR among persons with PD and call upon the neurology community to recognize and utilize the valuable asset that TNR may be for PD patients.

9.
J Epilepsy Res ; 10(1): 3-7, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-802517

ABSTRACT

The end of the year 2019 was marked by novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in China that rapidly spread to the rest of the world. While the involvement of the lower respiratory system causing pneumonia is identified as the primary target of the virus, extra-pulmonary manifestations, especially of the central nervous system, are also being increasingly reported. Previous research on Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV have shown neurological involvement in human coronavirus infections. While several cases of seizures have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, there is no specific data to suggest an association of COVID-19 with epilepsy. Epilepsy patients on immunosuppressive medications may have a higher risk of contracting the viral infection. There can be an indirect relation of COVID-19 to epilepsy as the viral infection is associated with fever in most COVID-19 cases, which can lower seizure threshold. Additionally, inadequate sleep and stress due to ongoing pandemic of coronavirus can be another trigger for seizure precipitation in epilepsy patients. Drug compliance, availability of antiepileptic drugs, and drug interactions with COVID-19 experimental drugs are major concerns in epilepsy patients. Adopting telemedicine services and the use of epilepsy helplines may be important in assisting epilepsy patients and ensuring that treatment continues uninterrupted.

10.
The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 68(9):62-66, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-716023

ABSTRACT

The pandemic due to Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2) has rapidly engulfed the entire world, and continues to evolve at an aggressive pace. Although the characteristic concern in patients with COVID-19 is acute respiratory distress, there is meteoric accrual of data on neurological involvement. Neurological manifestations in COVID-19 have staggering diversity, ranging from mild olfactory and gustatory perception abnormalities to necrotising encephalopathy and stroke. Understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying neurological invasion and disease is still nascent, and dictated largely by evidence from previous coronavirus infections which are known to have neuroinvasive potential. It has also been postulated that SARS CoV2 may affect the medullary respiratory centres in the brain stem thereby playing a possible role in causing neurogenic acute respiratory failure. Preliminary data suggest a role of immune hyperinflammation and hyperthrombosis mediating neurological features. Apart from acute neurological manifestations, immune dysregulation may contribute to para and post-infectious complications and potentially, neurodegenerative conditions. These concepts are paramount in developing therapeutic paradigms to mitigate the impact of the pandemic. In this review, we summarise putative pathophysiological underpinnings of neurological manifestations of COVID-19 and guidance for their management.

12.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 23(Suppl 1): S24-S27, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-294495

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (nCoV) pandemic is rapidly developing across the globe and new information is emerging expeditiously and constantly, particularly in relation to neurological illnesses. Both central and peripheral nervous system involvement has been reported including headache, dizziness, hyposmia/anosmia, taste disturbances, seizures, stroke, alteration of the sensorium, and even acute hemorrhagic necrotizing leukoencephalopathy. Varying degrees of olfactory disturbances may pre-empt the diagnosis of COVID-19. Although no direct effect of 2019 nCoV has been reported yet on Parkinson's disease, there are enormous possible indirect effects and implications. We examine the potential effects and challenges posed by this pandemic to individuals with Parkinson's disease, particularly in the Indian context where telecommunication access or support group access may be lacking for these patients. Additionally, lockdown and social distancing may pose hurdles in the provision of optimum medical therapy, particularly if patients experience motor and non-motor deteriorations due to diverse reasons.

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