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Br J Haematol ; 198(4): 668-679, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874397


Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients remain at high risk of adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and emerging variants. The optimal prophylactic vaccine strategy for this cohort is not defined. T cell-mediated immunity is a critical component of graft-versus-tumour effect and in determining vaccine immunogenicity. Using validated anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and S-specific interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFNγ-ELIspot) assays we analysed response to a two-dose vaccination schedule (either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) in 33 HSCT recipients at ≤2 years from transplant, alongside vaccine-matched healthy controls (HCs). After two vaccines, infection-naïve HSCT recipients had a significantly lower rate of seroconversion compared to infection-naïve HCs (25/32 HSCT vs. 39/39 HCs no responders) and had lower S-specific T-cell responses. The HSCT recipients who received BNT162b2 had a higher rate of seroconversion compared to ChAdOx1 (89% vs. 74%) and significantly higher anti-S IgG titres (p = 0.022). S-specific T-cell responses were seen after one vaccine in HCs and HSCT recipients. However, two vaccines enhanced S-specific T-cell responses in HCs but not in the majority of HSCT recipients. These data demonstrate limited immunogenicity of two-dose vaccination strategies in HSCT recipients, bolstering evidence of the need for additional boosters and/or alternative prophylactic measures in this group.

COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , Bone Marrow Transplantation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(3): e12698, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797756


Background: Several studies have found increased risks of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) following the ChAdOx1 vaccination. However, case ascertainment is often incomplete in large electronic health record (EHR)-based studies. Objectives: To assess for an association between clinically validated TTS and COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: We used the self-controlled case series method to assess the risks of clinically validated acute TTS after a first COVID-19 vaccine dose (BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Case ascertainment was performed uninformed of vaccination status via a retrospective clinical review of hospital EHR systems, including active ascertainment of thrombocytopenia. Results: One hundred seventy individuals were admitted to the hospital for a TTS event at the study sites between January 1 and March 31, 2021. A significant increased risk (relative incidence [RI], 5.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-31.38) of TTS 4 to 27 days after ChAdOx1 was observed in the youngest age group (18- to 39-year-olds). No other period had a significant increase, although for ChAdOx1 for all ages combined the RI was >1 in the 4- to 27- and 28- to 41-day periods (RI, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.88-2.63; and (RI, 1.70; 95% CI, 0.73-3.8, respectively). There was no significant increased risk of TTS after BNT162b2 in any period. Increased risks of TTS following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test occurred across all age groups and exposure periods. Conclusions: We demonstrate an increased risk of TTS in the 4 to 27 days following COVID-19 vaccination, particularly for ChAdOx1. These risks were lower than following SARS-CoV-2 infection. An alternative vaccine may be preferable in younger age groups in whom the risk of postvaccine TTS is greatest.