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Anti-Infective Agents ; 21(1):39-53, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2215037


Background: Mucormycosis is a genuine, however uncommon shrewd fungal contamination that spreads quickly, and subsequently brief analysis and treatment are important to stay away from the high pace of mortality and morbidity rates. Mucormycosis is brought about by the inward breath of its filamentous (hyphal structure) fungus, particularly in immunosup-pressed patients. The pandemic of COVID-19 stays on an upsurge pattern. The second rush of this infection has prompted alarm in numerous nations, including India and a few pieces of the world experiencing the third wave. As there could be no appropriate treatment choices or cures accessible for this lethal contamination, steady consideration gears like oxygen chambers, venti-lators and substantial utilization of steroids assume an imperative part in the management of COVID-19. Amidst this pandemic, the COVID-19 patients are procuring optional contamina-tions, for example, mucormycosis otherwise called black fungus infection. Objective(s): It is important to lead research on COVID-19 patients to even more likely to forestall and oversee pioneering contaminations to diminish their occurrence and bleakness. So, this paper is to foster preventive treatment plans and use corticosteroids sanely. Method(s): Using search engines like Embase, PubMed, Google Scholar, etc., various research, review articles, and some book chapters, also various articles on websites and guidelines on the ICMR portal were accessed, after which we prepared this review article. In this review, we have included reported cases and case series of mucormycosis among patients with and without COVID-19 spanning the period of 1969 to 2021 and have described the clinical features and out-comes. Result(s): In gentle instances of COVID-19 (without hypoxemia) or when utilizing higher dosages of glucocorticoids, glucocorticoids ought to be kept away from ongoing investigations which have archived a disturbing number of COVID-19 patients with mucormycosis contamination. A large portion of these patients had diabetes which was controlled with the use of steroids. Conclusion(s): Thus, the current article underlines mucormycosis and its connected conditions, its component in typical and COVID-19 influenced people, affecting variables and difficulties to defeat this disease. Early distinguishing proof and further examination of its growth will alto-gether diminish the seriousness of the sickness and death rate in COVID-19-influenced patients. Copyright © 2023 Bentham Science Publishers.

Anti-Infective Agents ; 19(3):278-298, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1302078


The enigmatic coronavirus outburst on December 31, 2019, originated from Wuhan city of China, is now declared as Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO). The causative agent is highly contagious, and its rapid blowout has affected almost every country of the world, endangering thousands of lives. Recently, the WHO has raised the COVID-19 epidemic threat to the “very high” level. Pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the inter-related functioning of various viral polyproteins, structural proteins as well as Non-Structural Proteins (NSP). These proteins play a crucial role in accelerating pathogenesis by promoting viral replication, viral assembly, and virion release, thereby disabling the overall host distinctive immunological system. Presently, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19. The majority of the treatments focus on symptomatic relief and supportive therapy only. Although several drugs have been investigated against coronavirus in numerous clinical trials, only a few exhibited mild-moderate signs of clinical recovery. Drugs that are being repurposed and researched include an anti-malarial drug, hydroxychloroquine;anti-HIV drugs, lopinavir, Remdesivir alone, or in combination;anti-influenza drugs like umifenovir, and favilavir;anti-arthritic baracitinib, and anti-interleukins. Various research articles demonstrated the excellent potential of hydroxychloroquine either alone or in combination with anti-HIV drugs lopinavir, and Remdesivir at the cellular level;however, exhaustive clinical support and validation are still desirable for repurposing these drugs. Profound identification of cellular targets involved in disease pathogenesis may warrant successful re-profiling of the candidate drugs or their combinations aiming against COVID-19.