Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
Pediatrics ; 151(2)2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197404

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics National Registry for the Surveillance and Epidemiology of Perinatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (NPC-19) was developed to provide information on the effects of perinatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: National Registry for the Surveillance and Epidemiology of Perinatal COVID-19 participating centers entered maternal and newborn data for pregnant persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection between 14 days before and 10 days after delivery. Incidence of and morbidities associated with maternal and newborn SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed. RESULTS: From April 6, 2020 to March 19, 2021, 242 centers in the United States centers reported data for 7524 pregnant persons; at the time of delivery, 78.1% of these persons were asymptomatic, 18.2% were symptomatic but not hospitalized specifically for COVID-19, 3.4% were hospitalized for COVID-19 treatment, and 18 (0.2%) died in the hospital of COVID-related complications. Among 7648 newborns, 6486 (84.8%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 144 (2.2%) were positive; the highest rate of newborn infection was observed when mothers first tested positive in the immediate postpartum period (17 of 125, 13.6%). No newborn deaths were attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, 15.6% of newborns were preterm: among tested newborns, 30.1% of polymerase chain reaction-positive and 16.2% of polymerase chain reaction-negative were born preterm (P < .001). Need for mechanical ventilation did not differ by newborn SARS-CoV-2 test result, but those with positive tests were more likely to be admitted to a NICU. CONCLUSIONS: Early in the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infection was acquired by newborns at variable rates and without apparent short-term effects. During a period that preceded widespread availability of vaccines, we observed higher than expected numbers of preterm births and maternal in-hospital deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2240993, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103436

ABSTRACT

Importance: Pregnant persons are at an increased risk of severe COVID-19 from SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 vaccination is currently recommended during pregnancy. Objective: To ascertain the association of vaccine type, time from vaccination, gestational age at delivery, and pregnancy complications with placental transfer of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted in Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and included births at the study site between August 9, 2020, and April 25, 2021. Maternal and cord blood serum samples were available for antibody level measurements for maternal-neonatal dyads. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection vs COVID-19 vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: IgG antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody concentrations and transplacental transfer ratios were measured after SARS-CoV-2 infection or receipt of COVID-19 vaccines. Results: A total of 585 maternal-newborn dyads (median [IQR] maternal age, 31 [26-35] years; median [IQR] gestational age, 39 [38-40] weeks) with maternal IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 detected at the time of delivery were included. IgG was detected in cord blood from 557 of 585 newborns (95.2%). Among 169 vaccinated persons without SARS-CoV-2 infection, the interval from first dose of vaccine to delivery ranged from 12 to 122 days. The geometric mean IgG level among 169 vaccine recipients was significantly higher than that measured in 408 persons after infection (33.88 [95% CI, 27.64-41.53] arbitrary U/mL vs 2.80 [95% CI, 2.50-3.13] arbitrary U/mL). Geometric mean IgG levels were higher after vaccination with the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine compared with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccine (53.74 [95% CI, 40.49-71.33] arbitrary U/mL vs 25.45 [95% CI, 19.17-33.79] arbitrary U/mL; P < .001). Placental transfer ratios were lower after vaccination compared with after infection (0.80 [95% CI, 0.68-0.93] vs 1.06 [95% CI, 0.98-1.14]; P < .001) but were similar between the mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273: 0.70 [95% CI, 0.55-0.90]; BNT162b2: 0.85 [95% CI, 0.69-1.06]; P = .25). Time from infection or vaccination to delivery was associated with transfer ratio in models that included gestational age at delivery and maternal hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and obesity. Placental antibody transfer was detectable as early as 26 weeks' gestation. Transfer ratio that was higher than 1.0 was present for 48 of 51 (94.1%) births at 36 weeks' gestation or later by 8 weeks after vaccination. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that maternal and cord blood IgG antibody levels were higher after COVID-19 vaccination compared with after SARS-CoV-2 infection, with slightly lower placental transfer ratios after vaccination than after infection. The findings suggest that time from infection or vaccination to delivery was the most important factor in transfer efficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , BNT162 Vaccine , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin G , Philadelphia , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
J Perinatol ; 42(10): 1338-1345, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Describe 1-month outcomes among newborns of persons with perinatal COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of pregnant persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 14 days before and 3 days after delivery and their newborns, from 3/2020 to 3/2021 at two urban high-risk academic hospitals. Phone interviews were conducted to determine 1-month newborn outcomes. RESULTS: Among 9748 pregnant persons, 209 (2.1%) tested positive for perinatal SARS-CoV-2. Symptomatically infected persons were more likely to have a preterm delivery due to worsening maternal condition and their newborns were more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with asymptomatic persons. Six of 191 (3.1%) infants tested were positive for SARS-CoV-2; none had attributable illness before discharge. Of 169 eligible families, 132 (78.1%) participated in post-discharge interviews; none reported their newborn tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by 1 month of age. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic perinatal COVID-19 had a substantial effect on maternal health but no apparent short-term effect on newborns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Aftercare , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Patient Discharge , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(6): 1018-1026, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886468

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent to which neighborhood characteristics contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seropositivity in pregnancy. METHODS: This cohort study included pregnant patients who presented for childbirth at two hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from April 13 to December 31, 2020. Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 was determined by measuring immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in discarded maternal serum samples obtained for clinical purposes. Race and ethnicity were self-reported and abstracted from medical records. Patients' residential addresses were geocoded to obtain three Census tract variables: community deprivation, racial segregation (Index of Concentration at the Extremes), and crowding. Multivariable mixed effects logistic regression models and causal mediation analyses were used to quantify the extent to which neighborhood variables may explain racial and ethnic disparities in seropositivity. RESULTS: Among 5,991 pregnant patients, 562 (9.4%) were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Higher seropositivity rates were observed among Hispanic (19.3%, 104/538) and Black (14.0%, 373/2,658) patients, compared with Asian (3.2%, 13/406) patients, White (2.7%, 57/2,133) patients, and patients of another race or ethnicity (5.9%, 15/256) (P<.001). In adjusted models, per SD increase, deprivation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.32) and crowding (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.26) were associated with seropositivity, but segregation was not (aOR 0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.04). Mediation analyses revealed that crowded housing may explain 6.7% (95% CI 2.0-14.7%) of the Hispanic-White disparity and that neighborhood deprivation may explain 10.2% (95% CI 0.5-21.1%) of the Black-White disparity. CONCLUSION: Neighborhood deprivation and crowding were associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in pregnancy in the prevaccination era and may partially explain high rates of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among Black and Hispanic patients. Investing in structural neighborhood improvements may reduce inequities in viral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Neighborhood Characteristics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , White People
7.
MEDLINE; 2020.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE | ID: grc-750509

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important to determine exposure and immunity to SARS-CoV-2 within both individuals and populations. We completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We tested 834 pre-pandemic samples collected in 2019 and 15 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors to validate our assay, which has a ~1% false positive rate. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate seroprevalence within the community.

8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(6): 594-600, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052819

ABSTRACT

Importance: Maternally derived antibodies are a key element of neonatal immunity. Understanding the dynamics of maternal antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy and subsequent transplacental antibody transfer can inform neonatal management as well as maternal vaccination strategies. Objective: To assess the association between maternal and neonatal SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody concentrations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study took place at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A total of 1714 women delivered at the study site between April 9 and August 8, 2020. Maternal and cord blood sera were available for antibody measurement for 1471 mother/newborn dyads. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures: IgG and IgM antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody concentrations and transplacental transfer ratios were analyzed in combination with demographic and clinical data. Results: The study cohort consisted of 1714 parturient women, with median (interquartile range) age of 32 (28-35) years, of whom 450 (26.3%) identified as Black/non-Hispanic, 879 (51.3%) as White/non-Hispanic, 203 (11.8%) as Hispanic, 126 (7.3%) as Asian, and 56 (3.3%) as other race/ethnicity. Among 1471 mother/newborn dyads for which matched sera were available, SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM antibodies were detected in 83 of 1471 women (6%; 95% CI, 5%-7%) at the time of delivery, and IgG was detected in cord blood from 72 of 83 newborns (87%; 95% CI, 78%-93%). IgM was not detected in any cord blood specimen, and antibodies were not detected in any infant born to a seronegative mother. Eleven infants born to seropositive mothers were seronegative: 5 of 11 (45%) were born to mothers with IgM antibody only, and 6 of 11 (55%) were born to mothers with significantly lower IgG concentrations compared with those found among mothers of seropositive infants. Cord blood IgG concentrations were positively correlated with maternal IgG concentrations (r = 0.886; P < .001). Placental transfer ratios more than 1.0 were observed among women with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections as well as those with mild, moderate, and severe coronavirus disease 2019. Transfer ratios increased with increasing time between onset of maternal infection and delivery. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, maternal IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were transferred across the placenta after asymptomatic as well as symptomatic infection during pregnancy. Cord blood antibody concentrations correlated with maternal antibody concentrations and with duration between onset of infection and delivery. Our findings demonstrate the potential for maternally derived SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies to provide neonatal protection from coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy
9.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690482

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important for determining SARS-CoV-2 exposures within both individuals and populations. We validated a SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain serological test using 834 pre-pandemic samples and 31 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors. We then completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate exposure to SARS-CoV-2 within the community.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
10.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663600

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important to determine exposure and immunity to SARS-CoV-2 within both individuals and populations. We completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We tested 834 pre-pandemic samples collected in 2019 and 15 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors to validate our assay, which has a ~1% false positive rate. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate seroprevalence within the community.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL