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1.
J Pers Med ; 12(2)2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715468

ABSTRACT

Long-acting (LA) formulations have been designed to improve the quality of life of people with HIV (PWH) by maintaining virologic suppression. However, clinical trials have shown that patient selection is crucial. In fact, the HIV-1 resistance genotype test and the Body Mass Index of individual patients assume a predominant role in guiding the choice. Our work aimed to estimate the patients eligible for the new LA therapy with cabotegravir (CAB) + rilpivirine (RPV). We selected, from the Antiviral Response Cohort Analysis (ARCA) database, all PWH who had at least one follow-up in the last 24 months. We excluded patients with HBsAg positivity, evidence of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (except K103N) and integrase inhibitor mutations, and with a detectable HIV-RNA (>50 copies/mL). Overall, 4103 patients are currently on follow-up in the ARCA, but the eligible patients totaled 1641 (39.9%). Among them, 1163 (70.9%) were males and 1399 were Caucasian (85.3%), of which 1291 (92%) were Italian born. The median length of HIV infection was 10.2 years (IQR 6.3-16.3) with a median nadir of CD4 cells/count of 238 (106-366) cells/mm3 and a median last available CD4 cells/count of 706 (509-944) cells/mm3. The majority of PWH were treated with a three-drug regimen (n = 1116, 68%). Among the 525 (30.3%) patients treated with two-drug regimens, 325 (18.1%) were treated with lamivudine (3TC) and dolutegravir (DTG) and only 84 (5.1%) with RPV and DTG. In conclusion, according to our snapshot, roughly 39.9% of virologically suppressed patients may be suitable candidates for long-acting CAB+RPV therapy. Therefore, based on our findings, many different variables should be taken into consideration to tailor the antiretroviral treatment according to different individual characteristics.

2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(11): ofab217, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised patients show prolonged shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in nasopharyngeal swabs. We report a case of prolonged persistence of viable SARS-CoV-2 associated with clinical relapses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma who underwent treatment with rituximab, bendamustine, cytarabine with consequent lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On 5 positive nasopharyngeal swabs, we performed viral culture and next-generation sequencing. We analyzed the patient's adaptive and innate immunity to characterize T- and NK-cell subsets. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs samples remained positive for 268 days. All 5 performed viral cultures were positive, and genomic analysis confirmed a persistent infection with the same strain. Viremia resulted positive in 3 out of 4 COVID-19 clinical relapses and cleared each time after remdesivir treatment. The T- and NK-cell dynamic was different in aviremic and viremic samples, and no SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were detected throughout the disease course. CONCLUSIONS: In our patient, SARS-CoV-2 persisted with proven infectivity for >8 months. Viremia was associated with COVID-19 relapses, and remdesivir treatment was effective in viremia clearance and symptom remission, although it was unable to clear the virus from the upper respiratory airways. During the viremic phase, we observed a low frequency of terminal effector CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood; these are probably recruited in inflammatory tissue for viral eradication. In addition, we found a high level of NK-cell repertoire perturbation with relevant involvement during SARS-CoV-2 viremia.

3.
Minerva Med ; 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478867

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor sites for severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the disease called Covid-19 are present in the liver, especially in correspondence with cholangiocytes. Liver damage during SARS-Cov-2 infection can be due to several mechanism including direct cytopathic effect, synergy of intestinal damage / liver damage (lipopolysaccharides / Kupfer and other cells interaction), uncontrolled immune reaction (lymphopenia and significant increase in C reactive protein, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, interleukin (IL)-6, IL- 10, IL-2, interferon-gamma ...), sepsis, drug-induced liver injury, hypoxia and thromboembolic events. An increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from 14 to 58% and alanine transaminase (ALT) from 21 to 76% has been reported. The mean level of AST and ALT has been reported to be higher in patients admitted to the intensive care unit than in those hospitalized in the ordinary hospital unit. The correlation of liver damage with worse prognosis is now a known fact, confirmed by numerous studies, in all pandemic phases. The consumption of alcohol reduces both innate and acquired immune activity and it has been hypothesized that this habit is correlated with liver increase of ACE2 receptors. Furthermore, non-alcoholic and alcoholic steatosis / steatohepatitis is a breeding ground for the development of oxidative stress. In this context, any encounter with SARS-Cov-2 infection can support and aggravate the systemic cytokine tsunami.

4.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5608-5613, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363674

ABSTRACT

In this observational study, 13 patients with severe COVID-19 and 10 healthy controls were enrolled. The data concerning the analysis of circulating T cells show that, in severe COVID-19 patients, the expansion of these cell compartments is prone to induce antibody response, inflammation (CCR4+ and CCR6+ TFH) and regulation (CD8+ Treg). This pathogenic mechanism could lead us to envision a possible new form of biological target therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, CCR4 , Receptors, CCR6
6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254404, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304473

ABSTRACT

Is it possible to achieve a collaboration between Infectious Diseases (ID) Specialists and General Practitioners (GPs) in the management of chronic HIV infection? A cross sectional survey was conducted among People Living with HIV (PLWHIV) attending the outpatient services of four Italian Infectious Diseases Centers to understand to which extent patients trust their GPs and involve them in the management of their chronic condition. Information about level of communication with GPs, subjective perception of the disease, and presence of co-medications were collected and matched with socio-demographic data using χ2statistics. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. From December 2019 to February 2020, 672 patients completed the survey, 59% males and 56% >50 years. Overall, 508 patients (76%) had informed GPs about HIV-positivity. Communication of diagnosis was significantly associated with age >50years, lower education level, history of disease >10 years and residency in Northern Italy. The "Undetectable = Untrasmittable" (U = U) concept was investigated as an indirect measure of perceived stigma. 23% of subjects was unaware of its meaning. Despite undetectable status, 50% of PLWHIV found difficult to communicate their condition to GPs, especially married (52% vs 48% of unmarried, p = 0.003), well-educated patients (51% vs 48, p = 0.007), living in Southern vs Northern Italy (52% vs 46%, p< 0.001). More than 75% of the participants consulted the ID specialist for co-medications and DDIs management, often complaining a lack of communication of the former with GPs. Overall, a good level of communication between PLWHIV and GPs was outlined, even if a wider involvement of the latter in HIV care is desirable.


Subject(s)
General Practitioners , HIV Infections , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
7.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 18(5): 338-345, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increases in cardiac troponin (cTn) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been associated with worse prognosis. Nonetheless, data about the significance of cTn in elderly subjects with COVID-19 are lacking. METHODS: From a registry of consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to a hub hospital in Italy from 25/02/2020 to 03/07/2020, we selected those ≥ 60 year-old and with cTnI measured within three days from the molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. When available, a second cTnI value within 48 h was also extracted. The relationship between increased cTnI and all-cause in-hospital mortality was evaluated by a Cox regression model and restricted cubic spline functions with three knots. RESULTS: Of 343 included patients (median age: 75.0 (68.0-83.0) years, 34.7% men), 88 (25.7%) had cTnI above the upper-reference limit (0.046 µg/L). Patients with increased cTnI had more comorbidities, greater impaired respiratory exchange and higher inflammatory markers on admission than those with normal cTnI. Furthermore, they died more (73.9%vs. 37.3%, P < 0.001) over 15 (6-25) days of hospitalization. The association of elevated cTnI with mortality was confirmed by the adjusted Cox regression model (HR = 1.61, 95%CI: 1.06-2.52, P = 0.039) and was linear until 0.3 µg/L, with a subsequent plateau. Of 191 (55.7%) patients with a second cTnI measurement, 49 (25.7%) had an increasing trend, which was not associated with mortality (univariate HR = 1.39, 95%CI: 0.87-2.22, P = 0.265). CONCLUSIONS: In elderly COVID-19 patients, an initial increase in cTn is common and predicts a higher risk of death. Serial cTn testing may not confer additional prognostic information.

8.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5608-5613, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206835

ABSTRACT

In this observational study, 13 patients with severe COVID-19 and 10 healthy controls were enrolled. The data concerning the analysis of circulating T cells show that, in severe COVID-19 patients, the expansion of these cell compartments is prone to induce antibody response, inflammation (CCR4+ and CCR6+ TFH) and regulation (CD8+ Treg). This pathogenic mechanism could lead us to envision a possible new form of biological target therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, CCR4 , Receptors, CCR6
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009448, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190180

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes severe respiratory involvement (COVID-19) in 5-20% of patients through initial immune derangement, followed by intense cytokine production and vascular leakage. Evidence of immune involvement point to the participation of T, B, and NK cells in the lack of control of virus replication leading to COVID-19. NK cells contribute to early phases of virus control and to the regulation of adaptive responses. The precise mechanism of NK cell dysregulation is poorly understood, with little information on tissue margination or turnover. We investigated these aspects by multiparameter flow cytometry in a cohort of 28 patients hospitalized with early COVID-19. Relevant decreases in CD56brightCD16+/- NK subsets were detected, with a shift of circulating NK cells toward more mature CD56dimCD16+KIR+NKG2A+ and "memory" KIR+CD57+CD85j+ cells with increased inhibitory NKG2A and KIR molecules. Impaired cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production were associated with conserved expression of natural cytotoxicity receptors and perforin. Moreover, intense NK cell activation with increased HLA-DR and CD69 expression was associated with the circulation of CD69+CD103+ CXCR6+ tissue-resident NK cells and of CD34+DNAM-1brightCXCR4+ inflammatory precursors to mature functional NK cells. Severe disease trajectories were directly associated with the proportion of CD34+DNAM-1brightCXCR4+ precursors and inversely associated with the proportion of NKG2D+ and of CD103+ NK cells. Intense NK cell activation and trafficking to and from tissues occurs early in COVID-19, and is associated with subsequent disease progression, providing an insight into the mechanism of clinical deterioration. Strategies to positively manipulate tissue-resident NK cell responses may provide advantages to future therapeutic and vaccine approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Italy/epidemiology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 353, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The primary objective of the study is to describe the cellular characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation; the secondary outcome is to describe BALF findings between survivors vs non-survivors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT PCR, admitted to ICU between March and April 2020 were enrolled. At ICU admission, BALF were analyzed by flow cytometry. Univariate, multivariate and Spearman correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were enrolled, median age of 64 years (IQR 58-69). The majority cells in the BALF were neutrophils (70%, IQR 37.5-90.5) and macrophages (27%, IQR 7-49) while a minority were lymphocytes, 1%, TCD3+ 92% (IQR 82-95). The ICU mortality was 32.8%. Non-survivors had a significantly older age (p = 0.033) and peripheral lymphocytes (p = 0.012) were lower compared to the survivors. At multivariate analysis the percentage of macrophages in the BALF correlated with poor outcome (OR 1.336, CI95% 1.014-1.759, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients, BALF cellularity is mainly composed of neutrophils and macrophages. The macrophages percentage in the BALF at ICU admittance correlated with higher ICU mortality. The lack of lymphocytes in BALF could partly explain a reduced anti-viral response.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Lymphocytes/cytology , Macrophages/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060487

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

13.
Microorganisms ; 8(12)2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024612

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to evaluate if an independent association exists between liver enzyme elevations (LEE) and the risk of mortality or intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in patients with COVID-19. This was a single-center observational study, recruiting all consecutive adults with COVID-19. The elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) to the highest level between COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital discharge was categorized according to a standardized toxicity grade scale. In total, 799 patients were included in this study, 39% of which were female, with a mean age of 69.9 (±16.0) years. Of these patients, 225 (28.1%) developed LEE of grade ≥2 after a median of three days (interquartile range (IQR): 0-8 days) from the diagnosis of COVID-19, and they were estimated to have a higher hazard of death or ICU admission (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.88). The clinical and laboratory variables associated with the development of LEE were male sex, higher respiratory rate, higher gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and lower albumin levels at baseline. Among the analyzed treatments, steroids, tocilizumab and darunavir/ritonavir correlated with LEE. In conclusion, LEE were associated with mortality and ICU admission among COVID-19 patients. While the origin of LEE is probably multifactorial, LEE evaluation could add information to the clinical and laboratory variables that are commonly evaluated during the course of COVID-19.

14.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(1): 387-398, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with persistent viral shedding (PVS) in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study including all consecutive adults hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. When the first nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (day 0), additional samples were obtained on days + 3, + 5, + 7 and then once every 7 days until virus detection was negative. PVS was defined as the duration of shedding of at least 21 days after diagnosis. The primary endpoint of this study was the prevalence of PVS. RESULTS: Data were obtained regarding 121 consecutive hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (median age 66 years, male sex 65.3%). Overall, the prevalence of PVS was 38% (46/121 patients). According to univariate analysis, factors associated with PVS were immunosuppression (6.7% vs 21.7%, p = 0.02), increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (≥ 35 ng/ml) at the time of diagnosis (43.4% vs 67.3%, p = 0.02), time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis (median days 7.0 vs 3.5, p = 0.001), intensive care unit admission (22.7% vs 43.5%, p = 0.02), and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (20.0% vs 41.3%, p = 0.01). The multivariate analysis indicated that immunosuppression, increased IL-6 levels at the time of diagnosis, time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, and need for mechanical ventilation were independent factors associated with PVS. CONCLUSIONS: PVS was detected in up to 38% of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and was strongly associated with immunosuppression, increased IL-6 levels, and the need for mechanical ventilation.

15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 275: 117-121, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940703

ABSTRACT

One of the most important challenges in the scenario of COVID-19 is to design and develop decision support systems that can help medical staff to identify a cohort of patients that is more likely to have worse clinical evolution. To achieve this objective it is necessary to work on collected data, pre-process them in order to obtain a consistent dataset and then extract the most relevant features with advanced statistical methods like principal component analysis. As preliminary results of this research, very influential features that emerged are the presence of cardiac and liver illnesses and the levels of some inflammatory parameters at the moment of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Data Analysis , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(6): 1664-1665, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919317

ABSTRACT

We have checked the vaccination history of 389 elderly patients (62.9% males, mean age of 78.5 + 8.4 years) hospitalized for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. Information regarding pneumococcal vaccination was available for 354 patients (91.0%): the overall vaccination coverage rate (VCR) was 19.8% (70/354), 11.3% received only 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), 3.4% were immunized with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), 5.1% received both vaccines. VCR among the elderly population in Liguria Region was 26.2% (118,581/453,082), among them 13.7% received PCV13, 12.4% were immunized with at least one dose of PPSV23. Regarding the 2019-2020 influenza season vaccination data were available for 46 patients: 59% of them were immunized. VCR in the elderly population was 51.7% (234,153/453,082).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Bacterial , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Conjugate
17.
J Nephrol ; 34(1): 173-183, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of kidney involvement during SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported to be high. Nevertheless, data are lacking about the determinants of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the combined effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and AKI in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We collected data on patient demographics, comorbidities, chronic medications, vital signs, baseline laboratory test results and in-hospital treatment in patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to our Institution. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or proteinuria at urinalysis within 180 days prior to hospital admission. AKI was defined according to KDIGO criteria. The primary and secondary outcomes were the development of AKI and death. RESULTS: Of 777 patients eligible for the study, acute kidney injury developed in 176 (22.6%). Of these, 79 (45%) showed an acute worsening of a preexisting CKD, and 21 (12%) required kidney replacement therapy. Independent associates of AKI were chronic kidney disease, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ventilation support. Among patients with acute kidney injury, 111 died (63%) and its occurrence increased the risk of death by 60% (HR 1.60 [95% IC 1.21-2.49] p = 0.002) independently of potential confounding factors including hypertension, preexisting kidney damage, and comorbidities. Patients with AKI showed a significantly higher rate of deaths attributed to bleeding compared to CKD and the whole population (7.5 vs 1.5 vs 3.5%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Awareness of kidney function, both preexisting CKD and development of acute kidney injury, may help to identify those patients at increased risk of death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/virology , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
18.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(11): 1537-1544, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics, management and outcome of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); and to evaluate risk factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study from a University tertiary care hospital in northern Italy, included hospitalized adult patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between 25 February 2020 and 25 March 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 317 individuals were enrolled. Their median age was 71 years and 67.2% were male (213/317). The most common underlying diseases were hypertension (149/317; 47.0%), cardiovascular disease (63/317; 19.9%) and diabetes (49/317; 15.5%). Common symptoms at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis included fever (285/317; 89.9%), shortness of breath (167/317; 52.7%) and dry cough (156/317; 49.2%). An 'atypical' presentation including at least one among mental confusion, diarrhoea or nausea and vomiting was observed in 53/317 patients (16.7%). Hypokalaemia occurred in 25.8% (78/302) and 18.5% (56/303) had acute kidney injury. During hospitalization, 111/317 patients (35.0%) received non-invasive respiratory support, 65/317 (20.5%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 60/317 (18.5%) required invasive mechanical ventilation. All-cause in-hospital mortality, assessed in 275 patients, was 43.6% (120/275). On multivariable analysis, age (per-year increase OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.10; p < 0.001), cardiovascular disease (OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.07-6.25; p 0.03), and C-reactive protein levels (per-point increase OR 1.009; 95% CI 1.004-1.014; p 0.001) were independent risk factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mainly affected elderly patients with predisposing conditions and caused severe illness, frequently requiring non-invasive respiratory support or ICU admission. Despite supportive care, COVID-19 remains associated with a substantial risk of all-cause in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cause of Death , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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