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1.
Am Heart J Plus ; 13: 100084, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus infection is the cause of the current world-wide pandemic. Cardiovascular complications occur in 20-30% of patients with COVID-19 infection including myocardial injury and arrhythmias. Current understanding of specific arrhythmia type and frequency is limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze arrhythmia type and frequency in patients with COVID infection, identifying arrhythmia patterns over time during hospitalization and post discharge utilizing a patch based mobile cardiac telemetry system. METHODS: A prospective cohort study during the COVID-19 pandemic was performed. We included in our study patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection who had a patch-based mobile telemetry device placed for cardiac monitoring. RESULTS: Quantitative reports for 59 patients were available for analysis. Arrhythmias were detected in 72.9% of patients and at a consistent frequency throughout the monitoring period in 52.9%-89.5% of patients daily. The majority of arrhythmias were SVT (59.3% of patients) and AF (22.0%). New onset AF was noted in 15.0% of all patients and was significantly associated with older age (OR 1.4 for 5 yrs. difference; 95% CI 1.03-2.13). Of 9 patients who were discharged with continued patch monitoring, 7 (78%) had arrhythmic events during their outpatient monitoring period. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients arrhythmias were observed throughout hospitalization with a consistent daily frequency. Patients continued to exhibit cardiac arrhythmias after hospital discharge of a type and frequency similar to that seen during hospitalization. These findings suggest that the risk of arrhythmia associated with COVID infection remains elevated throughout the hospital course as well as following hospital discharge.

2.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 1-9, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635014

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 mainly affects the respiratory system but has been correlated with cardiovascular manifestations such as myocarditis, heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, and arrhythmias. Cardiac arrhythmias are the second most frequent complication affecting about 30% of patients. Several mechanisms may lead to an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias during COVID-19 infection, ranging from direct myocardial damage to extracardiac involvement. The aim of this review is to describe the role of COVID-19 in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias and provide a comprehensive guidance for their monitoring and management.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Atrial Flutter , COVID-19 , Catheter Ablation , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4031-e4038, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prolonged QTc intervals and life-threatening arrhythmias (LTA) are potential drug-induced complications previously reported with antimalarials, antivirals, and antibiotics. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of QTc interval prolongation and incidences of LTA during hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with normal admission QTc. METHODS: We enrolled 110 consecutive patients in a multicenter international registry. A 12-lead electrocardiograph was performed at admission, after 7, and at 14 days; QTc values were analyzed. RESULTS: After 7 days, 15 (14%) patients developed a prolonged QTc (pQTc; mean QTc increase 66 ± 20 msec; +16%; P < .001); these patients were older and had higher basal heart rates, higher rates of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and lower platelet counts. The QTc increase was inversely proportional to the baseline QTc level and leukocyte count and directly proportional to the basal heart rate (P < .01).We conducted a multivariate stepwise analysis including age, male gender, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, basal QTc values, basal heart rate, and dual antiviral therapy; age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.13; P < .05), basal heart rate (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; P < .01), and dual antiviral therapy (OR, 12.46; 95% CI, 2.09-74.20; P < .1) were independent predictors of QT prolongation.The incidence rate of LTA during hospitalization was 3.6%. There was 1 patient who experienced cardiac arrest and 3 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. LTAs were recorded after a median of 9 days from hospitalization and were associated with 50% of the mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: After 7 days of hospitalization, 14% of patients with COVID-19 developed pQTc; age, basal heart rate, and dual antiviral therapy were found to be independent predictors of pQTc. Life-threatening arrhythmias have an incidence rate of 3.6%, and were associated with a poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long QT Syndrome , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Electrocardiography , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 63-70, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487628

ABSTRACT

Numerous systemic manifestations, including cardiac involvement in the form of myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and electrocardiographic changes, have been associated with COVID-19..In this review, the authors describe the electrocardiographic features that have been reported to date in patients affected by this disease and their possible underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Myocarditis , Electrocardiography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 11-20, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487624

ABSTRACT

We review the current data on epidemiology, the clinical significance, the pathophysiologic mechanisms, and the treatment of VAs in the setting of COVID-19. VAs prevail in 0.15% to 8% of hospitalized patients, but only sustained and rapid tachyarrhythmias are purportedly associated with a significant increase in mortality. Multiple factors can elicit VAs, which are ultimately deemed to be a marker of severe systemic disease rather than a distinct cardiac condition. Even though the electrophysiologist plays a determinant role in the secondary prevention of VAs, a multidisciplinary approach is indispensable for primary prophylaxis and acute management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachycardia
7.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298584

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) can predict AF in the general population. We aimed to determine if CAC and EAT measured by computed tomographic (CT) scanning can predict new-onset AF in patients admitted with COVID-19 disease. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, post hoc analysis of all patients admitted to Montefiore Medical Center with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis from March 1st to June 23rd, 2020, who had a non-contrast CT of the chest within 5 years prior to admission. We determined ordinal CAC scores and quantified the EAT volume and examined their relationship with inpatient mortality. RESULTS: A total of 379 patients were analyzed. There were 16 events of new-onset AF (4.22%). Patients who developed AF during the index admission were more likely to be male (75 vs 47%, p < 0.001) and had higher EAT (129.5 [76.3-197.3] vs 91.0 [60.0-129.0] ml, p = 0.049). There were no differences on age (68 [56-71] vs 68 [58-76] years; p = 0.712), BMI (28.5 [25.3-30.8] vs 26.9 [23.1-31.8] kg/m2; p = 0.283), ordinal CAC score (3 [1-6] vs 2 [0-4]; p = 0.482), or prevalence of diabetes (56.3 vs 60.1%; p = 0.761), hypertension (75.0 vs 87.3%, p = 0.153), or coronary artery disease (50.0 vs 39.4%, p = 0.396). Patients with new-onset AF had worse clinical outcomes (death/intubation/vasopressors) (87.5 vs 44.1%; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Increased EAT measured by non-contrast chest CT identifies patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at higher risk of developing new-onset AF. Patients with new-onset AF have worse clinical outcomes.

9.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 59(3): 485-493, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893308

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cardiac involvement with COVID-19 infection has become evident by elevated troponin, cardiac arrhythmias, ST segment elevation, myocarditis, fulminant heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. We aimed to describe the association of COVID-19 and T-wave inversion (TWI) in a large case series. METHODS: We conducted an observational, retrospective study of confirmed COVID-19 cases with at least one electrocardiogram (ECG) in a large hospital in New York City (March 23, 2020-April 23, 2020). Patients with new TWI or pseudonormalization were further analyzed. Mortality and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation were the main outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 3225 patients were screened; 195 (6%) were selected for further analysis: 181 with TWI and 14 with T-wave pseudonormalization. Mean age was 66 ± 7 years; 51% were male. TWI were more commonly noted in the lateral (71%), followed by anterior (64%), inferior (57%), and septal (26%) leads. A total of 44 patients (23%) had elevated troponin. A total of 50 patients died (26%). Mortality rates of 35%, and 52% were observed in patients with diffuse TWI, and elevated troponin, respectively. Mortality rate of 80% was observed in patients with both elevated troponin and diffuse TWI. Additionally, 30% of the entire cohort and 58% of patients with elevated troponin required invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that new TWI is a relatively common finding in COVID-19 patients. Importantly, our findings suggest that new TWI or T-wave pseudonormalization, particularly with elevated troponin, was associated with higher rates of mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Ventricular Function , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood
10.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 12(2): xv, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824390
11.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 62(1): 171-176, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the coronavirus cases continue to surge, the urgent need for universal testing to identify positive cases for effective containment of this highly contagious pandemic has become the center of attention worldwide. However, in spite of extensive discussions, very few places have even attempted to implement it. We evaluated the efficacy of widespread testing in creating a safe workplace in our electrophysiology (EP) community. Furthermore, we assessed the new infection rate in patients undergoing EP procedure, to see if identification and exclusion of positive cases facilitated establishment of a risk-free operating environment. METHODS: Viral-RNA and serology tests were conducted in 1670 asymptomatic subjects including patients and their caregivers and staff in our EP units along with the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) staff. RESULTS: Of 1670, 758 (45.4%) were patients and the remaining 912 were caregivers, EMS staff, and staff from EP clinic and lab. Viral-RNA test revealed 64 (3.8%) positives in the population. A significant increase in positivity rate was observed from April to June 2020 (p = 0.02). Procedures of positive cases (n = 31) were postponed until they tested negative at retesting. Staff testing positive (n = 33) were retested before going back to work after 2 weeks. Because of suspected exposure, 67 staff were retested and source was traced. No new infections were reported in patients during or within 2 weeks after the hospital-stay. CONCLUSIONS: Universal testing to identify positive cases was helpful in creating and maintaining a safe working environment without exposing patients and staff to new infections in the EP units. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial Registration Number: clinicaltrials.gov : NCT04352764.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cardiac Electrophysiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Workplace
12.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(11): 2803-2811, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732126

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic, and cardiovascular complications and arrhythmias in these patients are common. Cardiac monitoring is recommended for at risk patients; however, the availability of telemetry capable hospital beds is limited. We sought to evaluate a patch-based mobile telemetry system for inpatient cardiac monitoring during the pandemic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed of inpatients hospitalized during the pandemic who had mobile telemetry devices placed; patients were studied up until the time of discharge or death. The primary outcome was a composite of management changes based on data obtained from the system and detection of new arrhythmias. Other clinical outcomes and performance characteristics of the mobile telemetry system were studied. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients underwent mobile telemetry device placement, of which 31 (37.8%) met the primary outcome, which consisted of 24 (29.3%) with new arrhythmias detected and 18 (22.2%) with management changes. Twenty-one patients (25.6%) died during the study, but none from primary arrhythmias. In analyses, age and heart failure were associated with the primary outcome. Monitoring occurred for an average of 5.3 ± 3.4 days, with 432 total patient-days of monitoring performed; of these, QT-interval measurements were feasible in 400 (92.6%). CONCLUSION: A mobile telemetry system was successfully implemented for inpatient use during the COVID-19 pandemic and was shown to be useful to inform patient management, detect occult arrhythmias, and monitor the QT-interval. Patients with advanced age and structural heart disease may be more likely to benefit from this system.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography/instrumentation , Heart Rate , Inpatients , Telemetry/instrumentation , Action Potentials , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 59(2): 337-345, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640049

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and azithromycin have been used for treatment of COVID-19, but may cause QT prolongation. Minority populations are disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. This study evaluates the risk of QT prolongation and subsequent outcomes after administration of these medications in largely underrepresented minority COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted an observational study on hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Montefiore Health System (Bronx, NY). We examined electrocardiograms (ECG) pre/post-medication initiation to evaluate QTc, HR, QRS duration, and presence of other arrhythmias. RESULTS: One hundred five patients (mean age 67 years; 44.8% F) were analyzed. The median time from the first dose of any treatment to post-medication ECG was 2 days (IQR: 1-3). QTc in men increased from baseline (440 vs 455 ms, p < 0.001), as well as in women (438 vs 463 ms, p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with QT prolongation increased significantly (14.3% vs 34.3%, p < 0.001) even when adjusted for electrolyte abnormalities. The number of patients whose QTc > 500 ms was significantly increased after treatment (16.2% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.01). Patients with either QTc > 500 ms or an increase of 60 ms had a higher frequency of death (47.6% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.02) with an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% CI: 1.1-8.7). Adjusting for race/ethnicity yielded no significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and/or azithromycin were associated with QTc prolongation but did not result in fatal arrhythmias. Our findings suggest that any harm is unlikely to outweigh potential benefits of treatment. Careful risk-benefit analyses for individual patients should guide the use of these medications. Randomized control trials are necessary to evaluate their efficacies.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/methods , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Incidence , Long QT Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Long QT Syndrome/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Sex Distribution , Urban Population
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