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2.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604345, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686587

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To estimate psychological distress experienced during the Italian lockdown (March-May 2020) by assessing, in the transition period of the pandemic (June-September 2020), participants' recalling of their psychological state. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis on 1,880 adults (mean age 48.9 ± 14.5 years) from the web-based ALT RISCOVID-19 survey. Participants were asked to retrospectively recall their psychological state during lockdown concerning symptoms of depression (Patients' Health Questionnaire), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and post-traumatic stress (Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health). Results: Experienced symptoms of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress was recalled by 15.8, 15.3 and 13.1% of respondents, respectively. These psychometric scales tended to decrease during the 4-month period of assessment (p < 0.05), while perceived stress levels did not (p = 0.13). Men and older individuals reported lower symptoms of depression (ß = -0.42 and ß = -0.42; p < 0.0001, respectively), anxiety (ß = -0.41 and ß = -0.45; p < 0.0001, respectively), stress (ß = -0.36 and ß = 0.50; p < 0.0001, respectively) and post-traumatic stress (ß = -0.42; p < 0.0001, men vs women). Conclusion: Recalled psychological distress experienced during COVID-19 lockdown tended to decrease during the transition period of the pandemic, except for stress. Women and younger people were at higher risk to recall psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(3): 1491-1505, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540216

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between psychological distress resulting from the COVID-19 lockdown and dietary changes. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from 2 retrospective Italian cohorts recruited from May to September 2020: (1) The Moli-LOCK cohort consists of 1401 participants from the Moli-sani Study (n = 24,325) who were administered a telephone-based questionnaire to assess lifestyles and psychological factors during confinement; (2) the ALT RISCOVID-19 is a web-based survey of 1340 individuals distributed throughout Italy who self-responded to the same questionnaire using Google® forms. Psychological distress was measured by assessments of depression (PHQ-9 and depressive items from the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health- SQD-D), anxiety (GAD-7), stress (PSS-4), and post-traumatic stress disorder (SQD-P). Diet quality was assessed either as changes in consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) or adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD). RESULTS: In ALT RISCOVID-19, increased UPF intake was directly associated with depression (both PHQ-9 and SQD-D; p < 0.0001), anxiety (p < 0.0001), stress (p = 0.001) and SQD-P (p = 0.001); similar results were obtained in the Moli-LOCK cohort except for perceived stress. When psychometric scales were analysed simultaneously, only depression (SQD-D) remained associated with UPF (both cohorts). In both cohorts, psychological distress poorly influenced changes toward an MD, except for depression (SQD-D) that resulted inversely associated in the ALT RISCOVID-19 participants (ß = - 0.16; 95% CI - 0.26, - 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological distress from the COVID-19 confinement is directly associated with unhealthy dietary modifications in two Italian cohorts. In view of possible future restrictive measures to contain pandemic, public health actions are warranted to mitigate the impact of psychological distress on diet quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
4.
Eur J Intern Med ; 94: 4-5, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482562

ABSTRACT

The results presently available from randomised clinical trials and their meta-analysis indicate that Hydroxychloroquine is not associated in COVID-19 patients with either decreased mortality or clinical worsening. Thus, the use of Hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients cannot at present be encouraged. However, the hypothesis that Hydroxychloroquine might have a beneficial role in subgroups of patients at low risk and/or when used at low dosage (≤ 400 mg/day) deserves to be tested in large, well designed randomised clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Meta-Analysis as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 5556207, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314165

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is harshly debated, with observational and experimental studies reporting contrasting results. To clarify the role of HCQ in Covid-19 patients, we carried out a retrospective observational study of 4,396 unselected patients hospitalized for Covid-19 in Italy (February-May 2020). Patients' characteristics were collected at entry, including age, sex, obesity, smoking status, blood parameters, history of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and chronic pulmonary diseases, and medications in use. These were used to identify subtypes of patients with similar characteristics through hierarchical clustering based on Gower distance. Using multivariable Cox regressions, these clusters were then tested for association with mortality and modification of effect by treatment with HCQ. We identified two clusters, one of 3,913 younger patients with lower circulating inflammation levels and better renal function, and one of 483 generally older and more comorbid subjects, more prevalently men and smokers. The latter group was at increased death risk adjusted by HCQ (HR[CI95%] = 3.80[3.08-4.67]), while HCQ showed an independent inverse association (0.51[0.43-0.61]), as well as a significant influence of cluster∗HCQ interaction (p < 0.001). This was driven by a differential association of HCQ with mortality between the high (0.89[0.65-1.22]) and the low risk cluster (0.46[0.39-0.54]). These effects survived adjustments for additional medications in use and were concordant with associations with disease severity and outcome. These findings suggest a particularly beneficial effect of HCQ within low risk Covid-19 patients and may contribute to clarifying the current controversy on HCQ efficacy in Covid-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 639970, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285307

ABSTRACT

Background: Protease inhibitors have been considered as possible therapeutic agents for COVID-19 patients. Objectives: To describe the association between lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/c) use and in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Study Design: Multicenter observational study of COVID-19 patients admitted in 33 Italian hospitals. Medications, preexisting conditions, clinical measures, and outcomes were extracted from medical records. Patients were retrospectively divided in three groups, according to use of LPV/r, DRV/c or none of them. Primary outcome in a time-to event analysis was death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with inverse probability of treatment weighting by multinomial propensity scores. Results: Out of 3,451 patients, 33.3% LPV/r and 13.9% received DRV/c. Patients receiving LPV/r or DRV/c were more likely younger, men, had higher C-reactive protein levels while less likely had hypertension, cardiovascular, pulmonary or kidney disease. After adjustment for propensity scores, LPV/r use was not associated with mortality (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.13), whereas treatment with DRV/c was associated with a higher death risk (HR = 1.89, 1.53 to 2.34, E-value = 2.43). This increased risk was more marked in women, in elderly, in patients with higher severity of COVID-19 and in patients receiving other COVID-19 drugs. Conclusions: In a large cohort of Italian patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a real-life setting, the use of LPV/r treatment did not change death rate, while DRV/c was associated with increased mortality. Within the limits of an observational study, these data do not support the use of LPV/r or DRV/c in COVID-19 patients.

7.
Pathog Glob Health ; 115(7-8): 456-466, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269474

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was proposed as potential treatment for COVID-19, but its association with mortality is unclear. We reviewed published literature for evidence of an association between HCQ (with or without azithromycin (AZM)) and total mortality in COVID-19 patients.Methods: Articles were retrieved until April 29th, 2021 by searching in seven databases. Data were combined using the general-variance-based method.Results: A total of 25 cohort studies (N=41,339 patients) and 11 randomized clinical trials (RCTs; N=8,709) were found. The use of HCQ was not associated with mortality in meta-analysis of RCTs (pooled risk ratio (PRR): 1.08, 95%CI: 0.97-1.20; I2=0%), but it was associated with 20% lower mortality risk (PRR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.69-0.93; I2=80%) in pooling of cohort studies. The negative association with mortality was mainly apparent by pooling cohort studies that used lower doses of HCQ (≤400 mg/day; PRR=0.69, 95%CI: 0.57-0.87). Use of HCQ+AZM (11 studies) was associated with 25% non-statistically significant lower mortality risk (PPR=0.75; 0.51-1.10; P=0.15). Use of HCQ was not associated with severe adverse events (PRR=1.12, 95%CI: 0.88-1.44; I2=0%).Conclusions: HCQ use was not associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients in pooling results from RCTs (high level of certainty of evidence), but it was associated with 20% mortality reduction when findings from observational studies were combined (low level of certainty of evidence). The reduction of mortality was mainly apparent in observational studies where lower doses of HCQ were used. These findings might help disentangling the debate on HCQ use in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 372-391, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182900

ABSTRACT

We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis to assess the association of anticoagulants and their dosage with in-hospital all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients. Articles were retrieved until January 8, 2021, by searching in seven electronic databases. The main outcome was all-cause mortality occurred during hospitalization. Data were combined using the general variance-based method on the effect estimate for each study. Separate meta-analyses according to type of COVID-19 patients (hospitalized or intensive care unit [ICU] patients), anticoagulants (mainly heparin), and regimens (therapeutic or prophylactic) were conducted. A total of 29 articles were selected, but 23 retrospective studies were eligible for quantitative meta-analyses. No clinical trial was retrieved. The majority of studies were of good quality; however, 34% did not distinguish heparin from other anticoagulants. Meta-analysis on 25,719 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showed that anticoagulant use was associated with 50% reduced in-hospital mortality risk (pooled risk ratio [RR]: 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.62; I 2: 87%). Both anticoagulant regimens (therapeutic and prophylactic) reduced in-hospital all-cause mortality, compared with no anticoagulation. Particularly in ICU patients, the anticoagulant therapeutic regimen was associated with a reduced in-hospital mortality risk (RR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.15-0.60; I 2: 58%) compared with the prophylactic one. However, the former was also associated with a higher risk of bleeding (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.60-4.00; I 2: 65%). Anticoagulant use, mainly heparin, reduced all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients during hospitalization. Due to the higher risk of bleeding at therapeutic doses, the use of prophylactic dosages of anticoagulant is probably to be preferred in noncritically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hemorrhage , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Survival Rate
10.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 72(8): 1105-1117, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172096

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effect of confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic on the consumption of foods characterising the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and its major correlates in two Italian population-based cohorts comprising 3161 subjects (mean age 57.7 ± 15.4 y). At population level, 38.8% of participants reported an improvement of diet quality during the first nationwide lockdown. Healthful dietary changes were associated with older age (ß = 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08, 0.73 for 56-65 vs. 18-39 y), greater wealth (ß = 0.45; 0.01, 0.89 for >40,000 ≤ 60,000 vs. ≤ 10,000 EUR/y), increased physical activity (ß = 0.52; 0.22, 0.81) and reduced body weight (ß = 0.36; 0.11, 0.62). Switching to healthy eating was also related to increased consumption of organic (ß = 1.24; 0.88, 1.60) and locally-grown food (ß = 0.74; 0.51, 0.96). The first Italian lockdown led, in a substantial part of the population, to higher intake of foods characterising a MDP; this was also accompanied by healthier lifestyle and more sustainable food choices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Body Weight , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Diet, Healthy , Exercise , Food, Organic , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class
11.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(12): 3905-3915, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in ultra-processed food (UPF) intake and its major correlates during the first Italian lockdown (9 March-3 May 2020). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Italy. PARTICIPANTS: We analysed 2992 subjects (mean age 57·9 ± 15·3 years, 40·4 % men). Individual participant data were pooled from two retrospective cohorts: (1) The Moli-LOCK cohort consists of 1501 adults, a portion of the larger Moli-sani study (n 24 325; 2005-2010) who were administered a phone-based questionnaire to assess lifestyles and psychological factors during confinement and (2) the Analysis of Long Term Risk of Covid-19 Emergency is a web-based survey of 1491 individuals distributed throughout Italy who self-responded to the same questionnaire by using Google forms.UPF was defined according to NOVA classification based on degree of food processing. An UPF score was created by assigning 1 point to increased consumption, -1 to decreased and 0 point for unchanged intakes of nineteen food items, with higher values indicating an increase in UPF during confinement. RESULTS: Overall, 37·5 % of the population reported some increase in UPF (UPF score ≥1). Adults were more likely to decrease UPF (multivariable regression coefficient ß = -1·94; 95 % CI -2·72, -1·17 for individuals aged >75 years as compared with 18-39 years) as did individuals from southern Italian regions as compared with Northern inhabitants (ß = -1·32; 95 % CI -1·80, -0·84), while UPF lowering associated with increased exercise (ß = -0·90; 95 % CI -1·46, -0·35) and weight loss (ß = -1·05; 95 % CI -1·51, -0·59) during confinement. CONCLUSIONS: During the first Italian lockdown, about 40 % of our population switched to unfavourable eating as reflected by increased UPF intake and this may have long-term effects for health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Fast Foods , Pandemics , Quarantine , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(8): 1054-1065, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112023

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A hypercoagulable condition was described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and proposed as a possible pathogenic mechanism contributing to disease progression and lethality. AIM: We evaluated if in-hospital administration of heparin improved survival in a large cohort of Italian COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In a retrospective observational study, 2,574 unselected patients hospitalized in 30 clinical centers in Italy from February 19, 2020 to June 5, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection were analyzed. The primary endpoint in a time-to event analysis was in-hospital death, comparing patients who received heparin (low-molecular-weight heparin [LMWH] or unfractionated heparin [UFH]) with patients who did not. We used multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models with inverse probability for treatment weighting by propensity scores. RESULTS: Out of 2,574 COVID-19 patients, 70.1% received heparin. LMWH was largely the most used formulation (99.5%). Death rates for patients receiving heparin or not were 7.4 and 14.0 per 1,000 person-days, respectively. After adjustment for propensity scores, we found a 40% lower risk of death in patients receiving heparin (hazard ratio = 0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.74; E-value = 2.04). This association was particularly evident in patients with a higher severity of disease or strong coagulation activation. CONCLUSION: In-hospital heparin treatment was associated with a lower mortality, particularly in severely ill COVID-19 patients and in those with strong coagulation activation. The results from randomized clinical trials are eagerly awaited to provide clear-cut recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , Aged , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Thrombophilia/blood
13.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(11): 1899-1913, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is poor knowledge on characteristics, comorbidities and laboratory measures associated with risk for adverse outcomes and in-hospital mortality in European Countries. We aimed at identifying baseline characteristics predisposing COVID-19 patients to in-hospital death. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective observational study on 3894 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized from February 19th to May 23rd, 2020 and recruited in 30 clinical centres distributed throughout Italy. Machine learning (random forest)-based and Cox survival analysis. 61.7% of participants were men (median age 67 years), followed up for a median of 13 days. In-hospital mortality exhibited a geographical gradient, Northern Italian regions featuring more than twofold higher death rates as compared to Central/Southern areas (15.6% vs 6.4%, respectively). Machine learning analysis revealed that the most important features in death classification were impaired renal function, elevated C reactive protein and advanced age. These findings were confirmed by multivariable Cox survival analysis (hazard ratio (HR): 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6-14.7 for age ≥85 vs 18-44 y); HR = 4.7; 2.9-7.7 for estimated glomerular filtration rate levels <15 vs ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2; HR = 2.3; 1.5-3.6 for C-reactive protein levels ≥10 vs ≤ 3 mg/L). No relation was found with obesity, tobacco use, cardiovascular disease and related-comorbidities. The associations between these variables and mortality were substantially homogenous across all sub-groups analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired renal function, elevated C-reactive protein and advanced age were major predictors of in-hospital death in a large cohort of unselected patients with COVID-19, admitted to 30 different clinical centres all over Italy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Young Adult
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