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1.
Endocrine ; 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942988

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: In the multifaceted COVID-19 clinical scenario characterized by a multi-system disorder with negative implications not only on respiratory function but also on cardiac, hematological, neurological and endocrine-metabolic systems, a distinctive osteo-metabolic phenotype with an independent influence on disease severity and recovery of patients affected was early reported. AIM: To summarize and update the main evidences regarding the distinct components of this phenotype in acute and Long COVID-19, reinforcing its clinical relevance and discussing the main pathophysiological and clinical-therapeutic implications of the most recent reported findings. RESULTS: This emerging phenotype is characterized by a widespread acute hypocalcemia and hypovitaminosis D with an impaired compensatory parathyroid hormone response, and a high prevalence of skeletal complications such as vertebral fractures. The clinical relevance of this osteo-metabolic phenotype on acute COVID-19 is well characterized, and novel seminal evidences are progressively highlighting its importance also in predicting patient's long-term outcomes and Long COVID-19 occurrence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reinforced the central role of a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, in evaluating these patients for a proactive search of each aspect of the osteo-metabolic phenotype components since they may represent suitable therapeutic targets to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, poor COVID-19 outcomes, Long COVID-19 occurrence and even possibly better responses to COVID-19 vaccination.

2.
Endocrine ; 77(2): 392-400, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885495

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Morphometric vertebral fractures (VFs) have been recently reported as an important component of the endocrine phenotype of COVID-19 and emerging data show negative respiratory sequelae at long-term follow-up in COVID-19 survivors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of VFs on respiratory function in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: We included patients referred to our Hospital Emergency Department and re-evaluated during follow-up. VFs were detected on lateral chest X-rays on admission using a qualitative and semiquantitative assessment and pulmonary function tests were obtained by Jaeger-MasterScreen-Analyzer Unit 6 months after discharge. RESULTS: Fifty patients were included. Median age was 66 years and 66% were males. No respiratory function data were available at COVID-19 diagnosis. VFs were detected in 16 (32%) patients. No differences between fractured and non-fractured patients regarding age and sex were observed. Although no difference was observed between VF and non-VF patient groups in the severity of pneumonia as assessed by Radiological-Assessment-of-Lung-Edema score at admission, (5 vs. 6, p = 0.69), patients with VFs were characterized as compared to those without VFs by lower Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, 2.9 vs. 3.6 L, p = 0.006; 85% vs. 110% of predicted, respectively, p = 0.001), Forced Expiratory Volume 1st s (FEV1, 2.2 vs. 2.8 L, p = 0.005; 92% vs. 110% of predicted, respectively, p = 0.001) and Diffusing Capacity of the Lungs for Carbon Monoxide (DLCO 5.83 vs. 6.98 mmol/min/kPa, p = 0.036, 59% vs. 86.3% of predicted, respectively, p = 0.043) at 6-month follow up. CONCLUSIONS: VFs, expression of the endocrine phenotype of the disease, appear to influence medium-term impaired respiratory function of COVID-19 survivors which may significantly influence their recovery. Therefore, our findings suggest that a VFs assessment at baseline may help in identifying patients needing a more intensive respiratory follow-up and patients showing persistent respiratory impairment without evidence of pulmonary disease may benefit from VFs assessment to preventing the vicious circle of further fractures and respiratory deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spinal Fractures , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Spinal Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Fractures/epidemiology , Spinal Fractures/etiology , Survivors
3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(1): e348-e360, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592846

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: A high prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in COVID-19 patients has been reported and hypothesized to increase COVID-19 severity likely because of its negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, clear associations between hypovitaminosis D and fat body mass excess and diabetes, factors associated with COVID-19 severity, have been widely recognized. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in COVID-19 patients the relationship between VD levels and inflammatory response, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose (GLU), and disease severity. METHODS: Patients admitted to San Raffaele-Hospital for COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, excluding those with comorbidities and therapies influencing VD metabolism. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels, plasma GLU levels, BMI, and inflammatory parameters were evaluated at admission. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients were included. Median VD level was 16.3 ng/mL and VD deficiency was found in 68.2% of patients. VD deficiency was found more frequently in male patients and in those affected by severe COVID-19. Regression analyses showed a positive correlation between VD and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and negative correlations between VD and plasma GLU, BMI, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6. Patients with both hypovitaminosis D and diabetes mellitus, as well those with hypovitaminosis D and overweight, were more frequently affected by a severe disease with worse inflammatory response and respiratory parameters, compared to those without or just one of these conditions. CONCLUSION: We showed, for the first-time, a strict association of VD levels with blood GLU and BMI in COVID-19 patients. VD deficiency might be a novel common pathophysiological mechanism involved in the detrimental effect of hyperglycemia and adiposity on disease severity.


Subject(s)
Adiposity/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
5.
Endocrine ; 74(2): 219-225, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypocalcemia has been identified as a major distinctive feature of COVID-19, predicting poor clinical outcomes. Among the mechanisms underlying this biochemical finding, high prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in COVID-19 patients reported so far in several studies was advocated. However, robust data in favor of this hypothesis are still lacking. Therefore, aim of our study was to investigate the role of hypovitaminosis D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the development of hypocalcemia in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Patients admitted to IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele for COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, excluding those with comorbidities and therapies influencing calcium and VD metabolism. Serum levels of total calcium (tCa), ionized calcium (Ca2+), 25-OH-VD, and PTH were evaluated at admission. We defined VD deficiency as VD below 20 ng/mL, hypocalcemia as tCa below 2.2 mmol/L or as Ca2+ below 1.18 mmol/L, and hyperparathyroidism as PTH above 65 pg/mL. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients were included in the study. Median tCa and Ca2+ levels were 2.15 and 1.15 mmol/L, respectively. Total and ionized hypocalcemia were observed in 53 (67.9%) and 55 (70.5%) patients, respectively. VD deficiency was found in 67.9% of patients, but secondary hyperparathyroidism was detected in 20.5% of them, only. tCa levels were significantly lower in patients with VD deficiency and regression analyses showed a positive correlation between VD and tCa. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we confirmed a high prevalence of hypocalcemia in COVID-19 patients and we showed for the first time that it occurred largely in the context of marked hypovitaminosis D not adequately compensated by secondary hyperparathyroidism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary , Hypocalcemia , Parathyroid Hormone/physiology , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Calcium , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/epidemiology , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/virology , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Hypocalcemia/virology , Italy , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
6.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 23(2): 215-231, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356029

ABSTRACT

Besides the pulmonary manifestations caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging endocrine phenotype, which can heavily impact on the severity of the syndrome, has been recently associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients with pituitary diseases or the pituitary gland itself may also be involved in COVID-19 clinical presentation and/or severity, causing pituitary apoplexy.Moreover, hypopituitarism is frequently burdened by several metabolic complications, including arterial hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity and vertebral fractures, which have all been associated with poor outcomes and increased mortality in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2.This review will discuss hypopituitarism as a condition that might have a bidirectional relationship with COVID-19 due to the frequent presence of metabolic comorbidities, to the direct or indirect pituitary damage or being per se a potential risk factor for COVID-19. Finally, we will address the current recommendations for the clinical management of vaccines in patients with hypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypopituitarism , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Humans , Hypopituitarism/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Diabetes Metab ; 47(6): 101268, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330744

ABSTRACT

AIM: Obesity is a risk factor for COVID-19, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the role of adiponectin (an anti-inflammatory adipokine), leptin (a pro-inflammatory adipokine) and their ratio (Adpn/Lep) in this context. DESIGN: Single-centre, prospective observational study. METHODS: Adiponectin and leptin were measured in 60 COVID-19 patients with mild (not hospitalised, n=11), moderate (hospitalised but not requiring intensive care, n=25) and severe (admission to the intensive care unit [ICU] or death, n=24) disease. RESULTS: Adiponectin and leptin levels were similar across severity groups, but patients with moderate severity had the highest Adpn/Lep ratio (1.2 [0.5; 2.0], 5.0 [1.6; 11.2], 2.1 [1.0; 3.6] in mild, moderate and severe disease; P = 0.019). Adpn/Lep, but not adiponectin or leptin alone, correlated with systemic inflammation (C reactive protein, CRP: Spearman's rho 0.293, P = 0.023). When dividing patients into Adpn/Lep tertiles, adiponectin was highest, whereas leptin was lowest in the third (highest) tertile. Patients in the highest Adpn/Lep tertile had numerically lower rates of obesity, diabetes and hypertension, and lower rates of death or admission to ICU versus other tertiles. At linear regression in the whole cohort, CRP significantly predicted Adpn/Lep (ß 0.291, P = 0.022), while female gender (ß -0.289, P = 0.016), diabetes (ß -0.257, P = 0.028), and hypertension (ß -239, P = 0.043) were negative predictors. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that the rise in Adpn/Lep, due to increased adiponectin and reduced leptin, is a compensatory response to systemic inflammation. In patients with worse cardiometabolic health (e.g. diabetes, hypertension) this mechanism might be blunted, possibly contributing to higher mortality.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin , COVID-19 , Leptin , Adiponectin/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Leptin/blood , Male , Prospective Studies , Survival Analysis
9.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105114, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318944

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 is broad and varies from mild to severe forms complicated by acute respiratory distress and death. This heterogeneity might reflect the ability of the host immune system to interact with SARS-CoV2 or the characteristics of the virus itself in terms of loads or persistence. Information on this issue might derive from interventional studies. However, results from high-quality trials are scarce. Here we evaluate the level of evidence of available published interventional studies, with a focus on randomised controlled trials and the efficacy of therapies on clinical outcomes. Moreover, we present data on a large cohort of well-characterized patients hospitalized at a single University Hospital in Milano (Italy), correlating viral clearance with clinical and biochemical features of patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Viral Load
11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2156-2164, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors associate with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances, is a source of proinflammatory cytokines and a marker of visceral adiposity. We investigated the relation between EAT characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This post-hoc analysis of a large prospective investigation included all adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to San Raffaele University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from February 25th to April 19th, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) scan for COVID-19 pneumonia and had anthropometric data available for analyses. EAT volume and attenuation (EAT-At, a marker of EAT inflammation) were measured on CT scan. Primary outcome was critical illness, defined as admission to intensive care unit (ICU), invasive ventilation or death. Cox regression and regression tree analyses were used to assess the relationship between clinical variables, EAT characteristics and critical illness. One-hundred and ninety-two patients were included (median [25th-75th percentile] age 60 years [53-70], 76% men). Co-morbidities included overweight/obesity (70%), arterial hypertension (40%), and diabetes (16%). At multivariable Cox regression analysis, EAT-At (HR 1.12 [1.04-1.21]) independently predicted critical illness, while increasing PaO2/FiO2 was protective (HR 0.996 [95% CI 0.993; 1.00]). CRP, plasma glucose on admission, EAT-At and PaO2/FiO2 identified five risk groups that significantly differed with respect to time to death or admission to ICU (log-rank p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Increased EAT attenuation, a marker of EAT inflammation, but not obesity or EAT volume, predicts critical COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat/physiopathology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/physiopathology , Pericardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
12.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(9): 1986-1994, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with unintentional weight loss. Little is known on whether and how patients regain the lost weight. We assessed changes in weight and abdominal adiposity over a three-month follow-up after discharge in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: In this sub-study of a large prospective observational investigation, we collected data from individuals who had been hospitalized for COVID-19 and re-evaluated at one (V1) and three (V2) months after discharge. Patient characteristics upon admission and anthropometrics, waist circumference and hunger levels assessed during follow-up were analyzed across BMI categories. RESULTS: One-hundred-eighty-five COVID-19 survivors (71% male, median age 62.1 [54.3; 72.1] years, 80% with overweight/obesity) were included. Median BMI did not change from admission to V1 in normal weight subjects (-0.5 [-1.2; 0.6] kg/m2, p = 0.08), but significantly decreased in subjects with overweight (-0.8 [-1.8; 0.3] kg/m2, p < 0.001) or obesity (-1.38 [-3.4; -0.3] kg/m2, p < 0.001; p < 0.05 vs. normal weight or obesity). Median BMI did not change from V1 to V2 in normal weight individuals (+0.26 [-0.34; 1.15] kg/m2, p = 0.12), but significantly increased in subjects with overweight (+0.4 [0.0; 1.0] kg/m2, p < 0.001) or obesity (+0.89 [0.0; 1.6] kg/m2, p < 0.001; p = 0.01 vs. normal weight). Waist circumference significantly increased from V1 to V2 in the whole group (p < 0.001), driven by the groups with overweight or obesity. At multivariable regression analyses, male sex, hunger at V1 and initial weight loss predicted weight gain at V2. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with overweight or obesity hospitalized for COVID-19 exhibit rapid, wide weight fluctuations that may worsen body composition (abdominal adiposity). CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
Body-Weight Trajectory , COVID-19/physiopathology , Obesity, Abdominal/physiopathology , Overweight/physiopathology , Survivors , Adiposity , Aged , Anthropometry , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity, Abdominal/virology , Overweight/virology , Prospective Studies , Waist Circumference
13.
Pituitary ; 24(3): 465-481, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite COVID-19 being identified as severe respiratory viral infection, progressively many relevant endocrine manifestations have been reported greatly contributing to the severity of the clinical presentation. Systemic involvement in COVID-19 is due to the ubiquitous expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, responsible for the entry in the cells of SARS-CoV-2, Several reports in humans and animal models showed a significant ACE2 mRNA expression in hypothalamus and pituitary cells. Moreover, higher mortality and poorer outcomes have been widely described in COVID-19 patients with obesity, diabetes and vertebral fractures, which are all highly prevalent in subjects with pituitary dysfunctions. AIM: To review the main endocrine manifestations of COVID-19 with their possible implications for pituitary diseases, the possible direct and indirect involvement of the pituitary gland in COVID-19, the impact of COVID-19 on the management of established pituitary diseases which can be already at increased risk for worse outcomes and on neurosurgical activities as well as vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Our review underlines that there could be a specific involvement of the pituitary gland which fits into a progressively shaping endocrine phenotype of COVID-19. Moreover, the care for pituitary diseases need to continue despite the restrictions due to the emergency. Several pituitary diseases, such as hypopituitarism and Cushing disease, or due to frequent comorbidities such as diabetes may be a risk factor for severe COVID-19 in affected patients. There is the urgent need to collect in international multicentric efforts data on all these aspects of the pituitary involvement in the pandemic in order to issue evidence driven recommendations for the management of pituitary patients in the persistent COVID-19 emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Pituitary Diseases/virology , Pituitary Gland/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pituitary Diseases/epidemiology , Pituitary Diseases/physiopathology , Pituitary Diseases/therapy , Pituitary Gland/metabolism , Pituitary Gland/physiopathology , Prognosis , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Virus Internalization
14.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 23(2): 299-308, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179088

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 extra-pulmonary features include several endocrine manifestations and these are becoming strongly clinically relevant in patients affected influencing disease severity and outcomes.At the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic no population data on calcium levels in patients affected were available and in April 2020 a first case of severe acute hypocalcemia in an Italian patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported. Subsequently, several studies reported hypocalcemia as a highly prevalent biochemical abnormality in COVID-19 patients with a marked negative influence on disease severity, biochemical inflammation and thrombotic markers, and mortality. Also a high prevalence of vertebral fractures with worse respiratory impairment in patients affected and a widespread vitamin D deficiency have been frequently observed, suggesting an emerging "Osteo-Metabolic Phenotype" in COVID-19.To date, several potential pathophysiological factors have been hypothesized to play a role in determining hypocalcemia in COVID-19 including calcium dependent viral mechanisms of action, high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in general population, chronic and acute malnutrition during critical illness and high levels of unbound and unsaturated fatty acids in inflammatory responses.Since hypocalcemia is a frequent biochemical finding in hospitalized COVID-19 patients possibly predicting worse outcomes and leading to acute cardiovascular and neurological complications if severe, it is reasonable to assess, monitor and, if indicated, replace calcium at first patient hospital evaluation and during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypocalcemia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(2): e602-e614, 2021 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914177

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has become the most relevant medical issue globally. Despite several studies that have investigated clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients, no data have been reported on the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFs). Since VFs may influence cardiorespiratory function and disease outcomes, the aim of this study was to assess VFs prevalence and clinical impact in COVID-19. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: This was a retrospective cohort study performed at San Raffaele Hospital, a tertiary health care hospital in Italy. We included COVID-19 patients for whom lateral chest x-rays at emergency department were available. VFs were detected using a semiquantitative evaluation of vertebral shape on chest x-rays. RESULTS: A total of 114 patients were included in this study and thoracic VFs were detected in 41 patients (36%). Patients with VFs were older and more frequently affected by hypertension and coronary artery disease (P < 0.001, P = 0.007, P = 0.034; respectively). Thirty-six (88%) patients in VFs+ group compared to 54 (74%) in VFs- group were hospitalized (P = 0.08). Patients with VFs more frequently required noninvasive mechanical ventilation compared with those without VFs (P = 0.02). Mortality was 22% in VFs+ group and 10% in VFs- group (P = 0.07). In particular, mortality was higher in patients with severe VFs compared with those with moderate and mild VFs (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: VFs may integrate the cardiorespiratory risk of COVID-19 patients, being a useful and easy to measure clinical marker of fragility and poor prognosis. We suggest that morphometric thoracic vertebral evaluation should be performed in all suspected COVID-19 patients undergoing chest x-rays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Spinal Fractures/epidemiology , Thoracic Vertebrae , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Spinal Fractures/complications , Spinal Fractures/diagnosis , Spinal Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Thoracic Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Thoracic Vertebrae/pathology
17.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 2420-2426, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may associate with clinical manifestations, ranging from alterations in smell and taste to severe respiratory distress requiring intensive care, that might associate with weight loss and malnutrition. We aimed to assess the incidence of unintentional weight loss and malnutrition in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: In this post-hoc analysis of a prospective observational cohort study, we enrolled all adult (age ≥18 years) patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 who had been discharged home from either a medical ward or the Emergency Department of San Raffaele University Hospital, and were re-evaluated after remission at the Outpatient COVID-19 Follow-Up Clinic of the same Institution from April 7, 2020, to May 11, 2020. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters upon admission were prospectively collected. At follow-up, anthropometrics, the mini nutritional assessment screening and a visual analogue scale for appetite were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients were included in the analysis (33% females, median age 59.0 [49.5-67.9] years, 70% overweight/obese upon initial assessment, 73% hospitalised). Sixty-one patients (29% of the total, and 31% of hospitalised patients vs. 21% of patients managed at home, p = 0.14) had lost >5% of initial body weight (median weight loss 6.5 [5.0-9.0] kg, or 8.1 [6.1-10.9]%). Patients who lost weight had greater systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein 62.9 [29.0-129.5] vs.48.7 [16.1-96.3] mg/dL; p = 0.02), impaired renal function (23.7% vs. 8.7% of patients; p = 0.003) and longer disease duration (32 [27-41] vs. 24 [21-30] days; p = 0.047) as compared with those who did not lose weight. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, only disease duration independently predicted weight loss (OR 1.05 [1.01-1.10] p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 might negatively impact body weight and nutritional status. In COVID-19 patients, nutritional evaluation, counselling and treatment should be implemented at initial assessment, throughout the course of disease, and after clinical remission. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Weight Loss , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Anthropometry , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Panminerva Med ; 64(2): 244-252, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-875064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biobanks are imperative infrastructures, particularly during outbreaks, when there is an obligation to acquire and share knowledge as quick as possible to allow for implementation of science-based preventive, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We established a COVID-19 biobank with the aim of collecting high-quality and well-annotated human biospecimens, in the effort to understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying COVID-19 and identify therapeutic targets (COVID-BioB, NCT04318366). Here we describe our experience and briefly review the characteristics of the biobanks for COVID-19 that have been so far established. RESULTS: A total of 46,677 samples have been collected from 913 participants (63.3% males, median [IQR] age 62.2 [51.2-74.0] years) since the beginning of the program. Most patients (66.9%) had been admitted to hospital for COVID-19, with a median length of stay of 15.0 (9.0-27.0) days. A minority of patients (13.3% of the total) had been admitted for other reasons and subsequently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The remainder were managed at home after being seen at the Emergency Department. CONCLUSIONS: Having a solid research infrastructure already in place, along with flexibility and adaptability to new requirements, allowed for the quick building of a COVID-19 biobank that will help expand and share the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Biological Specimen Banks , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Diabetologia ; 63(12): 2548-2558, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840591

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to characterise the humoral response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with diabetes. Demonstrating the ability to mount an appropriate antibody response in the presence of hyperglycaemia is relevant for the comprehension of mechanisms related to the observed worse clinical outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in patients with diabetes and for the development of any future vaccination campaign to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Using a highly specific and sensitive measurement of antibodies by fluid-phase luciferase immunoprecipitation assays, we characterised the IgG, IgM and IgA response against multiple antigens of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 509 patients with documented diagnosis of COVID-19, prospectively followed at our institution. We analysed clinical outcomes and antibody titres according to the presence of hyperglycaemia, i.e., either diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, at the time of, or during, hospitalisation. RESULTS: Among patients with confirmed COVID-19, 139 (27.3%) had diabetes: 90 (17.7%) had diabetes diagnosed prior to the hospital admission (comorbid diabetes) while 49 (9.6%) had diabetes diagnosed at the time of admission (newly diagnosed). Diabetes was associated with increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers and hypercoagulopathy, as well as leucocytosis and neutrophilia. Diabetes was independently associated with risk of death (HR 2.32 [95% CI 1.44, 3.75], p = 0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex and other relevant comorbidities. Moreover, a strong association between higher glucose levels and risk of death was documented irrespective of diabetes diagnosis (HR 1.14 × 1.1 mmol/l [95% CI 1.08, 1.21], p < 0.001). The humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with diabetes was present and superimposable, as for timing and antibody titres, to that of non-diabetic patients, with marginal differences, and was not influenced by glucose levels. Of the measured antibody responses, positivity for IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) was predictive of survival rate, both in the presence or absence of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The observed increased severity and mortality risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with hyperglycaemia was not the result of an impaired humoral response against SARS-CoV-2. RBD IgG positivity was associated with a remarkable protective effect, allowing for a cautious optimism about the efficacy of future vaccines against SARs-COV-2 in people with diabetes. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/analysis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
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