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1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233031

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Remdesivir (REM) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could alleviate severe COVID-19 in at-risk outpatients. However, data on their use in hospitalized patients, particularly in elderly or immunocompromised hosts, are lacking. METHODS: All consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at our unit from 1 July 2021 to 15 March 2022 were retrospectively enrolled. The primary outcome was the progression to severe COVID-19 (P/F < 200). Descriptive statistics, a Cox univariate-multivariate model, and an inverse probability treatment-weighted (IPTW) analysis were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 331 subjects were included; their median (q1-q3) age was 71 (51-80) years, and they were males in 52% of the cases. Of them, 78 (23%) developed severe COVID-19. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 14%; it was higher in those with disease progression (36% vs. 7%, p < 0.001). REM and mAbs resulted in a 7% (95%CI = 3-11%) and 14% (95%CI = 3-25%) reduction in the risk of severe COVID-19, respectively, after adjusting the analysis with the IPTW. In addition, by evaluating only immunocompromised hosts, the combination of REM and mAbs was associated with a significantly lower incidence of severe COVID-19 (aHR = 0.06, 95%CI = 0.02-0.77) when compared with monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: REM and mAbs may reduce the risk of COVID-19 progression in hospitalized patients. Importantly, in immunocompromised hosts, the combination of mAbs and REM may be beneficial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Male , Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunocompromised Host , Disease Progression
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9035, 2023 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244246

ABSTRACT

In respiratory infections, anemia is both a consequence of acute inflammation and a predictor of poor clinical outcomes. There are few studies investigating the role of anemia in COVID-19, suggesting a potential role in predicting disease severity. In this study, we aimed to assess the association between the presence of anemia at admission and incidence of severe disease and death in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Data from all adult patients admitted for COVID-19 in University Hospital "P. Giaccone" Palermo, and University Hospital of Bari, Italy, were retrospectively collected from 1st of September 2020 to 31 August 2022. The association between anemia (defined as Hb < 13 g/dl and < 12 g/dl in males and females, respectively), in-hospital mortality and severe COVID-19 was tested using a Cox's regression analysis. Severe COVID-19 forms were defined as admission to intensive or sub-intensive care unit or a qSOFAscore ≥ 2 or CURB65scores ≥ 3. p values were calculated using the Student's t test for continuous variables and the Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test for categorical ones. The association between anemia and the mortality was made using a Cox's regression analysis, adjusted, in two models, for the potential confounders and using a propensity score. Among the 1562 patients included in the analysis, prevalence of anemia was 45.1% (95% CI 43-48%). Patients with anemia were significantly older (p < 0.0001), reported more co-morbidities, and presented higher baseline levels of procalcitonin, CRP, ferritin and IL-6. Overall, the crude incidence of mortality was about four times higher in patients with anemia compared to those without. After adjusting for 17 potential confounders, the presence of anemia significantly increased the risk of death (HR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.59-4.52) and of risk of severe COVID-19 (OR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.65-3.24). The propensity score analysis substantially confirmed these analyses. Our study provides evidence that, in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, anemia is both associated with a more pronounced baseline pro-inflammatory profile and higher incidence of in-hospital mortality and severe disease.


Subject(s)
Anemia , COVID-19 , Male , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Anemia/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Disease Progression
3.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1117709, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242625

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Worldwide, COVID-19 pandemic lead to a large fall in the number of newly reported TB cases. In sub-Saharan Africa, microbiological diagnosis of TB is generally based on smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF on sputum samples, but good quality sputum samples are often difficult to obtain, leading clinicians to rely on more invasive procedures for diagnosis. Aim of this study was to investigate pooled sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF on stool samples compared to respiratory microbiological reference standards in African countries. Methods: Four investigators independently searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science until 12th October 2022, then screened titles and abstracts of all potentially eligible articles. The authors applied the eligibility criteria, considered the full texts. All the studies reported the data regarding true positive (TP), true negative (TN), false positive (FP) and false negative (FN). Risk of bias and applicability concerns were assessed with the Quadas-2 tool. Results: overall, among 130 papers initially screened, we evaluated 47 works, finally including 13 papers for a total of 2,352 participants, mainly children. The mean percentage of females was 49.6%, whilst the mean percentage of patients reporting HIV was 27.7%. Pooled sensitivity for Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detecting pulmonary tuberculosis was 68.2% (95%CI: 61.1-74.7%) even if characterized by a high heterogeneity (I2=53.7%). Specificity was almost 100% (99%, 95%CI: 97-100%; I2 = 45.7%). When divided for reference standard, in the six studies using sputum and nasogastric aspirate the accuracy was optimal (AUC = 0.99, SE = 0.02), whilst in the studies using only sputum for tuberculosis detection the AUC was 0.85 (with a SE = 0.16). The most common source of bias was exclusion of enrolled patients in the analysis. Conclusions: Our study confirms that, in Africa, stool Xpert MTB/RIF may be a useful rule-in test for children above and below 5 years of age under evaluation for pulmonary tuberculosis. Sensitivity increased substantially when using both sputum and nasogastric aspirate as reference samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Child , Female , Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Pandemics , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Africa South of the Sahara , COVID-19 Testing
4.
Br J Haematol ; 2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239795

ABSTRACT

High rates of lung failure have been reported in haematological patients after SARS-CoV2 infection. An early administration of monoclonal antibodies or anti-virals may improve the prognosis. Oral anti-virals may have a wider use independently of the genetic variations of the virus. Prospective data on anti-virals in haematological malignancies (HMs) are still lacking. Outpatients diagnosed with HM and early COVID-19 infection were prospectively treated with the oral anti-virals nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and molnupiravir. Incidence of lung failure, deaths and adverse events was analysed. Long-term outcome at third month was evaluated. Eighty-two outpatients were evaluable for the study objectives. All patients had been treated for their HM within 12 months. COVID-19-related lung failure was 23.1%. Active HM (aOR = 4.42; p = 0.038) and prolonged viral shedding (aOR = 1.04; p = 0.022) resulted independent predictors of severe infection. The vaccination with three to four doses (aOR = 0.02; p = 0.001) and with two doses (aOR = 0.06; p = 0.006) resulted protective. COVID-19-related deaths at 28 days were 6.1%. All-cause mortality at 90-day follow-up was 13.4% (n. 11) and included opportunistic infections and cardiovascular events. In conclusion, this approach reduced the incidence of lung failure and specific mortality compared to previous cohorts, but patients remain at high risk of further complications.

5.
Pathog Glob Health ; 117(5): 513-519, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269913

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been shown to reduce disease progression in patients with underlying predisposing conditions. Unfortunately, there is no evidence on the use of Sotrovimab in pregnant women. Herein we present a case series of pregnant women who received mAbs with Sotrovimab following the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) indications. Since February 1, 2022 all pregnant women - regardless of gestational age - admitted to Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Policlinico University of Bari, with positive nasopharyngeal NAAT for SARS-CoV-2 were screened according to the AIFA indications for Sotrovimab and, if eligible, were proposed for treatment. Data on COVID-19, pregnancy, delivery, newborn outcomes, and adverse events were collected. From February 1 to May 15, 2022, 58 pregnant women were screened. Fifty (86%) patients were eligible, 19 of them (32.7%) denied their consent, in 18 cases (31%), the drug was temporarily unavailable, and the remaining 13 (22%) were treated with Sotrovimab. Out of these 13 patients, 6 (46%) were in the 3rd and 7 (54%) in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. None of the 13 patients experienced adverse reactions due to Sotrovimab and all had a good clinical outcome. Furthermore, evaluating pre- and post-infusion clinical status and hematochemical profile, a reduction in D-dimers and an increase in SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (p < 0.01) during the 72 h following the infusion were observed. Our data, the first on the use of Sotrovimab in pregnant women, showed the safety and efficacy drug profile and its potential crucial role in preventing COVID-19 disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnant Women , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Disease Progression
6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217041

ABSTRACT

Since May 2022, the monkeypox (MPX) virus has represented an emerging issue due to outbreaks in non-endemic areas. This report presents the first case of paraphimosis caused by an MPX infection during the outbreak. The patient accessed the emergency department for a sudden onset of swelling of the penis and paraphimosis caused by MPX lesions that brought about stenosis of the foreskin. He therefore underwent a dorsal slit procedure with resolution. No antiviral therapy was required. A multidisciplinary approach should be preferred for the management of MPX, due to the possibility of uncommon and disseminated presentations.

7.
Internal and emergency medicine ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147209

ABSTRACT

The long-term consequences of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) are likely to be frequent but results hitherto are inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to define the incidence of long-term COVID signs and symptoms as defined by the World Health Organization, using a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. A systematic search in several databases was carried out up to 12 January 2022 for observational studies reporting the cumulative incidence of long COVID signs and symptoms divided according to body systems affected. Data are reported as incidence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Several sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were performed. Among 11,162 papers initially screened, 196 were included, consisting of 120,970 participants (mean age: 52.3 years;48.8% females) who were followed-up for a median of six months. The incidence of any long COVID symptomatology was 56.9% (95% CI 52.2–61.6). General long COVID signs and symptoms were the most frequent (incidence of 31%) and digestive issues the least frequent (7.7%). The presence of any neurological, general and cardiovascular long COVID symptomatology was most frequent in females. Higher mean age was associated with higher incidence of psychiatric, respiratory, general, digestive and skin conditions. The incidence of long COVID symptomatology was different according to continent and follow-up length. Long COVID is a common condition in patients who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, regardless of the severity of the acute illness, indicating the need for more cohort studies on this topic.

8.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164089

ABSTRACT

Background: The spread of COVID-19 poses an unprecedented challenge to care delivery in post-disaster and conflict situations. In Mozambique, the 2019 cyclone Idai and the violence by Non-State-Armed-Groups devastated the province of Sofala and Cabo Delgado respectively and led to the displacement of thousands of people living in poor and overcrowded conditions. The pandemic has further aggravated the situation. Doctors with Africa CUAMM (University college for aspiring missionary doctors) implemented surveillance activities in these regions between October 2020 and September 2021. The aim of this study is to give an overview of the prevalence of malaria, malnutrition, COVID-19 related symptoms and access to HIV testing. Methods: Data were collected in targeted internally displaced people (IDP) sites in Sofala and Cabo Delgado province between 31st January and 25th September 2021. The tool used enabled to assess COVID-19 symptoms, risk of HIV infection, malaria cases and malnutrition in children under five. Results: The project reached 93 503 people. During the study period, 13.6% people reported at least one symptom suggestive of COVID-19 infection. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) were administered to 86% of the recruited people (n = ?), with a positive diagnosis in the 4.5% of them (n = ?). Among the recruited Internally Displaced Persons (IDP), 23.1% were considered eligible for HIV screening, but only 1.4% were referred for testing. Acute malnutrition was found in 6.3% of children screened and, among these, a higher prevalence of concurrent COVID-19 symptoms was reported. Discussion: Our study highlights the importance of mass clinical screening for COVID-19 infection in this target population to enact prevention behavior, although this may not be enough, due to the pivotal role played by asymptomatic transmissions. Considering the overlap of the symptoms of COVID-19 and malaria, a combined diagnostic algorithm is urgently needed to avoid underdiagnosing malaria. Moreover, the high prevalence of respiratory symptoms in malnourished children confirmed the known correlation between malnutrition and respiratory infection. Finally, access to HIV screening needs to be implemented, given the high prevalence of people with HIV risk factors to avoid diagnostic delay. Conclusions: Population-specific needs make necessary to develop new screening methods that respond to the specific characteristics of the target population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Malaria , Malnutrition , Child , Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mozambique/epidemiology , Delayed Diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology
9.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129115

ABSTRACT

The long-term consequences of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) are likely to be frequent but results hitherto are inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to define the incidence of long-term COVID signs and symptoms as defined by the World Health Organization, using a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. A systematic search in several databases was carried out up to 12 January 2022 for observational studies reporting the cumulative incidence of long COVID signs and symptoms divided according to body systems affected. Data are reported as incidence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Several sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were performed. Among 11,162 papers initially screened, 196 were included, consisting of 120,970 participants (mean age: 52.3 years; 48.8% females) who were followed-up for a median of six months. The incidence of any long COVID symptomatology was 56.9% (95% CI 52.2-61.6). General long COVID signs and symptoms were the most frequent (incidence of 31%) and digestive issues the least frequent (7.7%). The presence of any neurological, general and cardiovascular long COVID symptomatology was most frequent in females. Higher mean age was associated with higher incidence of psychiatric, respiratory, general, digestive and skin conditions. The incidence of long COVID symptomatology was different according to continent and follow-up length. Long COVID is a common condition in patients who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, regardless of the severity of the acute illness, indicating the need for more cohort studies on this topic.

11.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089985

ABSTRACT

Secondary bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by KPC- and NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p.) during the course of COVID-19 infections lead to significant mortality. Herein, a comparative retrospective case series of KPC- or NDM-K.p. BSIs occurring in COVID-19 subjects treated with Ceftazidime/Avibactam (CAZ/AVI) for KPC-K.p., or CAZ/AVI+ Aztreonam (ATM) for NDM-K.p is reported. All patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in two Italian hospitals with a BSI between March and September 2021 were included. The main outcome was 14-day mortality. Overall, 44 patients were included: 23 with KPC-K.p. and 21 with NDM-K.p. BSIs. The median (q1-q3) age was 67 (57-75) years, and 32 (72%) were males. The two groups were similar in terms of baseline comorbidity, or severity of COVID-19. Notably, 14-day mortality of KPC-K.p. BSIs and NDM-K.p. BSIs (26% vs. 38%, p = 0.521) and 28-day mortality (35% vs. 48%, p = 0.541) were similar. A Cox regression model of delayed initiation of an appropriate antibiotic therapy after the onset of symptoms independently predicted mortality: initiation between 24 and 72 h (aHR = 12.03; 95% CI = 1.10-130, p = 0.041); and initiation after 72h (aHR = 36.9, 95% CI = 3.22-424, p = 0.004). Moreover, a trend towards an increased risk of mortality was observed for polymicrobial infections (aHR = 3.73, 95% CI = 0.87-15.8, p = 0.074), while a protective effect was observed for a beta-lactam loading dose at the start of treatment (aHR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.02-1.10, p = 0.064). The high mortality of KPC and NDM-K.p. BSIs in COVID-19 patients may be reduced by an early and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Further efforts should be made to develop antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs in COVID-19 wards.

12.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997811

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although the understanding of several aspects of long COVID-19 syndrome is increasing, there is limited literature regarding the treatment of these signs and symptoms. The aim of our systematic review was to understand which therapies have proved effective against the symptoms of long COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search for randomized controlled or clinical trials in several databases was conducted through 15 May 2022. Specific inclusion criteria included: (1) intervention studies, either randomized controlled (RCTs) or clinical trials; (2) diagnosis of long COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization criteria; (3) presence of long COVID-19 for at least 12 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: We initially found 1638 articles to screen. After removing 1602 works based on their title/abstract, we considered 35 full texts, and among them, two intervention studies were finally included. The first RCT focused on the greater improvement of treatment combining olfactory rehabilitation with oral supplementation with Palmitoylethanolamide and Luteolin in patients with olfactory dysfunction after COVID-19. The second study evaluated the positive impact of aromatherapy vs. standard care in adult females affected by fatigue. CONCLUSION: Our systematic review found only two intervention studies focused on patients affected by long COVID-19. More intervention studies are needed to investigate potentially positive interventions for long COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Luteolin , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
13.
Microorganisms ; 10(8)2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987895

ABSTRACT

Recently, numerous cases of monkeypox were reported from several non-endemic countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania, suggesting an unusual and alarming public health issue, particularly considering that the disease is not directly related to human or animal travels. Attention is currently being drawn to this phenomenon since more than 70% of the global population is no longer vaccinated against smallpox. Indeed, the smallpox vaccination also confers some indirect degree of protection against other poxviruses, including monkeypox. We performed a narrative review to describe the existing literature with regard to monkeypox using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus databases. This review aims to provide updated evidence of findings on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and prevention of monkeypox, also considering the concurrent zoonotic pandemic caused by the COVID-19 coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2.

14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 668, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uganda accounts for 5% of all malaria cases and deaths reported globally and, in endemic countries, pregnancy is a risk factor for both acquisition of P. falciparum infection and development of severe malaria. In recent years, malaria control has been threatened by COVID-19 pandemic and by the emergence, in Northern Uganda, of both resistance to artemisinin derivatives and to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. METHODS: In this facility-based, prospective, observational study, pregnant women will be recruited at antenatal-care visits and followed-up until delivery. Collected data will explore the incidence of asymptomatic parasitemia and malaria-related outcomes, as well as the attitudes towards malaria prevention, administration of intermittent preventive treatment, healthcare seeking behavior and use of insecticide-treated nets. A subpopulation of women diagnosed with malaria will be recruited and their blood samples will be analyzed for detection of genetic markers of resistance to artemisinin derivatives and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Also, to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on malaria care among pregnant women, a retrospective, interrupted-time series will be conducted on at the study sites for the period January 2018 to December 2021. DISCUSSION: The present study will explore the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on incidence of malaria and malaria-related adverse outcomes, along with the prevalence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives and to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. To our knowledge, this is the first study aiming to explore the combined effect of these factors on a cohort of pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov public website on 26th April, 2022. CLINICALTRIALS: gov Identifier: NCT05348746.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Artemisinins , COVID-19 , Malaria, Falciparum , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance , Female , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Pyrimethamine/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Sulfadoxine/therapeutic use , Uganda/epidemiology
15.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(7)2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911152

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infectious diseases (rIDs) remain among the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and, in the era of COVID-19, they have come into major focus in the scientific world and global health approaches [...].

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884429

ABSTRACT

Existing literature on the association between influenza vaccination and COVID-19 infection/outcomes is conflicting. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between influenza vaccination and COVID-19 outcomes in a large cohort of adults who participated in the SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe). Information regarding influenza vaccination in the previous year, and medical and demographic characteristics, were self-reported. Positivity for COVID-19, symptomatology, and hospitalization were also ascertained using self-reported information. An adjusted logistic regression analysis (including 15 baseline factors or propensity score) was used to assess the association between influenza vaccination and COVID-19 outcomes. A total of 48,408 participants (mean age 67 years; 54.1% females) were included. The prevalence of influenza vaccination was 38.3%. After adjusting for 15 potential confounders, influenza vaccination was significantly associated with a lower risk of positivity for COVID-19 (OR = 0.95; p < 0.0001), symptomatic forms (OR = 0.87; p < 0.0001), and hospitalization for COVID-19 (OR = 0.95; p < 0.0001). The results were similar when using a propensity score approach. In conclusion, influenza vaccination may be beneficial for the prevention of COVID-19, as the present study found that influenza vaccination was associated with a small/moderate lower risk of COVID-19 infection and adverse outcomes.

17.
Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale ; 42(Suppl 1):S5-S13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1870835

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has once again stigmatised the importance of airborne pathogens and their clinical, social and public health impact. Respiratory viruses are transmitted between individuals when the pathogen is released from the upper airways or from the lower respiratory tract of an infected individual. Airborne transmission is defined as the inhalation of the infectious aerosol, named droplet nuclei which size is smaller than 5 mm and that can be inhaled at a distance up to 2 metres. This route of transmission is relevant for viral respiratory pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, influenza virus, human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and other respiratory virus families that differ in viral and genomic structures, susceptibility of a population to the infection, severity, transmissibility, ways of transmission and seasonal recurrence. Human respiratory viruses generally infect cells of the upper respiratory tract, eliciting respiratory signs and symptoms, sometimes without the possibility to differentiate them clinically. As seen by the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, human respiratory viruses can substantially contribute to increased morbidity and mortality, economic losses and, eventually, social disruption. In this article, we describe the structural, clinical and transmission aspects of the main respiratory viruses responsible for endemic, epidemic and pandemic infections.

18.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 42(Suppl. 1): S5-S13, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863385

Subject(s)
Pandemics , Pharynx , Humans , Neck , Nose
19.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847566

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has undone years of progress in providing essential TB services and controlling the TB burden. Italy, a low TB burden country, has an incidence of 7.1 cases per 100,000 people. To control the TB spreading in Italy is critical to investigate the characteristics of patients with the worst outcomes and the highest risk of adverse events related to antituberculosis therapy. Therefore, we conducted a large retrospective study in TB patients admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases University of Bari, Italy, in order to describe the clinical presentation and the factors associated with adverse events and outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the patients admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases from January 2013 to 15 December 2021. We stratified our cohort into two groups: <65 years of age and ≥65 years in order to assess any differences between the two groups. Two logistic regression models were implemented considering the dependent variables as: (I) the adverse events; and (II) the unsuccessful treatments. Results: In total, 206 consecutive patients [60% (n = 124) M, median age 39 years, range 16-92] were diagnosed and admitted with TB at Clinic of Infectious Diseases. Of the whole sample, 151 (74%) were <65 years and 55 (26%) were ≥65. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were detected (p-value < 0.05) for nationality (p-value = 0.01), previous contact with TB patient (p-value = 0.00), type of TB (p-value = 0.00), unsuccessful treatment (p-value = 0.00), length of hospitalization (p-value = 0.02) and diagnostic delay (p-value = 0.01). Adverse events related to TB drug regimen were reported in 24% (n = 49). Age < 65 years (O.R. = 3.91; 95% CI 1.72-4.21), non-Italian nationality (O.R. = 4.45; 95% CI 2.22-4.98.), homeless (O.R. = 3.23; 95% CI 2.58-4.54), presence of respiratory symptoms (O.R. = 1.23; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), diagnostic delay (O.R = 2.55; 95% CI 1.98-3.77) resulted associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome (death, failure or lost to follow up). Finally, age < 65 years (O.R. = 1.73; 95% CI 1.31-2.49), presence of pulmonary TB (O.R. = 1.15; 95% CI 1.02-1.35), length of hospitalization (O.R. = 1.82; 95% CI 1.35-2.57) and TB culture positive (O.R. = 1.35; 95% CI 1.12-1.82) were associated with adverse events in our populations. Conclusions: The pharmacological approach alone seems insufficient to treat and cure a disease whose ethiopathogenesis is not only due to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but also to the poverty or the social fragility. Our data suggest that young foreigners, the homeless, and the people with low social and economic status are at higher risk of an unfavorable outcome in low incidence TB countries. Targeted actions to support this highly vulnerable population both in terms of outcome and occurrence of adverse events are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Delayed Diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533837

ABSTRACT

The quality of life of people living with HIV (PLWH) has remarkably increased thanks to the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy. Still, PLWH are exposed to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and liver disease. Hence, the purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about diagnosis and nutritional management with specific indication of macro and micronutrients intake for the main comorbidities of PLWH. In fact, a prompt diagnosis and management of lifestyle behaviors are fundamental steps to reach the "fourth 90". To achieve an early diagnosis of these comorbidities, clinicians have at their disposal algorithms such as the Framingham Score to assess cardiovascular risk; transient elastography and liver biopsy to detect NAFLD and NASH; and markers such as the oral glucose tolerance test and GFR to identify glucose impairment and renal failure, respectively. Furthermore, maintenance of ideal body weight is the goal for reducing cardiovascular risk and to improve diabetes, steatosis and fibrosis; while Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate diets are the dietetic approaches proposed for cardioprotective effects and for glycemic control, respectively. Conversely, diet management of chronic kidney disease requires different nutritional assessment, especially regarding protein intake, according to disease stage and eventually concomitant diabetes.

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