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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(9): 3386-3398, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 is a new Coronavirus identified as the cause of Coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). The epidemic spread in China and beyond its borders, involving 114 countries with more than 5 million dead. On March 11, the WHO declared the spread of SARS-CoV-2 to be a pandemic and encouraged nations to adopt harsh restrictive measures. Therefore, patients more and more often turn to dental offices only for emergencies. Healthcare professionals, including dentists, are at high infectious risk. In fact, the closeness to the oral cavity and nasopharynx and the use of drills or ultrasonic devices that cause aerosol release, make dental professions at high risk of bacterial and viral infections. The way patients are treated has changed. In fact, it should be mandatory to carry out a pre-treatment telephone triage and the use of mouthwashes to reduce bacterial load. In the current pandemic, it is necessary to adopt specific safety protocols that can protect dental operators as well as limit the spread of the virus. The purpose of this review is to present an overview on ways to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in dentistry by focusing on the immediate situation as well as by looking towards the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To reach the review purpose, we selected a series of studies using keywords "COVID-19" OR "SARS-CoV-2" in association with "dentistry" AND "safety protocols" AND "healthcare procedures" AND "individual protection dispositive" AND "air transmission" AND "droplet". We selected papers exclusively in English language, up to 1st January 2022. RESULTS: During future phases of the pandemic, everywhere in the World, it is necessary to impose all dentistry team both a serological screening and the vaccination, as already established for all health staff in Italy. CONCLUSIONS: For own safety, it is an important for the whole dentistry category constantly update the devices and the protocols adopted, as well as monitoring the real infectious threats, which may occur.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Dentistry , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
Pharmaceuticals ; 14(4):06, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210243

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused more than 100,000,000 cases of coronavirus infection in the world in just a year, of which there were 2 million deaths. Its clinical picture is characterized by pulmonary involvement that culminates, in the most severe cases, in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, COVID-19 affects other organs and systems, including cardiovascular, urinary, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Currently, unique-drug therapy is not supported by international guidelines. In this context, it is important to resort to adjuvant therapies in combination with traditional pharmacological treatments. Among natural bioactive compounds, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) seems to have potentially beneficial effects. In fact, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized an ongoing clinical trial with ultramicronized (um)-PEA as an add-on therapy in the treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In support of this hypothesis, in vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and pain-relieving effects of PEA, especially in its um form. The purpose of this review is to highlight the potential use of um-PEA as an adjuvant treatment in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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