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1.
Future Virology ; : 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1855273

ABSTRACT

Plain language summary Achievement of elimination of HCV as a major public health threat requires focus on vulnerable populations such as people in prison. The prison population is at high risk of HCV infection but their treatment is complicated by social issues such as mental health disorders and drug use. Simple and effective treatment regimens are required to increase access to treatment and improve cure rates. This real-world analysis across Europe and Canada analyzed data from 20 prison populations. HCV-infected individuals were treated with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir, a once daily treatment which requires minimal monitoring. This regimen achieved high cure rates in the prison population despite the existence of complicating social issues. Background: People in prison are at high risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and often have a history of injection drug use and mental health disorders. Simple test-and-treat regimens which require minimal monitoring are critical. Methods: This integrated real-world analysis evaluated the effectiveness of once daily sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) in 20 prison cohorts across Europe and Canada. The primary outcome was sustained virological response (SVR) in the effectiveness population (EP), defined as patients with a valid SVR status. Secondary outcomes were reasons for not achieving SVR, adherence and time between HCV RNA diagnosis and SOF/VEL treatment. Results: Overall, 526 people in prison were included with 98.9% SVR achieved in the EP (n = 442). Cure rates were not compromised by drug use or existence of mental health disorders. Conclusion: SOF/VEL for 12 weeks is highly successful in prison settings and enables the implementation of a simple treatment algorithm in line with guideline recommendations and test-and-treat strategies.

2.
J Hosp Infect ; 115: 51-58, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is reduced by effective risk management procedures, but patient-to-patient transmission continues to be reported in healthcare settings. AIM: To report the use of phylogenetic analysis in the clinical risk management of an HCV outbreak among 128 thalassaemia outpatients followed at a thalassaemia centre of an Italian hospital. METHODS: Epidemiological investigation and root-cause analysis were performed. All patients with acute hepatitis and known chronic infection were tested for HCV RNA, HCV genotyping, and NS3, NS5A, and NS5B HCV genomic region sequencing. To identify transmission clusters, phylogenetic trees were built for each gene employing Bayesian methods. FINDINGS: All patients with acute hepatitis were infected with HCV genotype 1b. Root-cause analysis, including a lookback procedure, excluded blood donors as the source of HCV transmission. The phylogenetic analysis, conducted on seven patients with acute infection and eight patients with chronic infection, highlighted four transmission clusters including at least one patient with chronic and one patient with acute HCV infection. All patients in the same cluster received a blood transfusion during the same day. Two patients with acute hepatitis spontaneously cleared HCV within four weeks and nine patients received ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir for six weeks, all achieving a sustained virological response. CONCLUSION: Combined use of root-cause analysis and molecular epidemiology was effective in ascertaining the origin of the HCV outbreak. Antiviral therapy avoided the chronic progression of the infection and further spread in care units and in the family environment.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C , Thalassemia , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Disease Outbreaks , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Risk Management , Thalassemia/complications , Thalassemia/epidemiology , Thalassemia/therapy
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