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1.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737036

ABSTRACT

We performed next-generation sequencing (NGS), phylogenetic analysis, gene flows, and N- and O-glycosylation prediction on SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected from lab-confirmed cases from different Italian regions. To this end, a total of 111 SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected in Italy between 29 January and 27 March 2020 were investigated. The majority of the genomes belonged to lineage B.1, with some descendant lineages. The gene flow analysis showed that the spread occurred mainly from the north to the center and to the south of Italy, as confirmed by epidemiological data. The mean evolutionary rate estimated here was 8.731 × 10-4 (95% highest posterior density, HPD intervals 5.809 × 10-4 to 1.19 × 10-3), in line with values reported by other authors. The dated phylogeny suggested that SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1 probably entered Italy between the end of January and early February 2020. Continuous molecular surveillance is needed to trace virus circulation and evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327217

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern Omicron was first detected in Italy in November 2021. Data from three genomic surveys conducted in Italy between December 2021 and January 2022 suggest that Omicron became dominant in less than one month (prevalence on January 3: 78.6%-83.8%) with a doubling time of 2.7-3.1 days. The mean net reproduction number rose from about 1.15 in absence of Omicron to a peak of 1.83 for symptomatic cases and 1.33 for hospitalized cases, while it remained stable for critical cases.

3.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523868

ABSTRACT

Polyphenols have been widely studied for their antiviral effect against respiratory virus infections. Among these, resveratrol (RV) has been demonstrated to inhibit influenza virus replication and more recently, it has been tested together with pterostilbene against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In the present work, we evaluated the antiviral activity of polydatin, an RV precursor, and a mixture of polyphenols and other micronutrients, named A5+, against influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 infections. To this end, we infected Vero E6 cells and analyzed the replication of both respiratory viruses in terms of viral proteins synthesis and viral titration. We demonstrated that A5+ showed a higher efficacy in inhibiting both influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 infections compared to polydatin treatment alone. Indeed, post infection treatment significantly decreased viral proteins expression and viral release, probably by interfering with any step of virus replicative cycle. Intriguingly, A5+ treatment strongly reduced IL-6 cytokine production in influenza virus-infected cells, suggesting its potential anti-inflammatory properties during the infection. Overall, these results demonstrate the synergic and innovative antiviral efficacy of A5+ mixture, although further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying its inhibitory effect.

4.
Infect Genet Evol ; 96: 105108, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458605

ABSTRACT

A high-quality dataset of 3289 complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected in Europe and European Economic Area (EAA) in the early phase of the first wave of the pandemic was analyzed. Among all single nucleotide mutations, 41 had a frequency ≥ 1%, and the phylogenetic analysis showed at least 6 clusters with a specific mutational profile. These clusters were differentially distributed in the EU/EEA, showing a statistically significant association with the geographic origin. The analysis highlighted that the mutations C14408T and C14805T played an important role in clusters selection and further virus spread. Moreover, the molecular analysis suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 strain responsible for the first Italian confirmed COVID-19 case was already circulating outside the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Europe/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mutation Rate
6.
Euro Surveill ; 26(16)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200053

ABSTRACT

We compared 19,207 cases of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7/S gene target failure (SGTF), 436 B.1.351 and 352 P.1 to non-variant cases reported by seven European countries. COVID-19 cases with these variants had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios for hospitalisation (B.1.1.7/SGTF: 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-2.9; B.1.351: 3.6, 95% CI: 2.1-6.2; P.1: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4-4.8) and B.1.1.7/SGTF and P.1 cases also for intensive care admission (B.1.1.7/SGTF: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4-3.5; P.1: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7-2.8).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Care , Europe/epidemiology , Humans
7.
J Infect Dis ; 223(5): 765-774, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease represents a challenge for healthcare structures. The molecular confirmation of samples from infected individuals is crucial and therefore guides public health decision making. Clusters and possibly increased diffuse transmission could occur in the context of the next influenza season. For this reason, a diagnostic test able to discriminate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from influenza viruses is urgently needed. METHODS: A multiplex real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was assessed using 1 laboratory protocol with different real-time PCR instruments. Overall, 1000 clinical samples (600 from samples SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, 200 samples from influenza-infected patients, and 200 negative samples) were analyzed. RESULTS: The assay developed was able to detect and discriminate each virus target and to intercept coinfections. The limit of quantification of each assay ranged between 5 and 10 genomic copy numbers, with a cutoff value of 37.7 and 37.8 for influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses, respectively. Only 2 influenza coinfections were detected in COVID-19 samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that multiplex assay is a rapid, valid, and accurate method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses in clinical samples. The test may be an important diagnostic tool for both diagnostic and surveillance purposes during the seasonal influenza activity period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seasons , Sensitivity and Specificity
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