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1.
Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) ; 67(2): 190-195, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535066

ABSTRACT

When looking for new antiviral compounds aimed to counteract the COVID-19, a disease caused by the recently identified novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the knowledge of the main viral proteins is fundamental. The major druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 include 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and spike (S) protein. Molecular docking studies have highlighted that quercetin, a natural polyphenol belonging to the flavonol class, inhibits 3CLpro, PLpro and S proteins. Biophysical technics have then very recently confirmed that quercetin is reasonably a potent inhibitor of 3CLpro. The likely antiviral properties of quercetin are anyway challenged by its very poor oral bioavailability profile and any attempt to overcome this limit should be welcome. A phospholipid delivery form of quercetin (Quercetin Phytosome®) has been recently tested in humans to evaluate a possible improvement in oral bioavailability. After hydrolysis of the conjugated form (mainly glucuronide) of quercetin found in human plasma, the pharmacokinetics results have demonstrated an increased bioavailability rate by about 20-fold for total quercetin. It has been also observed that the presence of specific glucuronidase could yield free systemic quercetin in human body. Taking also into considerations its anti-inflammatory and thrombin-inhibitory actions, a bioavailable form of quercetin, like Quercetin Phytosome®, should be considered a possible candidate to clinically face COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation
2.
J Med Food ; 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522096

ABSTRACT

In this review, we examined the top 10 nutraceutical products sold in Italian pharmacies and parapharmacies as well as hypermarkets and supermarkets; in the first, three product categories saw the greatest increase in sales (vitamins and minerals, immunostimulants, and sleep products) for the 12-month period between October 2019 and October 2020 (including first pandemic wave of SARS-CoV-2). We are investigating their respective formulas and isolating the botanicals that are used to make them. Many of these products have undergone preclinical and clinical studies. We performed a systematic literature search in the MEDLINE database using PubMed and Google Scholar from November 15, 2020 to December 15, 2020 (including studies carried out between 1980 and 2020). The search terms that were used included the complete name of the medicinal plant in English or Latin and the terms "cytochrome" or "drug interactions," crossing, respectively, the Latin name and English common names with "cytochrome" and "drug interactions." The search included in vitro and in vivo studies describing the effects of interaction between the plant (extract or botanical medicine) and human cytochromes. Despite their great complexity, there is decidedly limited clinical data on botanical medicine. In fact, of the 28 botanicals that were examined, only 2 (Citrus paradisi and Rhodiola rosea) show in vivo pharmacological interactions in human subjects. On the contrary, for the other botanicals, there is only weak evidence of dubious clinical significance or potential interactions shown in animal models or in vitro without clinical confirmation. This study provides a rational assessment of the most widely used products, including those used in self-medication, to simplify patient management during the Covid-19 health emergency.

3.
Nature ; 599(7884): 283-289, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404888

ABSTRACT

Derailed cytokine and immune cell networks account for the organ damage and the clinical severity of COVID-19 (refs. 1-4). Here we show that SARS-CoV-2, like other viruses, evokes cellular senescence as a primary stress response in infected cells. Virus-induced senescence (VIS) is indistinguishable from other forms of cellular senescence and is accompanied by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which comprises pro-inflammatory cytokines, extracellular-matrix-active factors and pro-coagulatory mediators5-7. Patients with COVID-19 displayed markers of senescence in their airway mucosa in situ and increased serum levels of SASP factors. In vitro assays demonstrated macrophage activation with SASP-reminiscent secretion, complement lysis and SASP-amplifying secondary senescence of endothelial cells, which mirrored hallmark features of COVID-19 such as macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, endothelial damage and widespread thrombosis in affected lung tissue1,8,9. Moreover, supernatant from VIS cells, including SARS-CoV-2-induced senescence, induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation and activation of platelets and the clotting cascade. Senolytics such as navitoclax and a combination of dasatinib plus quercetin selectively eliminated VIS cells, mitigated COVID-19-reminiscent lung disease and reduced inflammation in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters and mice. Our findings mark VIS as a pathogenic trigger of COVID-19-related cytokine escalation and organ damage, and suggest that senolytic targeting of virus-infected cells is a treatment option against SARS-CoV-2 and perhaps other viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Aniline Compounds/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Dasatinib/pharmacology , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Quercetin/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/metabolism
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 582556, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311372

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several months ago, Chinese authorities identified an atypical pneumonia in Wuhan city, province of Hubei (China) caused by a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2). The WHO announced this new disease was to be known as "COVID-19". Evidence Acquisition: Several approaches are currently underway for the treatment of this disease, but a specific cure remains to be established. Evidence Synthesis: This review will describe how the use of selected nutraceuticals could be helpful, in addition to pharmacological therapy, in preventing some COVID-19-related complications in infected patients. Conclusions: Even if a specific and effective cure for COVID-19 still has some way to go, selected nutraceuticals could be helpful, in addition to pharmacological therapy, in preventing some COVID-19-related complications in infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , SARS-CoV-2 , Berberine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Fungal Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Humans , Lactoferrin/therapeutic use , Minerals/therapeutic use , Plant Lectins/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Soy Foods , Vitamins/therapeutic use
6.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2807-2816, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290313

ABSTRACT

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing global pandemic known as COVID-19. Based on the potential antiviral role of quercetin, and on its described anti-blood clotting, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, we hypothesize that subjects with mild COVID-19 treated with Quercetin Phytosome® (QP), a novel bioavailable form of quercetin, may have a shorter time to virus clearance, a milder symptomatology, and higher probabilities of a benign earlier resolution of the disease. Methods: In our 2-week, randomized, open-label, and controlled clinical study, we have enrolled 42 COVID-19 outpatients. Twenty-one have been treated with the standard of care (SC), and 21 with QP as add-on supplementation to the SC. Our main aims were to check virus clearance and symptoms. Results: The interim results reveal that after 1 week of treatment, 16 patients of the QP group were tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 and 12 patients had all their symptoms diminished; in the SC group, 2 patients were tested SARS-CoV-2 negative and 4 patients had their symptoms partially improved. By 2 weeks, the remaining 5 patients of the QP group tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, whereas in the SC group out of 19 remaining patients, 17 tested negatives by week 2, one tested negative by week 3 and one patient, still positive, expired by day 20. Concerning blood parameters, the add on therapy with QP, reduced LDH (-35.5%), Ferritin (-40%), CRP (-54.8%) and D-dimer (-11.9%). Conclusion: QP statistically shortens the timing of molecular test conversion from positive to negative, reducing at the same time symptoms severity and negative predictors of COVID-19.

7.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2359-2366, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278260

ABSTRACT

Background: Quercetin, a well-known naturally occurring polyphenol, has recently been shown by molecular docking, in vitro and in vivo studies to be a possible anti-COVID-19 candidate. Quercetin has strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiviral properties, and it is characterized by a very high safety profile, exerted in animals and in humans. Like most other polyphenols, quercetin shows a very low rate of oral absorption and its clinical use is considered by most of modest utility. Quercetin in a delivery-food grade system with sunflower phospholipids (Quercetin Phytosome®, QP) increases its oral absorption up to 20-fold. Methods: In the present prospective, randomized, controlled, and open-label study, a daily dose of 1000 mg of QP was investigated for 30 days in 152 COVID-19 outpatients to disclose its adjuvant effect in treating the early symptoms and in preventing the severe outcomes of the disease. Results: The results revealed a reduction in frequency and length of hospitalization, in need of non-invasive oxygen therapy, in progression to intensive care units and in number of deaths. The results also confirmed the very high safety profile of quercetin and suggested possible anti-fatigue and pro-appetite properties. Conclusion: QP is a safe agent and in combination with standard care, when used in early stage of viral infection, could aid in improving the early symptoms and help in preventing the severity of COVID-19 disease. It is suggested that a double-blind, placebo-controlled study should be urgently carried out to confirm the results of our study.

8.
Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) ; 67(2): 190-195, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278860

ABSTRACT

When looking for new antiviral compounds aimed to counteract the COVID-19, a disease caused by the recently identified novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the knowledge of the main viral proteins is fundamental. The major druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 include 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and spike (S) protein. Molecular docking studies have highlighted that quercetin, a natural polyphenol belonging to the flavonol class, inhibits 3CLpro, PLpro and S proteins. Biophysical technics have then very recently confirmed that quercetin is reasonably a potent inhibitor of 3CLpro. The likely antiviral properties of quercetin are anyway challenged by its very poor oral bioavailability profile and any attempt to overcome this limit should be welcome. A phospholipid delivery form of quercetin (Quercetin Phytosome®) has been recently tested in humans to evaluate a possible improvement in oral bioavailability. After hydrolysis of the conjugated form (mainly glucuronide) of quercetin found in human plasma, the pharmacokinetics results have demonstrated an increased bioavailability rate by about 20-fold for total quercetin. It has been also observed that the presence of specific glucuronidase could yield free systemic quercetin in human body. Taking also into considerations its anti-inflammatory and thrombin-inhibitory actions, a bioavailable form of quercetin, like Quercetin Phytosome®, should be considered a possible candidate to clinically face COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation
9.
Phytother Res ; 35(3): 1230-1236, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171777

ABSTRACT

Several months ago, an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology was detected in Wuhan City (China) and the aetiological agent of the atypical pneumonia was isolated by the Chinese authorities as novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2). The WHO announced this new disease was to be known as "COVID-19." When looking for new antiviral compounds, knowledge of the main viral proteins is fundamental. The major druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 include 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and spike (S) protein. Quercetin inhibits 3CLpro and PLpro with a docking binding energy corresponding to -6.25 and -4.62 kcal/mol, respectively. Quercetin has a theoretical, but significant, capability to interfere with SARS-CoV-2 replication, with the results showing this to be the fifth best compound out of 18 candidates. On the basis of the clinical COVID-19 manifestations, the multifaceted aspect of quercetin as both antiinflammatory and thrombin-inhibitory actions, should be taken into consideration.


Subject(s)
Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , China , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol ; 66(2): 172-176, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-7667

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) is currently, March 2020, affecting more than 100,000 people worldwide and, according to the WHO (World Health Organization), a pandemic is shortly expected. The virus infects the lower respiratory tract and causes severe pneumonia and mortality in approximately 10% and 3-5%, respectively, of cases, mainly among the elderly and/or people affected by other diseases. AHCC is an α-glucan-based standardized mushroom extract that has been extensively investigated as an immunostimulant both in animals and/or in humans affected by West Nile virus, influenza virus, avian influenza virus, hepatitis C virus, papillomavirus, herpes virus, hepatitis B virus and HIV by promoting a regulated and protective immune response. Although the efficacy of AHCC has not yet been specifically evaluated with respect to SARS-CoV-2 disease, its action in promoting a protective response to a wide range of viral infections, and the current absence of effective vaccines, could support its use in the prevention of diseases provoked by human pathogenic coronavirus, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Shiitake Mushrooms , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Humans , Mycelium , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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