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Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine ; 34(SUPPL 1):44, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1517730


INTRODUCTION When COVID-19 first spread in Europe, it was unclear if the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could be transmitted from mother to fetus. Hence, doubts arose as the best way to deliver considering that caesarean delivery (CD) indeed could prevent vertical transmission. METHODS We calculated CD rate in 5 Italian regions (Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria, Sardinia) differently affected by the first wave of the pandemic. Data were retrospectively obtained from each birth center and aggregated by areas (provinces). Data related to March-April 2020, corresponding to first COVID-19 peak in Italy, were compared with the March-April 2019 as well with November-December 2019, and odds ratio (ORs) were calculated. RESULTS A total of 24 provinces were included, covering 21.8% of the Italian population. Overall CD rate did not differ in the three examined periods: neither in the comparison of March-April 2019 (reference period) versus November-December 2019 (OR: 0.98 95% CI 0.93-1.05) nor in the comparison of the reference period versus March-April 2020 (OR: 1.03;95 % CI 0.98-1.09). CD rate did not change even in areas with the highest incidence of COVID-19. Only 17 out of 3.257 CDs was due to direct COVID-19 complications (0.5%;95% CI 0.3-0.8). No pregnant women with COVID-19 proven infection died. CONCLUSIONS The first wave of COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect delivery mode in Italy, even in areas with the highest infection rates.

Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 15(4):335-350, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1449369


Numerous studies have proven a close relationship between inflammatory diseases and the state of hypercoagulability. In fact, thromboembolic complications represent one of the main causes of disability and mortality in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer and obstetric complications. Despite this, the processes of hemostasis and immune responses have long been considered separately;currently, work is underway to identify the molecular basis for a relationship between such systems. It has been identified that various pro-inflammatory stimuli are capable of triggering a coagulation cascade, which in turn modulates inflammatory responses. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are the networks of histones of extracellular DNA generated by neutrophils in response to inflammatory stimuli. The hemostasis is activated against infection in order to minimize the spread of infection and, if possible, inactivate the infectious agent. Another molecular network is based on fibrin. Over the last 10 years, there has been accumulated a whole body of evidence that NETs and fibrin are able to form a united network within a thrombus, stabilizing each other. Similarities and molecular cross-reactions are also present in the processes of fibrinolysis and lysis of NETs. Both NETs and von Willebrand factor (vWF) are involved in thrombosis as well as inflammation. During the development of these conditions, a series of events occurs in the microvascular network, including endothelial activation, NETs formation, vWF secretion, adhesion, aggregation, and activation of blood cells. The activity of vWF multimers is regulated by the specific metalloproteinase ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13). Studies have shown that interactions between NETs and vWF can lead to arterial and venous thrombosis and inflammation. In addition, the contents released from activated neutrophils or NETs result in decreased ADAMTS-13 activity, which can occur in both thrombotic microangiopathies and acute ischemic stroke. Recently, NETs have been envisioned as a cause of endothelial damage and immunothrombosis in COVID-19. In addition, vWF and ADAMTS-13 levels predict COVID-19 mortality. In this review, we summarize the biological characteristics and interactions of NETs, vWF, and ADAMTS-13, the effect of NETs on hemostasis regulation and discuss their role in thrombotic conditions, sepsis, COVID-19, and obstetric complications.

Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 14(3):374-383, 2020.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-903106


An issue of habitual miscarriage poses a high social importance especially during COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, healthcare workers faced a mass media campaign against using micronized progesterone upon habitual miscarriage, which, as viewed by us, displays signs of prejudiced data manipulation and may disorient practitioners. In this Letter we provide objective information on accumulated data regarding gestagenes efficacy and safety. We invoke healthcare professionals to make decisions deserving independent primary source trust presented by original scientific papers published in peer-reviewed journals, clinical recommendations proposed by professional medical communities as well as treatment standards and protocols.