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1.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine ; 34(SUPPL 1):44, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1517730

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION When COVID-19 first spread in Europe, it was unclear if the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could be transmitted from mother to fetus. Hence, doubts arose as the best way to deliver considering that caesarean delivery (CD) indeed could prevent vertical transmission. METHODS We calculated CD rate in 5 Italian regions (Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria, Sardinia) differently affected by the first wave of the pandemic. Data were retrospectively obtained from each birth center and aggregated by areas (provinces). Data related to March-April 2020, corresponding to first COVID-19 peak in Italy, were compared with the March-April 2019 as well with November-December 2019, and odds ratio (ORs) were calculated. RESULTS A total of 24 provinces were included, covering 21.8% of the Italian population. Overall CD rate did not differ in the three examined periods: neither in the comparison of March-April 2019 (reference period) versus November-December 2019 (OR: 0.98 95% CI 0.93-1.05) nor in the comparison of the reference period versus March-April 2020 (OR: 1.03;95 % CI 0.98-1.09). CD rate did not change even in areas with the highest incidence of COVID-19. Only 17 out of 3.257 CDs was due to direct COVID-19 complications (0.5%;95% CI 0.3-0.8). No pregnant women with COVID-19 proven infection died. CONCLUSIONS The first wave of COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect delivery mode in Italy, even in areas with the highest infection rates.

2.
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 15(4):335-350, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1449369

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have proven a close relationship between inflammatory diseases and the state of hypercoagulability. In fact, thromboembolic complications represent one of the main causes of disability and mortality in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer and obstetric complications. Despite this, the processes of hemostasis and immune responses have long been considered separately;currently, work is underway to identify the molecular basis for a relationship between such systems. It has been identified that various pro-inflammatory stimuli are capable of triggering a coagulation cascade, which in turn modulates inflammatory responses. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are the networks of histones of extracellular DNA generated by neutrophils in response to inflammatory stimuli. The hemostasis is activated against infection in order to minimize the spread of infection and, if possible, inactivate the infectious agent. Another molecular network is based on fibrin. Over the last 10 years, there has been accumulated a whole body of evidence that NETs and fibrin are able to form a united network within a thrombus, stabilizing each other. Similarities and molecular cross-reactions are also present in the processes of fibrinolysis and lysis of NETs. Both NETs and von Willebrand factor (vWF) are involved in thrombosis as well as inflammation. During the development of these conditions, a series of events occurs in the microvascular network, including endothelial activation, NETs formation, vWF secretion, adhesion, aggregation, and activation of blood cells. The activity of vWF multimers is regulated by the specific metalloproteinase ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13). Studies have shown that interactions between NETs and vWF can lead to arterial and venous thrombosis and inflammation. In addition, the contents released from activated neutrophils or NETs result in decreased ADAMTS-13 activity, which can occur in both thrombotic microangiopathies and acute ischemic stroke. Recently, NETs have been envisioned as a cause of endothelial damage and immunothrombosis in COVID-19. In addition, vWF and ADAMTS-13 levels predict COVID-19 mortality. In this review, we summarize the biological characteristics and interactions of NETs, vWF, and ADAMTS-13, the effect of NETs on hemostasis regulation and discuss their role in thrombotic conditions, sepsis, COVID-19, and obstetric complications.

3.
Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk ; 76(3):268-278, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1411069

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection that, in severe course, leads to the development of a cytokine storm, systemic inflammatory response and coagulopathy. Unlike other sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, COVID-19 induced coagulopathy is realized mainly in thrombosis. Researchers around the world are currently developing adequate diagnostic, monitoring and anticoagulant therapy approaches to safely and effectively manage patients with severe COVID-19. The need to develop laboratory monitoring is due to the fact that 20% of patients have changes in hemostasis indicators, while in patients with a severe form of the disease, they are present in 100% of cases. In case of deaths from COVID-19, there is an increase in the concentration of D-dimer and fibrinogen degradation products. Thus, the severity of hemostasis disorders has an important prognostic value. Anticoagulant therapy is included in the list of all recommendations as an effective means of reducing mortality from COVID-19. The questions of the recommended groups and doses of anticoagulant drugs are still open. The approach to the choice of an anticoagulant should be based not only on risk factors, characteristics of the course of the disease, anamnesis, but also on the wishes of the patient during long-term therapy at the post-hospital stage.

4.
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 14(3):374-383, 2020.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-903106

ABSTRACT

An issue of habitual miscarriage poses a high social importance especially during COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, healthcare workers faced a mass media campaign against using micronized progesterone upon habitual miscarriage, which, as viewed by us, displays signs of prejudiced data manipulation and may disorient practitioners. In this Letter we provide objective information on accumulated data regarding gestagenes efficacy and safety. We invoke healthcare professionals to make decisions deserving independent primary source trust presented by original scientific papers published in peer-reviewed journals, clinical recommendations proposed by professional medical communities as well as treatment standards and protocols.

5.
Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences / Вестник Российской академии медицинских наук ; 75(1):83-92, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-71763

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of COVID-19 and the large number of cases put a significant burden on the health systems of any developed country. Specialists in natural disasters and military medicine should be involved in the provision of medical care and observance of anti-epidemic measures. In some countries, including Italy, they were involved only after the situation was dramatically worsening with many clinical units and hospitals overloaded by infected patients. To curb the spread of COVID-19, most countries declared a state of emergency, and unprecedented measures have been taken to strengthen quarantine in suspected or positive symptomatic subjects. Nevertheless, the crisis associated with the unexpectedly global scale and tragedy of the pandemic and the inconsistency of actions of both society and individuals and specialized medical services, lead to insufficient effectiveness of the measures taken in a number of regions. In the present day, it is vital for every person to change its mindset ― relying on personal responsibility to comply with all recommendations of quarantine and anti-epidemic measures, and to reorganize departments and resources of medical institutions at all levels in order to withstand the spread of infection and at the same time provide all those in need with the necessary and appropriate medical care. Particular attention should be paid to the obstetric care service, given that even in normal times, the obstetric hospital is an area of increased responsibility for the life and health of mother and child and future mankind. Fulfillment of existing orders, instructions of national and regional committees, international and national protocols and clinical protocols should undoubtedly lead to a positive result, but this requires additional training of medical personnel at all levels. The purpose of this review is to propose quick key strategies for reassessing the maternity and neonatal wards/ hospitals based on the experience of health systems and organizations which faced the spread of this new coronavirus;this advice may be applied along with binding tight instructions in obstetric hospitals in order to proactively respond to a likely wave of growth in COVID-19. ;Актуальность. Быстрое распространение COVID-19 и большое количество заболевших накладывает значительную нагрузку на системы здравоохранения развитых государств. Ð’ ряде стран к оказанию медицинской помощи и соблюдению противоэпидемических мероприятий привлекаются специалисты по стихийным бедствиям и военной медицине, однако в некоторых странах, в том числе в Италии, они были задействованы после того, как многие клинические подразделения и стационары были перегружены. Для сдерживания распространения COVID-19 большинство стран объявили чрезвычайное положение, были приняты беспрецедентные меры по усилению карантинных мероприятий. Тем не менее кризис, связанный с неожиданно глобальным масштабом и трагичностью пандемии, и несогласованность действий как общества и отдельных граждан, так и специализированных медицинских служб приводят к недостаточной эффективности проводимых мероприятий в ряде регионов. Особое внимание следует уделить службе родовспоможения, учитывая, что и в спокойное время акушерский с ‚ационар является зоной повышенной ответственности за жизнь и здоровье матери и ребенка. Исполнение действующих приказов, указаний национальных и региональных комитетов, международных/национальных и клинических протоколов, несомненно, приведет к положительному результату, но требует дополнительного обучения и тренировки медицинского персонала всех уровней. Цель обзора ― предложить ключевые стратегии, основываясь на опыте регионов, ранее столкнувшихся с распространением нового коронавируса, которые могут быть быстро применены наряду с обязательными к исполнению действующими приказами и распоряжениями в акушерских стационарах, чтобы превентивно отреагировать на вероятную волну роста заболеваемости и носительства COVID-19.

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