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1.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(12): 2708-3145, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568038

ABSTRACT

The third edition of Flow Cytometry Guidelines provides the key aspects to consider when performing flow cytometry experiments and includes comprehensive sections describing phenotypes and functional assays of all major human and murine immune cell subsets. Notably, the Guidelines contain helpful tables highlighting phenotypes and key differences between human and murine cells. Another useful feature of this edition is the flow cytometry analysis of clinical samples with examples of flow cytometry applications in the context of autoimmune diseases, cancers as well as acute and chronic infectious diseases. Furthermore, there are sections detailing tips, tricks and pitfalls to avoid. All sections are written and peer-reviewed by leading flow cytometry experts and immunologists, making this edition an essential and state-of-the-art handbook for basic and clinical researchers.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Infections/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Animals , Chronic Disease , Humans , Mice , Practice Guidelines as Topic
2.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 765-778, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety profiles of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer is unknown. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine in patients with cancer. METHODS: For this prospective observational study, we recruited patients with cancer and healthy controls (mostly health-care workers) from three London hospitals between Dec 8, 2020, and Feb 18, 2021. Participants who were vaccinated between Dec 8 and Dec 29, 2020, received two 30 µg doses of BNT162b2 administered intramuscularly 21 days apart; patients vaccinated after this date received only one 30 µg dose with a planned follow-up boost at 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken before vaccination and at 3 weeks and 5 weeks after the first vaccination. Where possible, serial nasopharyngeal real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) swab tests were done every 10 days or in cases of symptomatic COVID-19. The coprimary endpoints were seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in patients with cancer following the first vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine and the effect of vaccine boosting after 21 days on seroconversion. All participants with available data were included in the safety and immunogenicity analyses. Ongoing follow-up is underway for further blood sampling after the delayed (12-week) vaccine boost. This study is registered with the NHS Health Research Authority and Health and Care Research Wales (REC ID 20/HRA/2031). FINDINGS: 151 patients with cancer (95 patients with solid cancer and 56 patients with haematological cancer) and 54 healthy controls were enrolled. For this interim data analysis of the safety and immunogenicity of vaccinated patients with cancer, samples and data obtained up to March 19, 2021, were analysed. After exclusion of 17 patients who had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 (detected by either antibody seroconversion or a positive rRT-PCR COVID-19 swab test) from the immunogenicity analysis, the proportion of positive anti-S IgG titres at approximately 21 days following a single vaccine inoculum across the three cohorts were 32 (94%; 95% CI 81-98) of 34 healthy controls; 21 (38%; 26-51) of 56 patients with solid cancer, and eight (18%; 10-32) of 44 patients with haematological cancer. 16 healthy controls, 25 patients with solid cancer, and six patients with haematological cancer received a second dose on day 21. Of the patients with available blood samples 2 weeks following a 21-day vaccine boost, and excluding 17 participants with evidence of previous natural SARS-CoV-2 exposure, 18 (95%; 95% CI 75-99) of 19 patients with solid cancer, 12 (100%; 76-100) of 12 healthy controls, and three (60%; 23-88) of five patients with haematological cancers were seropositive, compared with ten (30%; 17-47) of 33, 18 (86%; 65-95) of 21, and four (11%; 4-25) of 36, respectively, who did not receive a boost. The vaccine was well tolerated; no toxicities were reported in 75 (54%) of 140 patients with cancer following the first dose of BNT162b2, and in 22 (71%) of 31 patients with cancer following the second dose. Similarly, no toxicities were reported in 15 (38%) of 40 healthy controls after the first dose and in five (31%) of 16 after the second dose. Injection-site pain within 7 days following the first dose was the most commonly reported local reaction (23 [35%] of 65 patients with cancer; 12 [48%] of 25 healthy controls). No vaccine-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with cancer, one dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine yields poor efficacy. Immunogenicity increased significantly in patients with solid cancer within 2 weeks of a vaccine boost at day 21 after the first dose. These data support prioritisation of patients with cancer for an early (day 21) second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. FUNDING: King's College London, Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Trust, Rosetrees Trust, and Francis Crick Institute.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales
3.
Cytometry A ; 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527429

ABSTRACT

Here we consider how high-content flow cytometric methodology at appropriate scale and throughput rapidly provided meaningful biological data in our recent studies of COVID-19, which we discuss in the context of other similar investigations. In our work, high-throughput flow cytometry was instrumental to identify a consensus immune signature in COVID-19 patients, and to investigate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 exposure on patients with either solid or hematological cancers. We provide here some examples of our 'holistic' approach, in which flow cytometry data generated by lymphocyte and myelomonocyte panels were integrated with other analytical metrics, including SARS-CoV-2-specific serum antibody titers, plasma cytokine/chemokine levels, and in-depth clinical annotation. We report how selective differences between T cell subsets were revealed by a newly described flow cytometric TDS assay to distinguish actively cycling T cells in the peripheral blood. By such approaches, our and others' high-content flow cytometry studies collectively identified overt abnormalities and subtle but critical changes that discriminate the immuno-signature of COVID-19 patients from those of healthy donors and patients with non-COVID respiratory infections. Thereby, these studies offered several meaningful biomarkers of COVID-19 severity that have the potential to improve the management of patients and of hospital resources. In sum, flow cytometry provides an important means for rapidly obtaining data that can guide clinical decision-making without requiring highly expensive, sophisticated equipment, and/or "-omics" capabilities. We consider how this approach might be further developed.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653974, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202332

ABSTRACT

This study discusses substantive advances in T cell proliferation analysis, with the aim to provoke a re-evaluation of the generally-held view that Ki-67 is a reliable proliferation marker per se, and to offer a more sensitive and effective method for T cell cycle analysis, with informative examples in mouse and human settings. We summarize recent experimental work from our labs showing that, by Ki-67/DNA dual staining and refined flow cytometric methods, we were able to identify T cells in the S-G2/M phases of the cell-cycle in the peripheral blood (collectively termed "T Double S" for T cells in S-phase in Sanguine: in short "TDS" cells). Without our refinement, such cells may be excluded from conventional lymphocyte analyses. Specifically, we analyzed clonal expansion of antigen-specific CD8 T cells in vaccinated mice, and demonstrated the potential of TDS cells to reflect immune dynamics in human blood samples from healthy donors, and patients with type 1 diabetes, infectious mononucleosis, and COVID-19. The Ki-67/DNA dual staining, or TDS assay, provides a reliable approach by which human peripheral blood can be used to reflect the dynamics of human lymphocytes, rather than providing mere steady-state phenotypic snapshots. The method does not require highly sophisticated "-omics" capabilities, so it should be widely-applicable to health care in diverse settings. Furthermore, our results argue that the TDS assay can provide a window on immune dynamics in extra-lymphoid tissues, a long-sought potential of peripheral blood monitoring, for example in relation to organ-specific autoimmune diseases and infections, and cancer immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Cycle/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Ki-67 Antigen/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Humans , Mice , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy
6.
Journal of Diabetes Nursing ; 24(6):161, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1050938

ABSTRACT

If treated suboptimally, type 2 diabetes can have devastating long-term complications, including cardiovascular disease, renal disease and blindness;however, such complications can be prevented with early effective diabetes engagement and management. A crucial part of diabetes care is the clinical review, which ideally each person with type 2 diabetes should undergo at least annually. Often this annual review is undertaken by more generalist rather than diabetes specialist healthcare professionals. This article is a guide to the basics that healthcare professionals should be aware of to effectively review a person with type 2 diabetes, related to the 15 healthcare essentials advocated by Diabetes UK. First published in 2019, this article has undergone an update at the end of 2020 to keep pace with recent guidance and resource publications, and to reflect changes in working practices in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Useful resources for both healthcare professionals and individuals with type 2 diabetes are signposted throughout the article to facilitate enhanced learning.

7.
Nat Med ; 26(10): 1623-1635, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717130

ABSTRACT

Improved understanding and management of COVID-19, a potentially life-threatening disease, could greatly reduce the threat posed by its etiologic agent, SARS-CoV-2. Toward this end, we have identified a core peripheral blood immune signature across 63 hospital-treated patients with COVID-19 who were otherwise highly heterogeneous. The signature includes discrete changes in B and myelomonocytic cell composition, profoundly altered T cell phenotypes, selective cytokine/chemokine upregulation and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Some signature traits identify links with other settings of immunoprotection and immunopathology; others, including basophil and plasmacytoid dendritic cell depletion, correlate strongly with disease severity; while a third set of traits, including a triad of IP-10, interleukin-10 and interleukin-6, anticipate subsequent clinical progression. Hence, contingent upon independent validation in other COVID-19 cohorts, individual traits within this signature may collectively and individually guide treatment options; offer insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis; and aid early, risk-based patient stratification that is particularly beneficial in phasic diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Basophils/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cell Cycle , Chemokine CXCL10/immunology , Chemokines/immunology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Flow Cytometry , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Up-Regulation
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