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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2221616, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929712

ABSTRACT

Importance: Understanding the long-term immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is crucial to optimize vaccination strategies. Although it is known that SARS-CoV-2 antibodies may persist in adults 12 months after infection, data are limited in the pediatric population. Objective: To examine long-term anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) IgG kinetics in children after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this single-center, prospective cohort study, patients were enrolled consecutively from April 1, 2020, to August 31, 2021, at the COVID-19 Family Cluster Follow-up Clinic, Department of Women's and Children's Health, University Hospital of Padua. A cohort of 252 COVID-19 family clusters underwent serologic follow-up at 1 to 4, 5 to 10, and more than 10 months after infection with quantification of anti-S-RBD IgG by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: Among 902 study participants, 697 had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 351 children or older siblings (mean [SD] age, 8.6 [5.1] years) and 346 parents (mean [SD] age, 42.5 [7.1] years). Among 697 cases, 674 (96.7%) were asymptomatic or mild. Children had significantly higher S-RBD IgG titers than older patients across all follow-up time points, with an overall median S-RBD IgG titer in patients younger than 3 years 5-fold higher than adults (304.8 [IQR, 139.0-516.6] kBAU/L vs 55.6 [24.2-136.0] kBAU/L, P < .001). Longitudinal analysis of 56 study participants sampled at least twice during follow-up demonstrated the persistence of antibodies up to 10 months from infection in all age classes, despite a progressive decline over time. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of Italian children and adults following SARS-CoV-2 infection different kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were found across several age classes of individuals with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19, which could help in optimizing COVID-19 vaccination strategies and prevention policies. This work provides further evidence of sustained immune response in children up to 1 year after primary SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child Health , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Women's Health
2.
Clin Cardiol ; 45(6): 629-640, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the primary cause of death in COVID-19 infection is respiratory failure, there is evidence that cardiac manifestations may contribute to overall mortality and can even be the primary cause of death. More importantly, it is recognized that COVID-19 is associated with a high incidence of thrombotic complications. HYPOTHESIS: Evaluate if the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score was useful to predict in-hospital (in-H) mortality in patients with COVID-19. Secondary end-points were needed for mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit admission. METHODS: Two-hundred eighty-four patients (63, 25 years, 67% male) with proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who had a noncontrast chest computed tomography were analyzed for CAC score. Clinical and radiological data were retrieved. RESULTS: Patients with CAC had a higher inflammatory burden at admission (d-dimer, p = .002; C-reactive protein, p = .002; procalcitonin, p = .016) and a higher high-sensitive cardiac troponin I (HScTnI, p = <.001) at admission and at peak. While there was no association with presence of lung consolidation and ground-glass opacities, patients with CAC had higher incidence of bilateral infiltration (p = .043) and higher in-H mortality (p = .048). On the other side, peak HScTnI >200 ng/dl was a better determinant of all outcomes in both univariate (p = <.001) and multivariate analysis (p = <.001). CONCLUSION: The main finding of our research is that CAC was positively related to in-H mortality, but it did not completely identify all the population at risk of events in the setting of COVID-19 patients. This raises the possibility that other factors, including the presence of soft, unstable plaques, may have a role in adverse outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Calcium , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
3.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602516

ABSTRACT

Aims Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a severe condition affecting children previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The aim of our study was to describe the acute and late cardiac abnormalities in patients with MIS-C, evaluated by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and cardiac MRI (CMR). Methods and results Twenty-three (13 M, 10 F) patients with confirmed MIS-C diagnosis were recruited. All children underwent standard TTE, STE with analysis of LV global longitudinal strain (GLS). Seventeen (75%) were evaluated with CMR. All children received standard therapy. During follow-up echocardiography and CMR were repeated. Mean age was 8.1 ± 4 years. The majority (78.2%) was Caucasian. Cardiovascular symptoms were present in 10 (43.5%). Nine children (39.1%) shared Kawasaki Disease-like symptoms. Four patients (17.4%) needed ICU admission and three required inotropic support. Short-term survival was 100%. All patients showed a hyperinflammatory state. Tn-I was abnormal (>34 ng/l) in 15 patients (65.2%), BNP was elevated in 20 (86.9%). Median time to STE evaluation was 8 days and to CMR 18 days since fever onset. Mean LVEF and RVEF were, respectively, 59 ± 10% and 45 ± 7%. Coronary dilation was observed in six (26.1%) patients. STE showed reduced mean LVGLS (−17 ± 4.3%). LVEF on CMR was 60 ± 13%, LGE with non-ischaemic pattern was evident in 6/17 patients (35.2%). Median time to follow-up was 49 days for echocardiography and 200 days for CMR since disease onset. STE showed improvement of LVGLS (−18.8 ± 2.2%), while CMR displayed persistence of LGE in two patients and reduction or absence in two of the six patients previously diagnosed. Conclusions The elevation of myocardial necrosis markers, the myocardial injury testified by reduced LVGLS and the presence of LGE on CMR in about a quarter of the patients support the hypothesis of a post-viral immune-mediated myocarditis-like pathogenesis of MIS-C. Early follow-up shows improvement of STE and CMR findings corroborating the evidence of excellent short-term survival.

4.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 140, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows an association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and a severe inflammatory syndrome in children. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data about myocardial injury in children are limited to small cohorts. The aim of this multicenter, international registry is to describe clinical and cardiac characteristics of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 using CMR so as to better understand the real extent of myocardial damage in this vulnerable cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hundred-eleven patients meeting the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), having clinical cardiac involvement and having received CMR imaging scan were included from 17 centers. Median age at disease onset was 10.0 years (IQR 7.0-13.8). The majority of children had COVID-19 serology positive (98%) with 27% of children still having both, positive serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CMR was performed at a median of 28 days (19-47) after onset of symptoms. Twenty out of 111 (18%) patients had CMR criteria for acute myocarditis (as defined by the Lake Louise Criteria) with 18/20 showing subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR myocarditis was significantly associated with New York Heart Association class IV (p = 0.005, OR 6.56 (95%-CI 1.87-23.00)) and the need for mechanical support (p = 0.039, OR 4.98 (95%-CI 1.18-21.02)). At discharge, 11/111 (10%) patients still had left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: No CMR evidence of myocardial damage was found in most of our MIS-C cohort. Nevertheless, acute myocarditis is a possible manifestation of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 with CMR evidence of myocardial necrosis in 18% of our cohort. CMR may be an important diagnostic tool to identify a subset of patients at risk for cardiac sequelae and more prone to myocardial damage. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT04455347, registered on 01/07/2020, retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 346: 105-106, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Short-term sequelae of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), recently published by our institution, showed rapid improvement of the cardiac abnormalities within a few weeks after the onset of the disease. However, subtle residual abnormalities, affecting mainly the myocardial interstitium, were shown in some of the patients. The current study aimed to assess myocardial deformation with CMR shortly after MIS-C. METHODS: Sixty children were included into the study; 30 following MIS-C (onset-to-scan mean 27 days, SD 11) and 30 controls. Strain values were compared between patients and controls and additionally to published paediatric normal CMR values. U-Mann Whitney test was used for comparison of the myocardial deformation between patients and controls. RESULTS: Median age of the patients was 9.0 years (range 0.99-14.4) and controls 9.8 years (range 4.7-14.9). All conventional CMR parameters in patients were in normal range. Strain values were significantly lower in patients than in controls. When compared to published centile graphs, radial and circumferential global strain was within 2.5th and 97.5th centile in all patients. Eleven patients had global longitudinal strain between 2.5th centile and 50th centile, 1 patient was below 2.5th centile and all the others above 50th centile. Only 3 controls had global longitudinal strain between 2.5th centile and 50th centile, all other had higher strain. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that myocardial deformation indices measured by CMR are within normal range in the vast majority of the patients within a few weeks after the onset of MIS-C. However, when compared to healthy controls, all strain parameters were lower in patients.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Ventricular Function, Left , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Myocardium , Reference Values
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389415

ABSTRACT

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a known severe condition affecting children previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The aim of our study was to describe the early cardiac abnormalities in patients with MIS-C, evaluated by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and cardiac MRI (CMR). Clinical, laboratory and microbiological data were measured for all patients. All children underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography, STE with analysis of left ventricle global longitudinal strain (GLS). Seventeen (75%) of the children were evaluated with CMR. Twenty-three patients (13M, 10F) were recruited, mean age was 8.1 ± 4 years. Cardiovascular symptoms were present in 10 (43.5%). Nine children (39.1%) shared Kawasaki Disease-like symptoms. Four patients (17.4%) needed ICU admission. In-hospital survival was 100%. TnI was elevated in 15 (65.2%) and BNP in 20 (86.9%) patients. The median time to STE evaluation was 8 days and to CMR was 18 days after fever onset. Mean LVEF was 59 ± 10%. Coronary dilation was observed in six (26.1%) patients. STE showed a reduced mean LVGLS (-17 ± 4.3%). LGE with a non-ischemic pattern was evident in six out of seventeen patients (35.2%). The elevation of myocardial necrosis markers, the reduction of LVGLS and the presence of LGE on CMR in about a quarter of MIS-C patients supports the hypothesis of a post-viral immune-mediated myocarditis-like pathogenesis.

7.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(9): 701-705, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339452

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has thoroughly and deeply affected the provision of healthcare services worldwide. In order to limit the in-hospital infections and to redistribute the healthcare professionals, cardiac percutaneous intervention in Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) patients were limited to urgent or emergency ones. The aim of this article is to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Pediatric and ACHD cath laboratory activity during the so-called 'hard lockdown' in Italy. Eleven out of 12 Italian institutions with a dedicated Invasive Cardiology Unit in Congenital Heart Disease actively participated in the survey. The interventional cardiology activity was reduced by more than 50% in 6 out of 11 centers. Adolescent and ACHD patients suffered the highest rate of reduction. There was an evident discrepancy in the management of the hard lockdown, irrespective of the number of COVID-19 positive cases registered, with a higher reduction in Southern Italy compared with the most affected regions (Lombardy, Piedmont, Veneto and Emilia Romagna). Although the pandemic was brilliantly addressed in most cases, we recognize the necessity for planning new, and hopefully homogeneous, strategies in order to be prepared for an upcoming new outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Emergency Medical Services , Heart Defects, Congenital , Infection Control , Risk Management/methods , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Civil Defense/methods , Civil Defense/trends , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294711

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Compared with adult patients, clinical manifestations of children's coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are generally perceived as less severe. The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac involvement in previously healthy children with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed a cohort of 53 paediatric patients (29 males, 55%), mean age 7.5 ± 4.7 years, who had a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic for COVID-19. Patients underwent standard transthoracic echocardiogram and speckle tracking echocardiographic study at least 3 months after diagnosis. Thirty-two age, sex, and body surface area comparable healthy subjects were used as control group. Left ventricular ejection fraction was within normal limits but significantly lower in the cases group compared to controls (62.4 ± 4.1% vs. 65.2 ± 5.5%; P = 0.012). Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (20.1 ± 3 mm vs. 19.8 ± 3.4 mm; P = 0.822) and left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (-21.9 ± 2.4% vs. -22.6 ± 2.5%; P = 0.208) were comparable between the two groups. Regional LV strain analysis showed a significant reduction of the LV mid-wall segments strain among cases compared to controls. Furthermore, in the cases group, there were 14 subjects (26%) with a regional peak systolic strain below -16% (-2.5 Z score in our healthy cohort) in at least two segments. These subjects did not show any difference regarding symptoms or serological findings. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect left ventricular deformation in 26% of children despite an asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic acute illness. A follow-up is needed to verify the reversibility of these alterations and their impact on long-term outcomes.

9.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may persist over time; however, knowledge regarding pediatric subjects is limited. METHODS: A single-center, prospective observational study was conducted on 57 family clusters of coronavirus disease 2019, including children of neonatal and pediatric age attending the University Hospital of Padua (Italy). For each patient, blood samples were collected for both the quantification of nAbs through a plaque reduction neutralizing test and the detection of antinucleocapsid-spike protein immunoglobulin G and/or immunoglobulin M. RESULTS: We analyzed 283 blood samples collected from 152 confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 cases (82 parents and 70 children or older siblings of median age of 8 years, interquartile range: 4-13), presenting asymptomatic or with mildly symptomatic disease. Despite the decrease of immunoglobulin G over time, nAbs were found to persist up to 7 to 8 months in children, whereas adults recorded a modest declining trend. Interestingly, children aged <6 years, and, in particular, those aged <3 years, developed higher long-lasting levels of nAbs compared with older siblings and/or adults. CONCLUSIONS: Mild and asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections in family clusters elicited higher nAbs among children.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Data Collection , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy , Neutralization Tests , Prospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors
10.
Int J Cardiol Congenit Heart Dis ; 4: 100186, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272465

ABSTRACT

Individuals with the highest risk for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 should be prioritized by the vaccine allocation policies. We have conducted a literature review of published studies, which comprehend congenital heart disease (CHD) and COVID-19, in order to present the overall evidences of both exposure and clinical risk of patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) and to propose a risk profile schema for those patients to be incorporated into vaccine distribution decisions.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243471, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021630

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0237131.].

14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237131, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing pandemic of Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has created a global emergency. Despite the infection causes a mild illness to most people, some patients are severely affected, demanding an urgent need to better understand how to risk-stratify infected subjects. DESIGN: This is a meta-analysis of observational studies evaluating cardiovascular (CV) complications in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and the impact of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) or comorbidities on mortality. METHODS: Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, and ISI from 1 December 2019 through 11 June 2020; references of eligible studies; scientific session abstracts; cardiology web sites. We selected studies reporting clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The main outcome was death. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular symptoms and cardiovascular events developed during the COVID-19-related hospitalization. Extracted data were recorded in excel worksheets and analysed using statistical software (MedCalc, OpenMetanalyst, R). We used the proportion with 95% CI as the summary measure. A Freeman-Tukey transformation was used to calculate the weighted summary proportion under the random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed by using the Cochran Q test and I2 values. RESULTS: Among 77317 hospitalized patients from 21 studies, 12.86% had cardiovascular comorbidities or RF. Cardiovascular complications were registered in 14.09% of cases during hospitalization. At meta-regression analysis, pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities or RF were significantly associated to cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 patients (p = 0.019). Pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities or RF (p<0.001), older age (p<0.001), and the development of cardiovascular complications during the hospitalization (p = 0.038) had a significant interaction with death. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular complications are frequent among COVID-19 patients, and might contribute to adverse clinical events and mortality, together with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities and RF. Clinicians worldwide should be aware of this association, to identifying patients at higher risk.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging, given the large number of hospitalized patients. Cardiovascular co-morbidities are linked to a higher mortality risk. Thus, patients with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) might represent a high-risk population. Nevertheless, no data about them are available, yet. Hence, we conducted a nationwide survey to assess clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with congenital heart disease affected by COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a multi-centre, observational, nationwide survey, involving high-volume Italian CHD centres. COVID-19 diagnosis was defined as either "clinically suspected" or "confirmed", where a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) test had been performed and was positive. Cardiovascular comorbidities were observed among adult patients-atrial fibrillation (seven; 9%), hypertension (five; 7%), obesity (seven; 9%) and diabetes (one; 1%)-but were absent among children. Cardiovascular complications were mainly observed in the "confirmed" COVID-19+ group, consisting of heart failure (9%), palpitations/arrhythmias (3%), stroke/TIA (3%) and pulmonary hypertension (3%). Cardiovascular symptoms such as chest pain (1%), myocardial injury (1%) and pericardial effusion (1%) were also recorded. On the contrary, CHD patients from the clinically suspected COVID-19 group presented no severe symptoms or complications. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previous reports pointing to a higher case-fatality rate among patients with cardiovascular co-morbidities, we observed a mild COVID-19 clinical course in our cohort of CHD patients. Although these results should be confirmed in larger cohorts to investigate the underlying mechanisms, the findings of low cardiovascular complications rates and no deaths are reassuring for CHD patients.

16.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(7): 467-471, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-523722

ABSTRACT

: The recent outbreak of 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is having major repercussions on healthcare services provision in Italy and worldwide. Data suggest the virus has a strong impact on the cardiovascular system, and cardiac imaging will play an important role in patients affected by coronavirus disease-2019. Although paediatric patients are mildly affected, they represent a clear accelerator in spreading the virus, and healthcare workers are at higher risk of infection. The aim of this position paper is to provide clinical recommendation regarding the execution of imaging investigations for the cardiac diagnostic work-up of paediatric patients with suspected or confirmed infection.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Imaging Techniques/methods , Cardiology , Coronavirus Infections , Heart Defects, Congenital , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pediatrics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cardiology/methods , Cardiology/standards , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatrics/methods , Pediatrics/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
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