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2.
World J Emerg Surg ; 17(1): 22, 2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833326

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The concept of "weekend effect", that is, substandard healthcare during weekends, has never been fully demonstrated, and the different outcomes of emergency surgical patients admitted during weekends may be due to different conditions at admission and/or different therapeutic approaches. Aim of this international audit was to identify any change of pattern of emergency surgical admissions and treatments during weekends. Furthermore, we aimed at investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the alleged "weekend effect". METHODS: The database of the CovidICE-International Study was interrogated, and 6263 patients were selected for analysis. Non-trauma, 18+ yo patients admitted to 45 emergency surgery units in Europe in the months of March-April 2019 and March-April 2020 were included. Demographic and clinical data were anonymised by the referring centre and centrally collected and analysed with a statistical package. This study was endorsed by the Association of Italian Hospital Surgeons (ACOI) and the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES). RESULTS: Three-quarters of patients have been admitted during workdays and only 25.7% during weekends. There was no difference in the distribution of gender, age, ASA class and diagnosis during weekends with respect to workdays. The first wave of the COVID pandemic caused a one-third reduction of emergency surgical admission both during workdays and weekends but did not change the relation between workdays and weekends. The treatment was more often surgical for patients admitted during weekends, with no difference between 2019 and 2020, and procedures were more often performed by open surgery. However, patients admitted during weekends had a threefold increased risk of laparoscopy-to-laparotomy conversion (1% vs. 3.4%). Hospital stay was longer in patients admitted during weekends, but those patients had a lower risk of readmission. There was no difference of the rate of rescue surgery between weekends and workdays. Subgroup analysis revealed that interventional procedures for hot gallbladder were less frequently performed on patients admitted during weekends. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed that demographic and clinical profiles of patients admitted during weekends do not differ significantly from workdays, but the therapeutic strategy may be different probably due to lack of availability of services and skillsets during weekends. The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic did not impact on this difference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Retrospective Studies
3.
Updates Surg ; 74(3): 1017-1025, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756923

ABSTRACT

During the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, most of the surgical procedures were performed for emergencies or oncologic reasons to the detriment of the remaining elective procedures for benign conditions. Ileostomy or colostomy creation are sequelae of oncologic or emergency colorectal surgery, but their closure does not fall within the definition of oncologic or emergency surgery. The aim of this retrospective multicentre observational study is to report the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the ostomy closure rate in Italy. Data regarding ileostomy and colostomy creation and closure from 24 Italian centres, during the study period (March 2020-February 2021) and during the control period (March 2019-February 2020) were collected. Three hospitals (12.5%) were COVID free. The number of colostomies and ileostomies created and closed in the same period was lower ( -18.8% and -30%, respectively) in the study period in comparison to the control period (p = 0.1915 and p = 0.0001, respectively), such as the ostomies closed in the analysed periods but created before (colostomy -36.2% and ileostomy -7.4%, p = 0.2211 and p = 0.1319, respectively). Overall, a 19.5% reduction in ostomies closed occurred in the study period. Based on the present study, a reduction in ostomy closure rate occurred in Italy between March 2020 and February 2021. During the pandemic, the need to change the clinical practice probably prolonged deterioration of quality of life in patients with ostomies, increasing number of stomas that will never be closed, and related management costs, even if these issues have not been investigated in this study.

4.
Health Sci Rev (Oxf) ; 3: 100021, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729798

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is one of the most common emergencies in general surgery worldwide. During the pandemic, a significant decrease in the number of accesses to the emergency department for AA has been recorded in different countries. A systematic review of the current literature sought to determine the impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on hospital admissions and complications of AA. Method: A systematic search was undertaken to identify repeated cross-sectional studies reporting the management of AA during the COVID-19 pandemic (index period) as compared to the previous year, or at the turn of lockdown (reference period). Data were abstracted on article (country of origin) and patients characteristics (adults, children [i.e. non adults, <18-year-old]), or mixed population) within the two given timeframes, including demographics, number of admissions for AA, number of appendectomies, and complicated appendectomies. Results: Of 201 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 54 studies from 22 world countries were included. In total, 27 (50%) were conducted on adults, 12 (22%) on children, and 15 (28%) on a mixed patients population. The overall rate ratio of admissions for AA between the two periods was 0.94 (95%CI, 0.75-1.17), with significant differences between studies on adults (0.90 [0.74-1.09]), mixed population (0.50 [0.27-0.90]), and children (1.50 [1.01-2.22]). The overall risk ratio of complicated AA was 1.65 (1.32-2.07), ranging from 1.32 in studies on children, to 2.45 in mixed population. Conclusion: The pandemic has altered the rate of admissions for AA and appendectomy, with parallel increased incidence of complicated cases in all age groups.

5.
Turk J Surg ; 37(4): 387-393, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689504

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the COVID-19 pandemic, several studies have reported a decrease in in the admission surgical patients and emergency surgical procedures, and an increase in more severe septic surgical diseases, such as necrotic cholecystitis. It was probably due to to a critical delay in time-to- diagnosis and time-to-intervention resulting to limited access to the operating theatres as well as intensive care units. Early laparoscopic cholecystec- tomy is the standard of care for acute cholecystitis. Moreover early data from COVID-19 pandemic reported an increase in the incidence of necrotic cholecystitis among COVID-19 patients. The ChoCO-W prospective observational collaborative study was conceived to investigate the incidence and management of acute cholecystitis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: The present research protocol was. conceived and designed as a prospective observational international collaborative study focusing on the management of patients with to the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis under the COVID-19 pandemic. The study obtained the approval of the local Ethics Committee (Nimes, France) and meet and conform to the standards outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki. Eligible patients will be prospectively enrolled in the recruitment period and data entered in an online case report form. Results: The ChoCO-W study will be the largest prospective study carried out during the first period of the COVID-19 pandemic with the aim to inves- tigate the management of patients with acute cholecystitis, in the lack of studies focusing on COVID-19 positive patients. Conclusion: The ChoCO-W study is conceived to be the largest prospective study to assess the management of patients presenting with acute chol- ecystitis during the COVID-19 pandemic and risk factors correlated with necrotic cholecystitis to improve the management of high-risk patients.

6.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(1): e29892, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus has a high mortality rate (over 1% for patients older than 50 years). This can only be partially ascribed to other comorbidities. A possible explanation is a factor that assures a prompt response to SARS-CoV-2 in younger people, independent from the novelty of the virus itself. A factor is believed to stimulate the immune system and provide immunity against more antigens. The only external stimulation received by healthy people is vaccination (eg, the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis [DTP] vaccine). One hypothesis is that vaccination helps develop specific immunity but generates sprouting immunity against antigens in transit. The underlying immunological phenomena are the "bystander effect" and "trained immunity." The developed immunity gives protection for years until it naturally fades out. After the fifth decade of life, the immune system is almost incompetent when a viral infection occurs, and thus, at this stage, the novel coronavirus can enter the body and cause acute respiratory distress syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The initial aim is to demonstrate that blood monocytes and natural killer cells show overpowering hyperactivity, while CD4+ and CD8+ T cells experience impediments to their defensive functions in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The secondary objectives are to correlate clinical data and vaccination history with laboratory immune patterns in order to identify protective factors. Subsequently, we are also interested in characterizing the phenotypes and state of the degree of activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including monocytes, natural killer cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, in healthy subjects vaccinated with the Pfizer vaccine. METHODS: Data will be collected using the following 3 approaches: (1) an experimental analysis to study the innate immune response and to identify genetic profiles; (2) an epidemiological analysis to identify the patients' vaccination history; and (3) a clinical analysis to detect the immunological profile. RESULTS: The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee on April 16, 2020, and the study started on April 27, 2020. As of February 2021, enrollment has been completed. Immunological analysis is ongoing, and we expect to complete this analysis by December 2022. CONCLUSIONS: We will recognize different populations of patients, each one with a specific immunological pattern in terms of cytokines, soluble factor serum levels, and immune cell activity. Anamnestic data, such as preceding vaccinations and comorbidities, biochemical findings like lymphocyte immunophenotyping, and pre-existing persistent cytomegalovirus infection, allow depicting the risk profile of severe COVID-19. Proof of the roles of these immunological phenomena in the development of COVID-19 can be the basis for the implementation of therapeutic immunomodulatory treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04375176; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04375176. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/29892.

7.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(1): e29892, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus has a high mortality rate (over 1% for patients older than 50 years). This can only be partially ascribed to other comorbidities. A possible explanation is a factor that assures a prompt response to SARS-CoV-2 in younger people, independent from the novelty of the virus itself. A factor is believed to stimulate the immune system and provide immunity against more antigens. The only external stimulation received by healthy people is vaccination (eg, the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis [DTP] vaccine). One hypothesis is that vaccination helps develop specific immunity but generates sprouting immunity against antigens in transit. The underlying immunological phenomena are the "bystander effect" and "trained immunity." The developed immunity gives protection for years until it naturally fades out. After the fifth decade of life, the immune system is almost incompetent when a viral infection occurs, and thus, at this stage, the novel coronavirus can enter the body and cause acute respiratory distress syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The initial aim is to demonstrate that blood monocytes and natural killer cells show overpowering hyperactivity, while CD4+ and CD8+ T cells experience impediments to their defensive functions in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The secondary objectives are to correlate clinical data and vaccination history with laboratory immune patterns in order to identify protective factors. Subsequently, we are also interested in characterizing the phenotypes and state of the degree of activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including monocytes, natural killer cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, in healthy subjects vaccinated with the Pfizer vaccine. METHODS: Data will be collected using the following 3 approaches: (1) an experimental analysis to study the innate immune response and to identify genetic profiles; (2) an epidemiological analysis to identify the patients' vaccination history; and (3) a clinical analysis to detect the immunological profile. RESULTS: The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee on April 16, 2020, and the study started on April 27, 2020. As of February 2021, enrollment has been completed. Immunological analysis is ongoing, and we expect to complete this analysis by December 2022. CONCLUSIONS: We will recognize different populations of patients, each one with a specific immunological pattern in terms of cytokines, soluble factor serum levels, and immune cell activity. Anamnestic data, such as preceding vaccinations and comorbidities, biochemical findings like lymphocyte immunophenotyping, and pre-existing persistent cytomegalovirus infection, allow depicting the risk profile of severe COVID-19. Proof of the roles of these immunological phenomena in the development of COVID-19 can be the basis for the implementation of therapeutic immunomodulatory treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04375176; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04375176. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/29892.

8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470928

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health systems worldwide made major changes to their organization, delaying diagnosis and treatment across a broad spectrum of pathologies. Concerning surgery, there was an evident reduction in all elective and emergency activities, particularly for benign pathologies such as acute diverticulitis, for which we have identified a reduction in emergency room presentation with mild forms and an increase with more severe forms. The aim of our review was to discover new data on emergency presentation for patients with acute diverticulitis during the Covid-19 pandemic and their current management, and to define a better methodology for surgical decision-making. Method: We conducted a scoping review on 25 trials, analyzing five points: reduced hospital access for patients with diverticulitis, the preferred treatment for non-complicated diverticulitis, the role of CT scanning in primary evaluation and percutaneous drainage as a treatment, and changes in surgical decision-making and preferred treatment strategies for complicated diverticulitis. Results: We found a decrease in emergency access for patients with diverticular disease, with an increased incidence of complicated diverticulitis. The preferred treatment was conservative for non-complicated forms and in patients with COVID-related pneumonia, percutaneous drainage for abscess, or with surgery delayed or reserved for diffuse peritonitis or sepsis. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic we observed an increased number of complicated forms of diverticulitis, while the total number decreased, possibly due to delay in hospital or ambulatory presentation because of the fear of contracting COVID-19. We observed a greater tendency to treat these more severe forms by conservative means or drainage. When surgery was necessary, there was a preference for an open approach or a delayed operation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diverticulitis, Colonic , Diverticulitis , Acute Disease , Diverticulitis, Colonic/diagnostic imaging , Diverticulitis, Colonic/surgery , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 46, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403246

ABSTRACT

On January 2020, the WHO Director General declared that the outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The world has faced a worldwide spread crisis and is still dealing with it. The present paper represents a white paper concerning the tough lessons we have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, an international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making. With the present paper, international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Pandemics , Biomedical Research , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , International Cooperation , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Politics , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration
11.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(23): 6759-6767, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD) is common in Western countries, with its prevalence increasing throughout the world. As a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), elective surgery and in-patients' visits have been cancelled or postponed worldwide. AIM: To systematically explore the impact of the pandemic in the management of ACD. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, MedxRiv, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to 22 December 2020. Studies which reported on the management of patients with ACD during the COVID-19 pandemic were eligible. For cross sectional studies, outcomes of interest included the number of hospital admission for ACD, as well as key features of disease severity (complicated or not) across two time periods (pre- and during lockdown). RESULTS: A total of 69 papers were inspected, and 21 were eligible for inclusion. Ten papers were cross sectional studies from seven world countries; six were case reports; three were qualitative studies, and two review articles. A 56% overall decrease in admissions for ACD was observed during lockdown, peaking 67% in the largest series. A 4%-8% decrease in the rate of uncomplicated diverticulitis was also noted during the lockdown phase. An initial non-operative management was recommended for complicated diverticulitis, and encouraged to an out-of-hospital regimen. Despite initial concerns on the use of laparoscopy for Hinchey 3 and 4 patients to avoid aerosolized contamination, societal bodies have progressively mitigated their initial recommendations as actual risks are yet to be ascertained. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, fewer patients presented and were diagnosed with ACD. Such decline may have likely affected the spectrum of uncomplicated disease. Established outpatient management and follow up for selected cases may unburden healthcare resources in time of crisis.

13.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 30, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280596

ABSTRACT

Bile duct injury (BDI) is a dangerous complication of cholecystectomy, with significant postoperative sequelae for the patient in terms of morbidity, mortality, and long-term quality of life. BDIs have an estimated incidence of 0.4-1.5%, but considering the number of cholecystectomies performed worldwide, mostly by laparoscopy, surgeons must be prepared to manage this surgical challenge. Most BDIs are recognized either during the procedure or in the immediate postoperative period. However, some BDIs may be discovered later during the postoperative period, and this may translate to delayed or inappropriate treatments. Providing a specific diagnosis and a precise description of the BDI will expedite the decision-making process and increase the chance of treatment success. Subsequently, the choice and timing of the appropriate reconstructive strategy have a critical role in long-term prognosis. Currently, a wide spectrum of multidisciplinary interventions with different degrees of invasiveness is indicated for BDI management. These World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines have been produced following an exhaustive review of the current literature and an international expert panel discussion with the aim of providing evidence-based recommendations to facilitate and standardize the detection and management of BDIs during cholecystectomy. In particular, the 2020 WSES guidelines cover the following key aspects: (1) strategies to minimize the risk of BDI during cholecystectomy; (2) BDI rates in general surgery units and review of surgical practice; (3) how to classify, stage, and report BDI once detected; (4) how to manage an intraoperatively detected BDI; (5) indications for antibiotic treatment; (6) indications for clinical, biochemical, and imaging investigations for suspected BDI; and (7) how to manage a postoperatively detected BDI.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts/injuries , Cholecystectomy/adverse effects , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease , Intraoperative Period , Quality of Life
15.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 14, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic has occurred, nations showed their unpreparedness to deal with a mass casualty incident of this proportion and severity, which resulted in a tremendous number of deaths even among healthcare workers. The World Society of Emergency Surgery conceived this position paper with the purpose of providing evidence-based recommendations for the management of emergency surgical patients under COVID-19 pandemic for the safety of the patient and healthcare workers. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) through the MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and SCOPUS databases. Synthesis of evidence, statements and recommendations were developed in accordance with the GRADE methodology. RESULTS: Given the limitation of the evidence, the current document represents an effort to join selected high-quality articles and experts' opinion. CONCLUSIONS: The aim of this position paper is to provide an exhaustive guidelines to perform emergency surgery in a safe and protected environment for surgical patients and for healthcare workers under COVID-19 and to offer the best management of COVID-19 patients needing for an emergency surgical treatment. We recommend screening for COVID-19 infection at the emergency department all acute surgical patients who are waiting for hospital admission and urgent surgery. The screening work-up provides a RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab test and a baseline (non-contrast) chest CT or a chest X-ray or a lungs US, depending on skills and availability. If the COVID-19 screening is not completed we recommend keeping the patient in isolation until RT-PCR swab test result is not available, and to manage him/she such as an overt COVID patient. The management of COVID-19 surgical patients is multidisciplinary. If an immediate surgical procedure is mandatory, whether laparoscopic or via open approach, we recommend doing every effort to protect the operating room staff for the safety of the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Perioperative Care/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Emergencies , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Laparoscopy/methods , Laparoscopy/standards , Pandemics , Perioperative Care/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods
16.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 13, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143232

ABSTRACT

We present the New Year letter from the WSES board to wish everyone a new year full of positive surprises and good news, despite COVID-19 pandemic.We confirm the WSES primary aim: to promote education in emergency surgery putting together all the world experts on emergency surgery without restrictions or boundaries, in inclusivity, equality, and equal opportunities. This will be the year of innovations and WSES will assess the application of artificial intelligence technologies in emergency and trauma surgery.Thank you All for trusting us with your collaboration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Emergency Medicine/trends , Societies, Medical/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(3): 621-629, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-848230

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed working conditions for emergency surgical teams around the world. International surgical societies have issued clinical recommendations to optimize surgical management. This international study aimed to assess the degree of emergency surgical teams' adoption of recommendations during the pandemic. METHODS: Emergency surgical team members from over 30 countries were invited to answer an anonymous, prospective, online survey to assess team organization, PPE-related aspects, OR preparations, anesthesiologic considerations, and surgical management for emergency surgery during the pandemic. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-thirty-four questionnaires were returned (N = 134) from 26 countries, of which 88% were surgeons, 7% surgical trainees, 4% anesthetists. 81% of the respondents got involved with COVID-19 crisis management. Social media were used by 91% of the respondents to access the recommendations, and 66% used videoconference tools for team communication. 51% had not received PPE training before the pandemic, 73% reported equipment shortage, and 55% informed about re-use of N95/FPP2/3 respirators. Dedicated COVID operating areas were cited by 77% of the respondents, 44% had performed emergency surgical procedures on COVID-19 patients, and over half (52%), favored performing laparoscopic over open surgical procedures. CONCLUSION: Surgical team members have responded with leadership to the COVID-19 pandemic, with crisis management principles. Social media and videoconference have been used by the vast majority to access guidelines or to communicate during social distancing. The level of adoption of current recommendations is high for organizational aspects and surgical management, but not so for PPE training and availability, and anesthesiologic considerations.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology , COVID-19 , Emergencies/epidemiology , Infection Control , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Anesthesiology/methods , Anesthesiology/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , International Cooperation , Interprofessional Relations , Occupational Exposure/classification , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/trends , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgery Department, Hospital , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
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